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by: Adrain Lebsack


Adrain Lebsack
GPA 3.54

Timothy Nyerges

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Timothy Nyerges
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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adrain Lebsack on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 460 at University of Washington taught by Timothy Nyerges in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see /class/192239/geog-460-university-of-washington in Geography at University of Washington.




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Date Created: 09/09/15
Lecture 2 Multiple perspectives 0nWhat is GIS Learning Objectives 21 What are the three perspectives adopted in the de nition used in this course 22 What framework architecture might we use to relate the three basic technologies involved 23 What kinds of questions is GIS software meant to address 24 How can we situate our learning about GIS questions technology components using a ring of contexts diagram 21 What are the three perspectives adopted in the definition used in this course The Bartlett reading provides a brief historical perspective tracing developments in coastal GIS back to the late 1970 s More generally in the late 1980 s and into 1990 s three perspectives seem to emerge as a way of characterizing developments in GIS components a combination of hardware software data people procedures and institutional arrangements processes for collecting storing manipulating analyzing and displaying information about spatially distri buted phenomena purpose inventory decision making andor problem solving within operations tactical and strategic contexts 22 What framework architecture might we use to relate the three basic technologies involved Various software components as mentioned above are used to support processes See architecture diagram Figure 14 in Valavanis Chap 1 Marine Geographic Information Systems from Geographic Information Systems in Oceanography and Fisheries as a way of organizing components Basic technologies in GIS database management technology computer graphics mapping technology spatial analysis technology Compare and contrast GIS with other information technologies e g DBMS Spreadsheet Adobe Publisher Each of these technologies supports certain kinds of processing that is the processes mentioned above 23 What kinds of questions is GIS software meant to address Purpose mentioned above can be addressed in terms of answering questions Questions can be categorized from simple to complex to make them better understood We need to be able to pull together lots ofideas to make sense of it all 7 breaking the ideas into contexts can help Ming 2 ring nf cnntextsquot dizg39am39 thaan Frnm N Chnsman 2002 explnnng gengaphm Infm39mahnn Systems new ank Way and Suns Fxgure u 1 Cnnslder the phrases than brackets than annws Explammg ms and ths Enurse mter ms nfa diagram nfcnntExts 7 nntextual embeddmg l5 Lhekeyxssue m ths diagram Fvnmms mm polls a Infnrmatmn Integratmnxs the centan activity m ms Refetehee yxzem pmvexe a way to make mmxurementx that ter eh Unm emeememett 7 thehee feet metete ztham z ywd a feel we emeememett 7 hemmz methaz thtetvez mm Measurermewwk remnanth amangmeamm2ntxpmvu12 a hemat eteeehg a dalabaw tepteee m Da 1 them geaxpalml dam lype I even data tlucmrex ate the rexullx emeememem m a yxlem and organzedwukm a meeewe k haw chema eehetmet deeetweh 012er the dalabaw tepteeehmeh m a mpulerlanngge emeeh eh chema deeetweh Dam model we the eete qw wme deetgh m model eehmt ee 1 2 afcanxtructx 2 2 e apemmm eh have Cambium mi 3 2 afndexfm guiding the operations on those constructs to maintain a robust data representation Transformations change one representation into another representation one structure into another structure Institutional context 7 organizations that have a long standing impact on communities 7 coastal perspective Social and cultural context of society 7 a broad based setting for society for interpreting the world eg the work of institutions Tieing coastal issue substance to the above we can take each bracketed set of phrases in turn What kinds of phenomena are of concern in coastal problems and what data representations and quality do we use 0 A succinct description of phenomena is provided by Beatley et al in chapters 1 and 2 reading 0 You can see some of the local phenomena using Washington Coastal Atlas 0 What is the nature of the shoreline o What is the nature of the coast 0 What is the nature of the coastal zone What kind of information supported by data operations are generated by what applications 0 Some of the basic information issues are presented as pressures by Beatley et al in chapter 3 0 We will consider a number of coastal GIS applications throughout course How do we know what applications are most important 0 Organizational institutional socialcultural contexts that establish the goals for generating information are described in Beatley Chapters 48 0 You can see some ofthis local context in shoreline management act SMA of Washington State Lecture 24 States Regions Coastal Zone Management and GIS Learning objectives 241 What are some of the activities in state coastal management programs 242 Which of the Washington and Oregon Coastal Atlases is better Why 243 What is the significance of regional coastal management in the overall picture State Coastal Management Programs CMP s One key feature of CZMA is exibility for state states to craft CMP s to meet their own political and cultural circumstances In some states the CMP