New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Adrain Lebsack


Adrain Lebsack
GPA 3.54


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Geography

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adrain Lebsack on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 460 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/192241/geog-460-university-of-washington in Geography at University of Washington.




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/09/15
Lecture 23 Social Institutional and Cultural Underpinnings of GIS Coastal Zone Management at Federal Level Learning objectives 231 How do social institutional and cultural concerns in uence GIS development and use 232 What principal federal agency addresses coastal issues based on what mandate 233 Describe how the Coastal Zone Management Act in uences GIS use GIS as a politicaleconomic structure Before the late 1800 s map making was still a customized activity Topographers were surveyors and map makers Most mapping technology over the past two hundred years has increased the specialization and centralization of technology Creation of information as relocated from the field to of ce workplaces Divisions oflabor appeared where the process used to be all connected More people are now involved performing specialized tasks By the early 201h century cartographic production as moving to mass production and mass distribution just like the Ford automobile One size ts all for topographic maps 7 124000 quad for Departments of Natural Resource Classic example of 39Fordist39 production Is GIS a form of exible production39 Does it deliver specific products as needed not the same single solution Will the 39users39 learn that the economics have changed Will the models of software and data access change to re ect these possibilities Even a topographic map is a thematic map these days 7 customization with mass distribution or at least ready access is the trend So what geospatial information do you believe 7 now that almost anyoneeveryone can create it What is objectivity with regard to information technology Does GIS provide an objective39 approach to information production hence knowledge production Does better information necessarily lead to better decisions 397 Or do more eyes on the topic simply provide for more critique in a democratic society Is the technology we see now an inevitable outcome of strictly a technical perspective Every piece of geographic information invokes some set of assumptions a framework of axioms e g the way we do things in this organization Some axioms may be more widely accepted than others but they remain open to reexamination Pure objectivity39 is thus a mythas we develop a more refined understanding through further insight There is nothing inevitable about the particular outcomes of a GIS There are many choices and they are justi ed on economic political social environmental cultural and ethical grounds conditions and circumstances The geospatial information technology we have today developed under a peculiar set of conditions embedded within a local system of meaning and interpretation so it cannot be seen as inevitable of only the technical issues at play In fact the technology as we have it was constructed by a particular set of actors people institutions funding agencies applications projects computer resources societal pressures cultural expectations etc at a particular time When originally proposed none of the nal choices were clear The technology becomes de ned by later use not when quotinventedquot The choices might seem quotirreversiblequot later on but not when tentatively proposed The use of computer technology does not cleanse a data source from the procedures that were used to construct it quotAll measurements are theory ladenquot All geographic information shows the marks of decisions made in choosing what to control what to measure what could be left out Even the idea of quotcontextquot isn39t as simple as it seems There is no unifying neighborhood that delimits the zone of in uence on a given technology quotEvery event has its own pastquot There is not some quotmaster narrativequot that assures that all persons everywhere share a common framework Events are local People are bounded in what they know and who they know about This sounds negative but it can also be a good thing It makes more sense to accept that geographic information is constructed inside a framework of institutional social and cultural relationships We develop this shared understanding through competing and cooperative use of information to build knowledge and move to action Thus GIS can only be taken as 39obj ective39 by those who accept a common set of assumptions There is nothing magic about an automated system that will resolve deep social and cultural differences Yet some of the positive directions of the GIS activists make sense Many commonly accepted social purposes have been thwarted by the lack of appropriate information Rather than the blanket assertion that more information automatically improves the situation society must take some responsibility for their ignorance and the ethical choices between different activities Ethics questions for GIS Who should pay for GIS and how much How will that in uence what is known What organizations pay for GIS Who should have access to GIS tools and data Are data a free good Who pays When should you refuse to do an analysis with the wrong bad etc data Know how to interpret data sources by knowing about organizations Consider scale in all those questions Geographic scale and institutional scale A Geography of Geographic Information geographic information is 39constructeal39 inside a framework of institutional social and cultural relationships The abstract and theoretical must be understood in terms of the particular axioms created by speci c places and times Axioms mean those beliefs that are accepted without proof tacitly understood quothow things are done around herequot Of course geographic information is about a world that is quotrealquot not entirely constructed by human action but in uenced by natural events GIS in its institutional setting As an underpinning to a needs analysis one should examine the reasons that you collect information in the first place social purposes the outer ring of the ring diagram Mandates eg WA Administrative Code provides formal rules establishing public agencies Very little geospatial information is collected by individuals for personal reasons as it costs too much The Coastal Zone Management Act provides Federal Government and in particular NOAA with mandate for addressing coastal information Custodians agencies appointed to become guardians of certain information over the longterm maintenance is the key issue e g at US state level through Geographic Information Councils Custodianship is a mutual agreement among a collective of agencies Federal Coastal Management The Coastal Zone Management Framework described by Beatley Brower and Schwab 2002 discusses policies programs and concerns at four levels Federal State Regional and Local However we should note that these terms are not necessarily spatial scales in a hierarchy but governmental terms that imply a spatial hierarchy The difference comes in understanding a what is an ecosystem and b at what scales do ecosystems operate Beatley Brower and Schwab recognize the need for a high degree of coordination in the coastal zone management 7 the basis of their framework Coastal Zone Management Act 1972 7 cornerstone of Federal Policy for managing coastal resources CZMA directs NOAA to administer voluntary grantinaid program to states helping states balance development and environmental concerns through land use planning along coastal areas As such CZMA is a federalstate collaborative effort Section 302 and 303 lay a foundation for direction of policy Section 305 specifies the way money is allocated Section 306a specifies opportunity for matching grants more than merely administer programs Section 306d2 lays out state coastal management program CMP elements for federal approval a definition of boundaries of the coastal zone to which program applies a definition of areas of particular concern within the coastal zone a de nition of permissible land and water uses with the coastal zone and the identi cation of the means by which the state proposes to exert control over them a description of the organizational structure for the implementation of the program a planning process to provide protection of and access to public beaches a planning process to lessen the impact of shore erosion Section 309 7 Coastal Zone Enhancement Program 7 coastal zone enhancement objectives are to protect restore enhance or create coastal wetlands el iminate development in hazardous areas and anticipate sea level rise expand beach access opportunities reduce marine debris control cumulative and secondary impacts of development formulate and implement Special Area Management Plans plan for use of ocean resources formulate a process to facilitate siting energy facilities adopt procedures to facilitate siting aquaculture facilities CZMA 1990 amendment Section 6217 provides for coastal nonpoint source pollution control program coordinate with local and state water quality authorities following NOAA and EPA guideli nes and containing the following elements identification of land uses that may degrade coastal waters identification of critical coastal area within which land use controls are required management measures that are necessary to achieve CWA requisite water quality standards technical assistance to local governments and the public a public participation process administrative coordination between state agencies and between state and local agencies state coastal zone boundary modification The Secretary of Commerce in consultation with EPA Administrator shall review the inland coastal zone boundary of each coastal state and evaluate whether the State s coastal zone boundary extends inland to the extent necessary to control land and water uses that have a significant impact on coastal waters of the State and shall recommend appropriate modifications to the affected State Section 307 provides incentive to all federal agencies to coordinate with states on land or water use or natural resource use to make sure activity is consistent with approved state management programs NOAA National Estuarine Research Reserve System 25 NERRs as designated estuaries in 21 coastal states EPA National Estuary Program 28 estuaries managed using the model of EPA administered Chesapeake Bay Program NOAA GIS implementation and use takes the form of internal and external support NOAA internal GIS support in the National Ocean Service Special Projects Office NOAA external GIS support to state regional and local in the Coastal Services Center


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.