Survey of Russian History, Week 1 Notes
Survey of Russian History, Week 1 Notes HIST 3350-001
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanna Notetaker on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3350-001 at Auburn University taught by Prof. Cathleen Giustino in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Survey of Russian History in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Orthodoxy and Orthodox Church Tuesday, January 19, 2016 9:29 AM • Byzantine Empire2 • Byzantine Catholic Church • Roman Catholic Church • Both are Christian Churches • Constantinople (now Istanbul) • Hagia Sophia (Church of Holy Wisdom) This topic is extremely important in Russian History. The orthodox church's cross has three bars. The bottom one is the cross indicating the foothold of the cross Jesus was crucified on. It tilts up toward heaven on one side and down toward hell on the other side to represent the two thieves that were crucifie d alongside Jesus. One was penitent and one was not. The Orthodox church has its roots in the Byzantine Empire. This empire included the area that is now Italy, including Rome. It also included Constantinople which became the main city of orthodoxy and Christianity for a while. The break of the Orthodox church from the Roman catholic church began ___date___ CE and ended in ____date____ CE. The Roman Cath Church had its center in Rome. The Byzantine Church had its center in Constantinople. After the break , the Orthodox church remained a Christian church and is still that way today. The central belief of an Orthodox follower is Jesus is the son of God and the savior of mankind. Christianity pervaded Russian culture. In addition to this faith, the Ortho church shares the seven sacraments with the Roman Cath Church (Baptism, Confirmation [Chrismation in Orthodoxy], Eucharist, Holy Orders, Last Rites, Marriage, Confession). • Orthodox and Catholic Churches are Christian • 7 Sacraments (Baptism, Confirmation [ Chrismation in Orthodoxy], Eucharist, Holy Orders, Last Rites, Marriage, Confession) • Pope • Patriarch Some Major Differences: One really important difference concerns the role of the Pope vs the role of the Patriarchs (plural). The Pope is the head of all Roman Cath believers. In the Rom Cath tradition, the Pope has universal and central authority over all believers including Church hierarchy and all members of the congregation no matter where they live, pyramid of power. The Pope is the sole interpret er of God's will. He makes important decisions about matters of faith and passes them down the power pyramid. They are not made at a local level. Members of the Ortho Church don't believe in the universal and central authority of the Pope. They don't believe that the Pope sitting in Rome is the authority for their religious beliefs, that he has the sole power to interpret the word of God. They also don't believe that there is one single authority of the church. There can be multiple authorities f or multiple Ortho churches (Russian Ortho, Greek Ortho, Ukrainian Ortho, etc. -- there is only one Roman Cath Church). There is decentralization within the Ortho tradition. All Ortho churches have Patriarchs as their heads. All are equal in power. They hav e autonomy from one another in deciding how to lead their congregations. • Icons • Two-dimensional vs. three-dimensional depiction • Gold symbolizes heaven Both Roman Cath and Ortho churches allow the veneration of holy images. However, the Ortho Church and Rom Cath church allow different types of icons. The Ortho faith believes that church art needs to be 2D not 3D. It shouldn't have a lot of detail to perspective to give it more mystery and make it less sensual so that the viewer can more easily venerate t hat art rather than worship or fetishize it. Not many statues in the Ortho church. The individual artist is supposed to suppress his or her identity because it's supposed to be an act of honoring God (an act of veneration). These Ortho icons are almost always sacred persons, mainly Jesus. There are a lot of Saints in Ortho churches. Different individual Ortho churches can have different saints that perhaps came from their own traditions. This speaks to the decentralization of the Ortho church. 862 CE: The Start of Russian History Tuesday, January 19, 2016 10:00 AM 1862, Russian authorities (including Czar) built the Millenium Monument to commemorate 1,000 years of Russian history (in Novgorod). The most important source that historians have for learning about Russian history from this time period (862 CE) is The Primary Chronicle (also called The Tale of Bygone Years) . It was Complied around 1113 and covers 850-1110. Image: Page from • Rurik the Varangian belonged to the Rus tribe • Slavs and Finns lived in Novgorod • Today Slavs include Russians, Czechs, Poles, Ukrainians, Bulgarians, and Serbo -Croatians • Slavic Paganism o Polytheism o Perun In 862, Rurik the Varangian gained control over the town of Novgorod. He was the leader of the first Russian state in 862 CE. Varangian is another term for Viking, so he was a Viking! In the East Europe tradition and Greek tradition, Vikings were called Varangians. A Viking founded Russia, but their not Norse anymore, they're Slavs. During the 8th and 9th century, the Varangians were very active in that part of the world that became Russia. Back then, the Varangians were active in establishing trade routes that connected Scandinavia with West Europe, East Europe, Asia, and Mid East. It followed t he Volga River (LOOK UP ON MAP). The trade routes were all river routes. The Volga ran into the Caspian sea which led to Asia and parts of Mid East. They also had a route on the Don River which led to the Sea of Azov which connected to the Black Sea. The Dnieper River also led to the Black Sea. They primarily traded furs, slaves, and silver that they often got from Asia and traded in Western Europe. (Slav came from the term slave.) Rurik the Varangian wasn't just any kind of Viking. The Vikings had a nu mber of tribes. Rurik belonged to a tribe named the Russ (sp?), and its from the name of this Viking tribe that the name Russia comes. We're not sure what the word Russ originally meant, but some linguists argue that it meant "men who row" from the old Norse. According to The Primary Chronicle, even before 862, Novgorod had a mixed population including some Russ, some Fins, and some Slavs. Initially, they didn't all get