integrates into a broader state planning framework e g Oregon This stems from the cultural perspective on how to manage community development Of the 35 states eligible 33 states have approved CMPs as of 2002 CMP activities commonly include the following Shoreline management and retreat 7 some states have setback regulations and others do not Restrictions on shorehardening structures eg seawalls for erosion control Guide and manage reconstruction Restrictions on buildable lots Building codes and construction standards Coastal wetlands protection Sea level rise Beach access and land acquisition Cumulative and secondary impacts 7 population growth and land development impacts coastal and marine resources 7 major need for impact information Specialized area management plans comprehensive plan providing natural resource protection and 39 39 J J 39 growth Areas of particular concern special sensitive areas like habitats Marine debris cleanup eg wood glass plastic etc Aquaculture energy and government facility siting Ocean management eg like marine ecosystems n tn 4 u r W 39 39 4 Coastal Zone Program Washington became the rst state to achieve a federallyapproved state CZM Program in 1976 Washington s CZM program is based primarily upon our Shoreline Management Act of 1971 as well as other state land use and resource management laws Washington Coastal Atlas intro the viewer Oregon Coastal Atlas Coastal States Organization 7 an association that supports the shared vision of the coastal states commonwealths and territories for the protection conservation responsible use and sustainable economic development of the nation s coastal and ocean resources Regional Coastal Management Managing complex areas such as the coastal zone does not lend itself to traditional planning and management mechanisms which tend to segment concerns and deal with problems on an isolated ad hoc basis Coastal zone is processdriven integrated system of interacting components in which one action whether initiated from within or external to the system has rami cations far beyond the initial impact Further compounding these difficulties is the fact that natural resources often transcend political boundaries and do not conform to our arti cial and arbitrary political and administrative jurisdictions Beatley 2002 p 173 One solution to address the above concerns is to manage at the regional level Regions are geographic areas that share common issues of public policy administration resource management pollution control economic development or social political or environmental concerns and for which the government body is constituted based on the geographic in uence of the issues being addressed A J or basin nrntectinn approach J J by the EPA operates most effectively at a regional scale Drainage areas are of varying scales 7 catchments subwatersheds watersheds subbasins and basins Watershed protection approach aims at targeted cooperative and integrative action The main principles are 1 Target priority problems Target watersheds should be those where pollution poses greatest risk to human health ecological resources desirable uses of water or a combination of these 2 Stakeholder involvement All parties with a stake in situation should participate in analyzing problems and creating solutions 3 Integrated solution Action taken should drawn upon full range of methods and tools available integrating them into a coordinated multi organization addressing of problems Scienti c understanding and research should be included but be open to incorporation of new information from local sources 4 Measure success 7 Early on in process stakeholders should agree on the ecological and administrative indicators through which their measurement can track progress Several types of information tools are used 7 databases water quality models webbased mapping tools Chesapeake Bay Progpam website tools Chesapeake Bay atlas Special Area Management Plans SAMP 7 a comprehensive plan providing for natural resource protection and reasonable autal J r J 39 growth 39 39 a detailed and comprehensive statement of policies standards and criteria to guide public and private uses of lands and waters and mechanisms for timely implementation in speci c geographic areas within the coastal zone Beatley Brower Schwab 2002 p 181 SAMP is used in various ways throughout country but the approach is meant to accomplish the following goals 1 address environmental problems that are best solved through a multijurisdictional and integrated policy approach just what is integrated policy environmental problems typically involve natural systems spanning multiple jurisdictions particularly severe environmental problems ranging across large geographic areas coordinate existing policies to adequately and comprehensively address environmental problems and establish a balanced management framework to protect public or socially important resources while allowing for appropriate continued use of these resources high resource values economic recreational social or biological often create con icting interests regarding preservation and or development natural political and social systems within the area must be identified N V L V NOAA CSC GIS Integration and Development Three Foci 1 Coastal Watershed Planning Alternatives for Coastal D 39 Performance quot Vi nali minn and Outreach Tool Shoreline Data Site South Carolina Marsh Islands 2 Coastal Hazards Flaming GISbased risk and vulnerability assessment tools 0 List of case studies 0 Steps in the GISbased analvsis process 0 Vulnerability assessment analysis steps 