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by: Adrain Lebsack


Adrain Lebsack
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adrain Lebsack on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 460 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/192241/geog-460-university-of-washington in Geography at University of Washington.




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Date Created: 09/09/15
Lecture 10 Development of Map Overlay Operation Learning Objectives 101 How do site and situation play different roles in a site suitability problem 102 What operation steps compose the map overlay technique Why is the raster approach easier than the vector approach 103 Describe the results of AND and OR Boolean operations in an overlay operation First recognition that no one map layer is enough to make a decision Environment is full of interactions No one science measures exactly all the relevant information as one single value Site suitability as an initial problem determine potential locations for habitat restoration in Puget Sound What sites are more suitable than others for restoration or redevelopment when there is never enough money andor volunteer labor to restore all sites a problem faced by the Puget Sound Nearshore Ecosystems Restoration Program Suitability rst as a function of site characteristics Site characteristics focus on the point line or polygon speci cally under consideration a particular place Situation involves the surrounding characteristics of the site That is all sites around the particular site under consideration can be called the situation However only the unpacking of site is included in overlay McHarg39s Design with Nature1969 proclaimed that environmental design required multiple factors and overlay that is what is coincident and what is not coincident at a site Many environmental regulations imply overlay logic like encroachment on critical areas in WA State and other examples from Chrisman Steps to carry out Overlay Measurement and representation of data for source maps Registration bringing each map into a common geometric reference Raster Overlay is easy if the cell size is the same for the different data layers the spatial registration of intersections is already done with a common cell size Vector Overlay involves a geometric discovery of intersections creates a new representation The Common Thread between different implementations Discover relationships from geometry Actually a form of spatial JOIN where the quotkeyquot is sharing site position aka container relationship Simple form of container relationship Point in Polygon two spatial primitives More complicated container relationship Polygon Werlay more spatial primitives involved All served by one data engine that performs quotPlanar Enforcementquot on the geometry Then Handle the Attributes General Approach Assumption of uniformity Category assumed to apply everywhere evenly over whole polygon or cell Combination of attributes requires agreement of the various parties that is the interpretation borrows from the institutional understanding of attribute combinations say among city or state agencies Complete combination approach intersect everything before any analysis Logic applied set operations AND OR NOT in mathematics called quotBoolean logicquot Some operations can produce results by enumerating all the combinations obtained Change analysis and error detection for example Lecture 21 Oceans and Health Puget Sound PCB Study Learning Objectives 211 What is the difference between vulnerability and risk in GIS analysis 212 What is exposure modeling in the context of risk assessment 213 What additional information does risk assessment provide us above vulnerability assessment A bit of review about vulnerability and risk Hazard the potentially threatening substance contaminant Receptor the personanimal being exposed to contaminant Doseresponse amount of contaminant and reaction to it Exposure pathway how does the contaminant get from source to receptor Risk characterization assemble the evidence to determine risk Assessment Steps Vulnerability Risk Hazard the potentially threatening Broadbased Specific Identification substance contaminant identification Receptor the personanimal being Broadbased Specific Identification exposed to contaminant identification none Detailed investigation Doseresponse amount of contaminant and reaction to it Exposure pathway how does the Spatial collocation Actual path contaminant get from source to receptor Risk characterization assemble the Overview Detailed evidence to determine risk consideration of evidence SocialeconomicbiophysicaIchemical systems influence risk Let s look at a case study about PCB contamination Shoreline Management Practices for An Integrated Risk Assessment Framework of Urbanization Human Health and Marine Interactions Lecture 11 Combining Attribute Data Values after Overlay Operation Learning Objectives 111 What are the two major steps in an overlay operation 112 Why do different rules exist for combining attribute data values 113 Describe the four types of rules Overlay spatial overlay attribute data value combination Overlay uses geometric processing to assemble attributes that refer to the same place a raster cell is used as control or a polygon grouping with similar contiguous values Then some combhation of these values gives a result The central question is which combinations of attribute data values make sense for the application in question In many respects the classical problem in science is called quotcommensurabilityquot or as is often the case incommensurability when attribute measurement units are dif cult to combine We use RULES statements about how to proceed for combining data values The nature of the rule depends on both data measurement and how people treat information Attribute data value combination rules Enumeration rules list all the possibilities all unique combinations are recognized Dominance rules 7 one value wins most dominant Contributory rules 7 each attribute data value contributes to