3 Coastal Ocean and Great Lakes Planning Stellwagen Bank Vessel Speed Zoning Tool CalFish Webbased Data Storage and Retrieval Svstem Lecture 25 Local Coastal Zone Management and GIS Learning Objectives 251 Why is coastal zone management at the local jurisdiction level an important concern for many areas around the world How should we interpret local 252 How do conventional management techniques relate to growth management techniques for communities Why are growth management techniques commonly associated with coastal areas 253 How is GIS useful in promoting communication cooperation coordination and collaboration among local governments Local Coastal Management Coastal counties comprise only 17 percent of the US contiguous land area However as of 2003 53 of the population lives in these areas Many other people visit these areas on vacation and business and thus see them as having significant value worthy of protection Crosset K Culliton T Wiley P and Goodspeed R September 2004 Population Trends Along the Coastal United States 1980 2008 Coastal Trends Report Series Silver Spring MD NOAA Townships Cities and Counties can be considered local when it comes to coastal zone management Management is about planning budgeting improvement programs and implementing intended improvements in those jurisdictions through projects Many daytoday management decisions are made at the local level There are 19000 municipalities and 3100 counties in US Many decisions that in uence coastal resources are made a local level Furthermore remember decisions often have diverse stakeholder groups who have interest in and often participate in such decisions Regulation of land use development decisions is the primary responsibility of local jurisdictions but public private and notforprof1t entities make decisions Beatley Brower and Schwab argue that land use and comprehensive planning can be most responsive to the interests needs issues and concerns of the constituencies at the local level Furthermore they suggest that coastal communities can become sustainable coastal communities Sustainable coastal communities as counties cities towns and villages 0 seek to minimize their destructive impact on natural systems and the natural environment 0 create highly livable and enduring places 0 build communities that are socially just and in which the needs of all groups in the community are addressed That sustainability perspective follows from the 1987 report of the Brundtland Commission and many subsequent initiatives that popularized the concept of sustainable development defining it as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs World C 39 39 on F 39 and D 39 I 1987 p8 Characteristics of a sustainable coastal community Beatley Brower Schwab 2002 p 198 o Minimize disruption of natural systems and avoid consumption and destruction of ecologically sensitive lands eg coastal wetlands maritime forests species habitat and areas rich in biodiversity Minimize their ecological footprints and reduce the wasteful consumption of land promote compact contiguous development patterns and encourage separation of urban and urbanizable lands from natural and rural lands Avoid environmental hazards and reduce exposure of people and property to coastal hazards by keeping people and property out of coastal oodplains higherosion zones and inlet hazards areas Reduce waste generation eg air pollution water pollution and the consumption of nonrenewable resources and promote the recycling and reuse of waste products respecting earth s ecological capital to supply ecological services understand and live within the natural ecological carrying capacity of the area Reduce dependency on the automobile and promote a more balanced and integrated transportation system encourage and facilitate the use of a variety of alternative and more sustainable modes of transportation e g mass transit bicycles walking and integrate land use and transportation decision making Promote and develop a sense of place and understanding and appreciation of the bioregional context in which they are situated Foster a high degree of livability aesthetically pleasing and visually stimulating community whose design uplifts human spirit Incorporate a strong public and civic dimension that is re ected in the communities spatial and physical form promoting places of public interaction that help shape a sense of identity Achieve a human scale and encourage integration of uses and activities e g commercial and residential and enhance livability in various ways e g reduce crime reduce auto dependent develop vibrant spaces Seek to eradicate poverty and ensure a dignified life for all residents provide affordable housing health care meaningful employment and reduce separation between income groups Value participation of all citizens residents and provide opportunities for participation in governance The relationship between those key concepts of sustainable communities and several key functions of governance in which local governments are involved is central to implementing coastal zone management We will elaborate on sustainability management in the next lecture but first let us consider conventional management and then growth management techniques Conventional Management Techniques a step toward growth management Functional plans 7 single theme land use transportation water resource in isolation Zoning ordinances 7 cluster Setback requirements Subdivision ordinances Transfer of development rights from environmentally sensitive sites to urban suburban sites Conventional community management is practiced in almost all 19000 municipalities and 3100 counties to address community change However some communities are growing in population size with associated impacts more rapidly thus some have a recognized need for more growth guidance in socalled growth managemen and new urbanism Growth Management a step toward sustainability Many local jurisdictions are managing development with a growth management framework The overall policy framework is commonly developed at the state level and then passed to the counties and cities for implementation That implementation is often coordinated at a regional level 7 thus drawing together state regional and local efforts in managing growth As of 2006 ll of 50 US states enacted growth management laws 3 states Florida New Jersey and Oregon have been using topdown controls ie a strong state level control to encourage development growth consider coastal orientation of these states which is not surprising remembering the 17 of US counties has 50 of population 8 states Georgia Hawaii Maine Maryland Minnesota Rhode Island Vermont and Washington 7 use bottomup control ie stronger local level control A 12Lh state 7 California 7 is beginning to use a combination of both 27 states have some role in growth management but it is not substantial as in the previous eleven 13 have no mandates in the form of state laws or regulations as growth if any is not viewed as problematic In top down planning states such as Oregon goals are more specific at the state level than they are in bottom up planning states like Washington In topdown states the goals are stated in such a way that all counties within the state plan in the same way In bottomup planning states the goals are generalized but made specific by local jurisdiction implementation as long as the jurisdiction makes some kind of plan Certain thresholds about development can be different from jurisdiction to jurisdiction ie county to county and city to city Newer techniques for growth management in addition to conventional techniques there are additional techniques needed for managing rapid growth Comprehensive plans as opposed to more conventional functional plans Zoning ordinances for special character and sense of place e g high density cluster development with open space adjacent Concurrency management 7 capital facility infrastructure and land use in connection with each other Urban growth boundaries 7 foster densification in already urban areas protect rural areas When we consider coastal zone management the issues of concern do not often align with the approaches that are in place to solve most conventional problems That is conventional and growth management techniques do not necessarily focus on addressing coastal problems eg degradation of Puget sound nearshore habitat or degradation of salmon habitat Efforts to address those concerns need to be more crosscutting that is they cut across jurisdictions GIS is useful for fostering a participatory approach ie communication cooperation coordination and collaboration to salmon habitat recovery due to the inherent character of information integration that underlies the technology Modes of participation communication agree to talk with one another cooperation agree to exchange information products to use as each sees fit coordination agree to sequence the development of separately created information products for the benefit of both collaboration agree to work together and jointly develop products for the benefit of both Local partners working together to protect and restore salmon habitat Let us consider an example of a participatory approach directed at salmon recovery involving watershed management based on water resource inventory areas Plan and project activity occurs among a coalition of local governments business and notforprofit groups principally funded by local governments due to mandates Efforts in King County are occurring in WRIAs 710 For example in WIRA 9 16 local governments are developing a salmon habitat recovery plan Carrying out the plan recommendations will protect and restore a healthy watershed ecosystem for both people and fish Staff from King County Dept of Natural Resources are provided under contract to assist with coordination with funds coming from those 16 local governments Chinook salmon are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act In WRIA 9 citizens scientists businesses environmentalists and governments are worked together to completed a sciencebased Salmon Habitat Plan See the local action map on right side of page for projects that implementation the plan Prioritization of Marine Shorelines 0f WRIA 9 for Juvenile Salmonid Habitat Protection and Restoration May 2006 Greenanamish and Central Puget Sound Watershed Water Resource Inventory Area WRIA 9 httpdnr metrnko crovWrias9m 39 YlabitatPrioriti ation htm The Salmon Habitat Recovery effort is different but related to the Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership because of the difference in place Consider the nearshore subwatersheds on the action plan map The significant coordination of efforts we are seeing is only a tip of the iceberg for what is needed to plan program and implement sustainable coastal communities What is needed is full recognition of the links among functional themes land use transportation water resources as well as links among decision processes planning improvement programming projects Those links are considered more thoroughly in the next session as a way to practically characterize Beatley Brower and Schwab s Framework for Sustainable Coastal