result Interaction rules pairs of data values contribute to results Enumeration rules list all the possibilities all unique combinations are recognized i Enumeration Rules Result New categories from each unique combination but all categories are preserved For example soil types clay and loam and land uses residential and commercial so every combination provides a unique new category or how about ratio measurements depth and quotsalt concentration for understanding estuary habitat health or siting salmon farm Cross tabulation Complete matrix of all changes see Exploring 615 Table 5 2 Change analysis For example before and alter some event like a oil spill how much ecosystem area was impacted by the spill Dominance rules 7 one value is chosen to be most representative Dominance Rules Result One inappropriate data measurement and result is negative One strike and you39re out such as see Exploring GISTable 5 3 For example siting land development near critical areas as in wetlands some development intensity would be ruled out Exclusionary screening Extreme value from rankings usually worst wins but could be Exclusionary ranking best wins For example siting land development but now an ordinal number indicating severity is used Extreme value from continuous data maximum profit at that site best alternative could be worst or highest risk For example highest preferred use aesthetic business etc for a given area Highest bid Records identity of extreme value For example what HigheSt bidder organization might be bidding that highest bid Contributory rules 7 each attribute data value contributes to result Contributory Rules Result Sum of binary exclusions vetmg tabUIatlon For example what areas should receive marine protection Sum of ratings39 mean etc See Exploring 615 Fig 5 12 and for conversion to ratio see Table 5 4 For example which habitat site should be redeveloped when criteria are of equal importance Linear combination Weighting and rating game using criteria see Exploring 615 Table 5 5 evaluation of sorghum yield and Table 5 6 Weighted linear combination groundwater contamination How about an evaluation of which habitat sites should be redeveloped based upon various criteria for making priority choices Multiplication of factors For example when importance of Product combinations of erosion on soil is more than an additive effect steepness might be a multiplicative effect Interaction rules pairs of data values contribute to results Result Interaction Rules Linear combination as in weights depend on some OTHER Contingent weighting attribute value For example credibility of data or even the weight source might receive higher weight Informal judgment expert opinion Integrated survey For example when certain combinations of attribute data bvalues mean certain kinds of suitability for land use Formal interaction tables Rules of combination For example construct a set of rules for interpreting the relationships among the attribute data values Lecture 26 Sustainability Coastal Zone Management and GIS Learning Objectives 261 What is the foundation of an ecological city approach to development 262 What is the significance of the link among planning programming and projects 263 What is the purpose of indicators for coastal community development Beyond Growth Management Toward Sustainability Management More and more cities are recognizing the need for ecological approaches to development 7 so called ecological city approach White R 2002 Building the Ecological City Boca Raton CRC Press An ecological city approach to development requires active consideration of the relationships among land energy transportation and environmental health as a foundation for systems process modeling The need for system process models stems from some guiding principles about sustainability e g those articulated by the Santa Monica Sustainable City Program Beatley Brower Schwab p 234235 The concept of sustainability guides city policy hence all activities associated with city work Protection preservation and restoration of natural environment is a high priority Environmental quality and economic health are mutually dependent All decisions have environmental implications Community r 39 39 39 39 39 successful programspolicies Recognize the linkages with regional state national and global community Environmental issues most important to the community should be addressed first and the most costeffective programs and policies should be selected Commitment to procurement decisions that minimize negative environmental and social impacts and J quot are key elements of Those guidelines lead to green governance of city business and citizens activity Green governance follows from a trend toward the greening of business Many industry sectors are now picking up on this idea because it is actually profitable to reduce waste streams 7 given the cost of dealing with forms of waste Green governance follows a natural step whereby nature s functions and diversity are not systematically Beatley Brower Schwab p 236 subject to increasing concentrations of substances extracted from the earth s crust subject to increasing concentrations of substances produced by society impoverished by physical displacement overharvesting or other forms of ecosystem manipulation and resources are used fairly and efficiently in order to meet basic human needs globally Principles of Ecological Coastal Development and GIS Those steps point up a need to understand ow and process using GIS At the current time GIS can implement dynamic process models in terms of characterizing the increments of waste processes ie investigating the ows about what is connected to what based on two or more time periods as wastes and products move from place to place That perspective about using GIS to characterize ows links well with Principles of Ecological Coastal Development Beatley Brower and Schwab 2002 p 281 Minimize the amount of water energy and other resources needed to build and operate buildings incorporate renewable energy including solar energy into the design and siting of