Development Lecture 22 Linking Ecology Economy and Community Learning Objectives 221 What are the three E s of sustainability implemented in the OCEAN framework 222 What data dilemmas about human behavior did the OCEAN framework confront 223 It what way does the OCEANS framework make a link between ocean ecosystems and human communities using GIS data and analysis 221 What are the three E s of sustainability implemented in the OCEAN framework GIS application with an ocean resources focus UW West Coast Regional scale perspective broader based than just Puget Sound Sustainability issues addressed 7 ecology economics and social equity The Scholz et a1 chapter describes the potential for geographic information systems GIS spatial analysis and new software tools to support the management and conservation of marine resources and in particular for marine resources how f1sheries can be examined as a sustainable activity They use GIS to integrate socioeconomic information into models and tools used for managing marine resources thus treating humanenvironment as a connected phenomenon The Ocean Communities quot3Equot Analysis OCEAN framework facilitates the consideration of ecological economic and equity considerations in marine resource management The 3 E s are the three corners of a sustainable development triangle 7 each is often taken in consideration with another but all three in uence community wellbeing OCEAN is a set of geographic information systems and databases that link the economic behavior of shing eets with habitat and other oceanographic data and relate them to coastal communities The management US f1sheries is regulated by the MagnusonStevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act MSFCMA The Act requires eight regional councils to a manage f1sheries within the US Exclusive Economic Zone using shery management plans that describe optimal yields while preventing overf1shing National Standard 1 MSFCMA 1996 b in ways that protect the marine environment particularly habitats that are considered essential for fish at various life stages and c consider the socioeconomic impacts of management decisions on shing communities National Standard 8 MSFCMA 1996 Research questions quotwhere in the ocean are the resources the eets that harvest them and the communities that depend on themquot Thus What is the relationship among these resources eets and communities Where to sh stock species spend their various life stages 222 What data dilemmas about human behavior did the OCEAN framework confront Fishery Data and Sources Data on Fish Stocks NOAA USGS California Department of Fish and Game provide various data sets for bathymetry and other data on oceanographic characteristics such as physical geological and biological data describe the ocean oors and water column NOAA Fisheries conduct periodic trawl surveys focus on species that are commercially harvested surveys can be interpreted spatially to generate associations of species and biogeographic regions trawl surveys adhere to a strict sampling protocol thus can identify where trawlers can encounter the various species and various life stages trawl surveys have been found to overlap well with fishing locations as reported in trawl logbooks same dataset used for stock assessments provides an important starting point for this inquiry Serious data limitations Fish Stocks Data Distribution of trawl set points is available in the log books and are transcribed into the Paci c Fisheries Information Network PacFIN but the haul points are not transcribed into PacFIN Thus considerable uncertainty from tow duration but not the direction of each tow is recorded Trawl vessels are capable of covering considerable distances with each tow potentially covering dozens of kilometers any maps based purely on the logbooks likely misrepresent the actual distribution of fishing effort and catch What to do about improving the fish stocks data generate probability surfaces of where fishing vessels are likely to encounter the species they record in their landing tickets West Coast fisheries survey data used to infer spatial distributions of various marine organisms both to constrain a model of fishing behavior and to infer distributions of nontargeted but habitat forming invertebrates Fleet Data Logbooks and landing receipts generated by both commercial and recreational fishing vessels are integral to data collection efforts for fisheries management on the West Coast However they provide remarkably little information as to where fish are caught Logbook and landings data are spatially coded in blocks cells that range from 5 to 30 nautical miles at the sides Even at the finest available resolution however the recorded data are too coarse to allow meaningful inferences about for example the interaction of fishing gear and sensitive habitat What to do about improving the eet data Constrain the landing receipts and logbooks with other data notably on specieshabitat associations and inferences on the likely distance a particular shing vessel will travel for a reported trip Data on Fishing Communities Data about shing communities are central to marine resource management yet relatively sparsely documented In many parts of the West Coast sheries are an important part of the economic base and cultural fabric of communities and any management measure that affects the amount or extent of shing in an area will tend to have local impacts on employment and income 223 It what way does the OCEAN framework make a link between ocean ecosystems and human communities using GIS data and analysis Authors developed one model for spatially interpreting landing receipts the only source of location information at a coastwide scale for the fixed gear eetand two additional methods for determining trawl activity 1 one extracting and mapping the information as it is recorded in the logbooks and 2 a constrained random direction model The following steps characterize this process Figure 52 shows a ow chart of the fish ticket model Ham manna sh mmnuunm am mlrawdanle amiar il Macks m meaty my in mm mm me u mum We mm In assign NI Hum awry pmbabum B may muma 4n any mum hava mum Dimculay mock Black a apnomm Figm 52 Flaw hanfar m n39ckztmudrl Eratmst The text description for Figure 52 is 1 Each PacFIN record contains information on the gear used species caught landing port vessel information and one of 12 statistical management areas where the catch originated 2 Impose a maximum range from the landing port that a vessel is likely to have shed given its length and gear type usedthis is currently derived from expert witness testimonies pending more formal studies of fishing behavior on the West Coast 3 Impose depth restrictions on fishing gear used and target species there are limits to the depth from which West Coast trawlers can haul their nets or in what depth various fixed gear types are used similarly different species of fish have known ranges of bathymetric associations 4 Compare this to the species distribution densities derived from the fisheryindependent surveyssome areas are associated with higher frequencies of the target species in question making it more likely that a fishing vessel would have gone there for its catch 5 Within that maximum range weight the species density clusters inversely by distance from portthis is a quotfriction of distancequot idea because travel is costly vessels tend to fish closer to port even if the are slightly less likely to encounter the target species 6 Impose habitat restrictions on fishing gear usedtrawlers do not operate in high relief areas while these same areas tend to be frequented differentially by vessels using hook and line gear 7 Apportion pounds caught and associated revenue from fish tickets This can be done either deterministically associating the entire catch and revenues with the block that has the highest likelihood of fishing having occurred there or probabilistically apportioning catch and revenues to fishing blocks within the maximum range based on probabilities derived from distance from port targeted species densities habitat restrictions and previous activity 8 Repeat for all records and map the resulting distribution of fishing activity in principle this can be normalized by number of records associated with an area orin the case of trawlers number and duration of tows made there to provide a measure of effort The maps resulting from this algorithm are probability surfaces of the distribution of fishing effort and the associated catches and revenues see Fig 53 Effort maps are central for estimating the amount and degree of interaction between fishing gears and marine habitats or for estimating the relative economic cost to fishing businesses of spatiotemporal closures of the fishing grounds e g for temporary or permanent marine reserves Ianglinz gear somhern Oregon and nor em California 2000 Pm Odom Tnnl Foundg Caught pm I 0 km mm D n Vmds Umng a Longlme um Type Cnhfumil Eureka Tnml Pcundngc landed m Each Fun by Wm Umm A Laughquot Gmquot Type 0 quot mm mm mm ummmw m Fort Bragg O quot I O sumwamI pmA Malm NW mu vauv Figure 54 Trawl activity o the West Cuasr WASHINGYON 397 OREGON rota hams or CALIFORNIA The traw1 set point provides an idea about where the lines were set but not about the actual catch in the area Thus there are a set ofpossible tow paths that might have occurred See Fig 55 Figure 5 5 Possible tow paths from set painti directions Given the sh ticket data the constraints on direction can be attributed to the possible tow paths and a new trawl line activity map can be generated Esnmared nautical miles of trawl activity per 9km cell I730 3090 I 907150 I 150qu I 3007650 Figure 58 Estimated mile uftmwl nclz viiy Lecture 8 DEEP Representation relating the building blocks of data models Learning Objectives 81 What is data modeling abstraction in regards to the concept of representation 82 Describe the essential difference in emphasis among the three data modeling levels of abstraction conceptual data model logical data model and physical data model 83 How is a measurement framework related to a GISbased logical data model Why must measurement frameworks and operations work together SURFACE Representation involves the symbolization strategies chosen to create map displays A large portion of material in Geography 360 is about surface representation 7 we call it map design Geography 460 is a course is about DEEP Representation used for analysis DEEP Representation involves the combination of measurement reference system measurement framework and data models A data model is built using a measurement frameworks A measurement framework is built from reference systems and measurements dimensions levels and units measurement All spatial attribute and temporal data are managed by a database management system e g ESRI s ArcCatalog that works with a multitude of deep representations Which representations are appropriate at which times is a key to understanding GIS software design database design data analysis and map display Levels of Abstraction for GIS Data Representation We say that GIS data modeling involves several levels of abstraction each level