buildings Use local building materials obtained from sustainability managed sources eg sustainably harvested forests Minimize waste during construction use recycled building materials Build compactly and conserve as much coastal land aw possible cluster away from wetlands beaches and other sensitive lands Locate new development projects in close proximity to public transit and town centers and in areas where residents and workers can walk and ride bicycles thereby reducing the need for automobiles Choose intown locations over rural or exurban sites look for opportunities to strengthen and revitalize existing coastal towns and cities Minimize the embodied energy of structures ie the energy necessary to procude the materials of the building Look for in ll sites and opportunities to reuse built environment before developing in green eld locations Design and build to last durability and quality should be favored over shortterm profits what about building to be recycled View every building project as an opportunity to restore and repair damage coastal ecosystems Protect trees vegetation and existing elements of the natural landscape build within nature s ecological envelope Reduce impervious surfaces and maintain the natural hydrology of the landscape Avoid hazardous coastal locations such as incipient inlet zones oodplains and high erosion zones Strive to make projects affordable and create economically and ethically diverse neighborhoods and communities Design projects through an inclusive participatory process affected parties should be consulted and have the opportunity to in uence designs Incorporate features that educate future residents about ecological sustainability make visible the natural processes on which we all rely Search for designs that harmoniously blend projects into the natural and cultural landscape design and build to strengthen sense of place Incorporate design elements that strengthen connections for others and the broader community connecting streets trails and common spaces discourage developments that separate and isolate from the broader community Linking Planning Programming and Projects The above sustainability principles set out fundamentals for policy development about projects The sustainable coastal community characteristics from lecture 24 and the above guidelines together provide a basis for sustainable development policies Development policies underpin how communities local society will changetransform themselves as a collective over time In the everyday world of community governance policies direct three main decision support situations for which GIS can be used to implement policy 7 plans improvement programs and project implementations Heathcote 1998 p 391 in a book titled Integrated Watershed Management describes a relationship between plans programs and project implementation in the following way a plans articulate a longterm perspective and thus guide improvement programs b improvement programs are developed to match projects to social economic and environmental conditions in the world ie what is needed what can be done about community impairments 7 what needs xing over the medium term and c projects are proposed xes to conditions that are causing those impairments at the current time or soon to exist impairments Linking the planning improvement programming and project implementation decision processes over time provides feedback about whether and how a community is moving in sustainable directions GIS because of its inherent integrative capacities can be used as a decision support technology to foster sustainable development Note Beatley Brower and Schwab 2002 are talking about project development in those principles above Heathcote 1998 suggests how to make the link from plans to programs to projects Example Another look at the salmon habitat recovery activity in terms of Plans Programs and Projects Plan Salmon Habitat Plan for the GreenDuwamish Watershed Action Plan map Program ThreeYear Prioriti ation of I 39 quot of Salmon Habitat Plan Three Year Prioritization by subwatershed MS Excel le Projects get implemented on the ground and in the water Do the actual work Indicators for Coastal Sustainable Development Indicators help monitor progress Beatley Brower and Schwab 2002 p 289 suggest a set most of which are mappable and hence compiled with GIS to be monitored over time Land and Development of coastline urbanized Acres of green eld land developed per year Acres and of brown eld development for in ll per year Acres of farmland or rural land lost each year Water Extent of fishable and swimmable waters changes in water quality Extent of pervious and impervious surfaces and changes Hazard Exposure Number of structures in 60year erosion zone Number of unelevated structures in the oodplain Number of structures built to older building codes Number of shelters for coastal hazards 7 hurricane tsunami in relation to population Air Number of days in violation of Clean Air Act Wetlands Acres of coastal wetlands converted each year Acres of existing and protected wetlands Forest and Habitat Acres changed in forest coverage Acreage in forest Extent and status of endangered species Extent and status of biodiversity hotspots Fisheries and Marine Resources Health of Corral reefs sea grasses and other marine habitats Status and condition of local and regional fisheries Number and severity coverage of oil spills Equity and Affordability Housing affordability measure median price to median income Unemployment rates Recreational and Coastal Access Number ofbeach access points Acres of public beach Energy and Resource Use Water consumption per capita Energy consumption per capita Recycling rate Solid waste generated per year Number of treatment plants with tertiary and advanced treatment Transportation and Mobility Modal share for walking bicycle and transit Percentage of built environment that is bicycle andor pedestrian friendly Lecture 18 Iterative Operations Learning Objectives 181 Describe the basic principle underlying a Viewshed iterative operation 182 