relying upon a type of representation Let us take the two extremes of this issue in the context of human computer interaction Some representations are mostly understandable by lots of humans Reasonably concrete expressions for humans words like nouns and verbs in natural language together with their meaning to convey the meaning of everyday life are reasonably abstract general and hence lacking of detail representations for computers Some representations bits and bytes are mostly understandable by lots of computers Reasonably concrete expressions ie representations like 0 s and 1 s as bits to form bytes in computer words for computers are reasonably abstrac for humans few of us speak to each other in 0 s and 1 s as does a computer Certainly there are exceptions to these generalizations Consider whichwho is better at processing exceptions to rules Is it humans or computers It depends on fuzziness Data models lec05 composed of representations for l geospatial data construct types 2 operations 3 constraints Data models are the foundation of GIS software and databases but there are three levels of abstraction each level having a different representation emphasis What is articulated at the conceptual level is carried forward to the logical level What is articulated at the logical level hence conceptual as well is carried forward to the physical level If we only consider the data structure part of the data model representation 0 Conceptual Data Model 7 data content representations ie what portion of some world does data model represent Logical Data Model 7 data structure processing representations ie how of are data to be organized so I can perform data operations Physical Data Model 7 data format representations ie how is the data to be stored on disk and what is the primitive result of the operation What is the difference between a data structure and a data model operations and rules for keeping data content robust Foundation of logical data models Geospatial data construct types together with measurement frameworks provide the underpinning for GIS logical data models see table below Numbers as the table entries are from table 26 in lecture 6 same as table 26 in Exploring GISand provided as p 4 of this handout Note this is not an exhaustive categorization of all spatial data construct types or measurement frameworks This categorization provides an example for understanding the association between construct primitives and measurement frameworks to form logical data models Data Construct Image 211 212 211 212 221 221 226 111 112 111 111 112 pathIine 112 Special Note Missing from data model descriptions above are the list of operations and data integrity constraints associated with each of the data models Learning to use GIS data operations on raster and vector data structures measurement frameworks is much of the activity in geography 460 No one has ever created an exhaustive enumeration of all operations for all data models 7 it has been too big ajob A couple of dissertations have come close for basic raster and vector structures Data Tomlin U Pennsylvania for raster 7 the easy one and the basis of Spatial Analyst Jochen Albrecht City University of New York for vector 7 the hard one everything else Summary Measurements reference systems measurement frameworks and data models 1 Measurement units and levels are needed to describe things about our world We need to agree about the basis of measurements to come to know the world in an agreed upon way That is where standards of measure come into play Reference system is needed to develop measurement 2 A reference system organizes measurements ie establishes relationships among measurements in regards to dimensionality eg like a coordinate system or a soils sampling scheme or in a calendar of dates 3 A measurement framework organizes reference systems and measurements so we can develop information about the world 7 build relationships between and among our measurements 4 A data model organizes 13 above as a compatible software design and database design so we can undertake GIS analysis 7 the title of the course What raster andor vector data structuring might we use for coastal GIS See Beatlev Ch 2 Understandinq the Coastal Environment Fig 21 shore zone on p14 How would we use reference systems levels of measurement measurement framework and data model to characterize the PSNERP process unit shoreforms Exploring GIS Table 26 Summary of Measurement Frameworks 1 Control by Attribute 11 Isolated Objects 111 Spatial Object Single category distinguishes from void eg islands in the ocean 112 1soline Regular slices of continuous variable eg elevation is systematically controlled to sample contour lines 12 Connected Objects 121 Network Spatial objects connect to each other form topology eg a street network or utility network 122 Categorical Coverage Network formed by exhaustive classi cation eg soils across a landscape 2 Control by Space 21 Point based Control 211 Center point Systematic sampling in regular grid e g for a digital elevation matrix 212 Systematic unaligned Random point chosen within cell eg location of a houses within land use grid cells 22 Area based Control 221 Extreme value Maximum or minimum of values in cell eg the highest point or lowest point in a grid cell 222 Total Sum of quantities in cell e g the re ected light as type of land cover of a cell 223 Predominant type Most common category in cell e g predominant land use or land cover in a cell 2 24 Presence absence Binary result for single category eg it is or is not a type ofland cover 225 Percent