Describe the basic principle underlying a cost accumulation operation 183 Describe the basic principle underlying a drainage ow accumulation operation Now that we have looked at surface operations and transformations we examine applications that make use of operations in more comprehensive ways Some comprehensive operations are iterative incremental operations operations that use a series of neighborhood operations to move a local result into a broader context which could be broader in space time attribute or a combination of these geospatial aspects Iterative repeat in increments operations Viewshed rays project to visual obstructions determining visibility on a terrain Cost Accumulation propagate cost to neighbors Drainage accumulate flow downhill to a sink Network Operations as in shortest path along routes Viewshed using intervisibility Intervisibility what can be seen from where can be computed based on a set of rays radiating outwards from a vantage point In a complex 3D situation there are many effects to calculate but on a surface the surface can only obstruct a view by rising above the line of sight Intervisibility can be applied to human vision hence issues like scenic beauty and property values particularly viewing mountains sounds lakes or to other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as FM radios cellular telephones and personal communication networks A Viewshed as 1 J for the Madaba Plains Proiect about settlement visibility is the area that can be seen from a given vantage point or points Viewshed assembles all the locations into areas where the line of sight is rising as the rays move outwards A crosssection dia am showin line of si ht ra tracin Visible area A I39IC UIIIIIIIICII II II HM Ioalcn A procedure to calculate viewshed operates through iteration working outwards A horizon line39 holds the highest vertical angle yet seen in each direction A new location such as a cell in a raster implementation is tested against the horizon line to check if it is hidden below or visible above Locations must be visited in the order in which they might be seen as the framework for the iterative nature of the operation Visible locations then can be marked as a part of the viewshed Yesno values can be summed to give a cumulative viewshed of how many times a place is seen from a particular place or for that matter a combination of places The ESRI quotwhite paperquot about 3D analyst brie y describes the visibility operations What in uences the Viewshed intervisibility Viewshed calculations depend upon an accurate model of the surface as seen So elevation is a key component Topographic maps and topographic databases are constructed for highway engineers and artillery officers to give the ground surface Land cover can matter Vegetation screens the line of sight for many wavelengths but not all Vegetation effects are rarely measured but often added to a surface by adding a constant for each land cover class but those additions are often a bit crude Viewer height can also in uence the viewshed result USES OF VIEWSHEDS Viewshed for Scenic Beauty early usage Vista Scenic Beauty Parkway siting Cell phone towers Soar Input Wind Power Turbine Farms Wales cumulative viewshed results Archeology Settlement visibility in Palestine Border Patrol cameras and infrared sensors GPS signal availability for military planning Cost Accumulation An iterative operation can work with a contributory rule to accumulate the total cost outwards from a 39source This modi es a straight buffer analysis to some measure of cost which can be interpreted as effort impedance friction and or difficulty The cost units can be in time dollars or other ratio measure components of a cost must be converted to a common measurement unit First a realistic cost friction of distance must be assigned to traverse each area This thinking is easier in cells but it could be done for any set of zones Then it may be necessary to convert the cost to traverse a cell into a rate to handle diagonal movement properly An isolated object point or line or boundary line provides the starting location A SPREAD operation moves the cost outwards Notice that the operation is not strictly geometrical It is possible for a later message39 e g now passing around a hill in the cost surface as a lump cost 7 which is another attribute value on the surface to be included arriving at costs The result is an accumulated cost surface Some examples of cost accumulation have a look when you get a chance Pipeline example in the textbook an example for estimating ooded area very explicit use of ArcINFO cost distance for channel habitat archeological analysis of connection between Iron Age sites a petroleum pipeline with added environmental costs wolf habitat in Jasper Park Wildlife Corridor Study Drainage Drainage makes use of a topographic surface as described previous lectures Water will ow from higher locations cells triangles etc downwards Accumulation iterates through neighbor azimuth and neighbor gradient Erosion at one place creates deposition lower down Ex 6 Flow Operations on Surfaces deals with drainage Also see the overview in ArcGIS Desktop Help index Hydrology toolset gtdescribed Network Operations Iterative operations find shortest path in a network For a specified origin and destination compute the accumulated distance to next node in network Check to see if that node is in the node list from the other node This approach is based on a starnode data structure These accumulations can actually be precomputed and stored They are then sampled when origins and destinations are chosen and traced to check node matching The ESRI Network Analyst extension contains such procedures Tlrnee In ninulee based on Weahln on Depellm dl Transpodallon Slate 2mm mm purple Ilnee are leny routes llrnee Include leminal llme lor lenlea Teminal tlmee can also be modeled at the node as Hell as on the 1an Examples 39 39 road networks for closure USGS on what is special scroll down to networks Amazon Basin Project


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