cover Amount of cell covered by single category e g 65 impervious surface ofa cell 226 Precedence of types Highest ranking category present in cell eg as in land use mostly commercial some residential little industrial 3 Control by Relationships 31 Measurement by pair Control by pairs of objects e g origins and destinations of immigrants 32 Triangular Irregular Network TIN Control by uniform slope e g three points de ne a surface and thus together are used to compute slope 4 Composite Control 41 Choropleth Control by categories name of zones then by space eg US counties have names and each named county has a legal boundary for which population is counted Lecture 7 Attributebased Operations Learning Objectives 71 What is meant by reduce information content by an attributebased operation Why would one want to reduce information 72 What is meant by increase information content by an attributebased operation 73 How do operations on attributes differ for vector and raster structures Operations on attributes can be classi ed by the level of measurement of the input and the output External information is often required In general these are operations that work inside one measurement 39amework Operations that REDUCE information Assume like data values for input then What do we get for output Group Isolate Classify and Scale Operations procedures These operations reduce the information content by collapsing many categories to one or to fewer Group Isolate which does it in the BACKGROUND category or by collapsing higher level measurements into ordinal Classify The red text above identi es the external information which can be thought of as rules required to make this happen Isolation of a single category can change from an exhaustive categorical coverage to an isolated object view but the decisions made on the original coverage provide the geometric representation Some of the classification rules are Equal Intervals depends solely on range of attribute applies only to Interval or higher Quantiles depends on counting the objects depends on meaasurement framework Jenk39s Iterative minimizes within class variance depends on Interval or higher quotNatural Breaksquot an aesthetic judgement about gaps Thresholds with external meaning freezing point of water gainloss legal requirements etc Scale reduces information only if the resolution of the scale is altered ner grained measurement unit otherwise a scaling changes no information Even these simple operations produce results that in uence the apparent measurement framework When the aspatial groupings of attributes require a geometric process to remove boundaries which are internal to one category we call this Aggregation In Arc software it is referred to as 39dissolve39 or 39drop line39 aggregation Operations that INCREASE information Rank Evaluate Rescale 39 39 mm a d wltlnaset r or eategones 39 outslde tlne numbenng selnemeyou have Chnsman conslders tlnese tlne holes m Stevens systeml Examples of eva1uatlon systemsquot Klng County use ofPubll Bene tRanng System look at 20 3o loo page 823 othe 122 page doeument and Eeology Wetland Ranng System 69 page pdf look at page 33 for begnmng othe entena for deflmng wetalands Operatiuns un Attributes Operations on atmbute data values take one set of attnbutes and glve you new columns How tlns ls lmplemented depends on tlne data format assumlng a slmllae structure n w of data values lnvoke overlay metlnods Chapter 5 Other procedures considering pairs of numbers Cross tabulate Difference Rate Density Add Subtract Proportion etc If you have pairs of values for the same set of objects representation you can generate new values that depend on PAIRS of values Indirect Measurement through LOOKUP Tables The 39attribute39 provides a foreign key to a lookup table of attribute values This process is called JOIN in a relational database package Coastal pressures and critical management issues addressed by attribute operations from Beatley et al Chap 3 Remember the attribute operations DO NOT change the geometry of the data that is we are not working on coordinates but on the descriptive aspect of data as attribute Some of the most signi cant pressures as characterized by attribute data Population pressures 7 people continue to move to coasts around the world 0 Population change growth and decline in particular circumstance Land use and cover categories patterns with population growth 0 For land use codes like residential commercial industrial 0 For land cover codes like urban vegetated rock Ownership of the land and water interface varies o How far upland and how far marineward 0 Various zones of in uence How might we use attribute operations to address data issues above Some critical coastal management issues identi ed by Beatley et al Chap 3 are Storm mitigation particularly storm surge Shore erosion Sea level rise Protecting coastal waters Protecting coastal wetlands and resource lands Energy development Biodiversity and habitat conservation Recreation Community development Public interest versus private interests 7 in all the above How might we use GIS attribute data and operations to address those issues as part of a GIS application Remember we are not dealing directly with space that is coordinate locations but simply the attribute descriptors of space What is the concern about the particular issue for example concern about storm mitigation What attribute data might we be dealing with How might the attribute data be processed to more effectively address a question about the concern


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