along with each other. Even the Slavs were not getting along with each other. Slav or Slavic means belonging to a cultural group that speaks a Slavic language and comes to share other cultural attributes - Russians, Czechs, Poles, Ukrainians, Bulgarians, and Serbo-Croatians. They were Slavic Pagans. It was a Polytheistic religion whose g ods tended to personify natural forces. Perun was the god of lightning and thunder. The Primary Chronical also tells us that in the middle of the 9th century, the Rus were kicked out of Novgorod just before 862. Then, fighting broke out between Slavs and Finns in Novgorod. In 862, the Slavs and Finns invited the Rus back to be peace keepers. Led by Rurik the Varangian, the Rus were invited back and they supposedly came back (according to the Primary Chronicle which some people take as myth). Some believe they came back with military force and were able to defeat the Slavs and Finns. • Novgorod • Rurik Dynasty (862-1598); The Rurkids • Romanov Dynasty (1613-1917) • Knyaz (Prince) • Boyar (Lower members of nobility) • Aristocracy, nobility • Muzhik (peasant) (Serfdom comes in 15th century) Rurik was very successful and established the first dynasty to rule over Russia. The Rurik Dynasty managed to maintain some power until 1598 - longstanding and important dynasty. There was a period without a dynasty between the Ru rik Dynasty and the Romanov Dynasty. Rurik's title was Great Lord or Great Prince and below him were a small number of other princes. The Russian word for "lord" or "prince" was Knyaz. Rurik was a Knyaz. Below the Knyaz were Boyars - they were all members of the aristocracy. Always only a small number of nobility in Russian history. The vast majority of the population in Russian history are Muzhik or peasants. 882 CE (date change!): Founding of Kievan Rus • Oleg the Varangian • Kiev • Kievan Rus (exists until Mongol takeover in 1240) • Veche The successor to Rurik was Oleg the Varangian in 882. He also founded the first important Russian state - Kievan Rus. He expanded Novgorod Power to in clude Kiev which created the state of Kievan Rus. He used members of his family to rule over parts of this new state. The most important city in Kievan Rus was Kiev. The second most important state in early Kievan Rus was Novgorod (LOOK UP BOTH KIEV AND NOVGOROD ON MAP) The Veche was the town assembly in which citizens of the aristocracy around that city would gather to discuss legislation. Had slight democratic features. They began looking for other territories to expand into. They became interested in territories in the Byzantine Empire which was beginning to weaken. Because of their interest in their interest, the leaders of Kievan Rus were introduced to Orthodoxy. Eventually, Orthodoxy became the official religion of Kievan Rus. Vladimir the Great, ruled 980 to 1015 • Originally practiced paganism • Converted to Orthodoxy in 988 (Orthodoxy thus becomes official religion of Kievan Rus) • Citizens of Kiev converted • Citizens of Novgorod resisted Vladimir tried to use religion as a glue to hold together his Kievan Rus state that was revolting. He tried to appeal to the paganism of the tribes (even built a temple in Kiev), but he still had threats to his power. So, he went looking for the best religion to hold together Kievan Rus. He sent people all over the world to find the best religion. They decided against Judaism because the Jews lost their state. Islam wasn't because in Islam, alcohol is forbidden. When Vl adimir the great heard that Muslims forbade alcohol he said "Drinking is the joy of all Rus. We could not exist without that pleasure" - the Primary Chronicle. They decided on Orthodoxy after visiting the Hagea Sofia. Historians don't all agree that this actually happened, but they agree that Vladimir did indeed adopt Orthodoxy as the religion of Kievan Rus. He converted and made it the official religion of Kievan Rus in 988. He was allowed to marry the sister of the Byzantine emperor after his conversion. He did have improved relations with the Byzantine empire now, but he told the people in his state "convert or die." Kiev quickly converted. Novgorod citizens weren't interested and resisted. Many were killed by Vlad's troops. His goal of using religion to hold together this state didn't quite pan out. As he was approaching death, he divided the state among his sons. The brothers started fighting and killing each other (there were a lot of them). Eventually, one son emerged more powerful - Jaroslav the Wise. Jaroslav the Wise, ruled from 1035-1054 • First codification of Russian law. First Russian leader to write down the laws of the land in the Russkaya Pravda (direct translation: Russian Truth: Sometimes called Russian Justice) • No equality before (Muz hik punished more harshly than knyaz or boyar) • Age didn't matter • Leniency for drunken crimes • Crimes of shame worse than crimes of bodily harm Mongol Invasion and Takeover of Kievan Rus Mongol Domination of Kievan Rus, 1240-1480 Thursday, January 21, 2016 9:30 AM • Tartar (another name for Mongols in Russian history) • Genghis Khan, c. 1162 -1227 • Mongol Empire • Golden Horde • Sarai • Full-Scale invasion, 1237-1240 • Batu Khan, lived 1207-1255 Tartar is another name for Mongol in Russian history. Mongol Domination of Kievan Rus was from 1240- 1480 CE. The Mongols had the largest CONTIGUOUS empire in history . The most infamous leaders of the Mongols was Genghis Khan who lived around 1162 until 1227. He built the Mongol Empire with a huge army on horseback and also in part through the emplo yment of captured Chinese engineers. Genghis Khan and his army were known to be ruthless. Genghis Khan divided his empire into sections and gave his sons and grandsons control of different parts of his divided empire. Take particular note (on the map) of the Khanate of the Golden Horde because it came to include Kievan Rus. It wasn't formally part of the Golden Horde, but it was a vassal state. The capital city of the Golden Horde (horde meaning temple or domicile) was Sarai. There were actually two Sarais: Old and New Sarai about 100 miles apart strategically located between Black Sea and Caspian Sea. Great location for trade routes. It also helped the Golden Horde to maintain control over the territory of Kievan Rus. The Mongol takeover of Kievan Rus ended in 1240 because that's when they were able to gain control over Kiev which was the capital of Kievan Rus. The leader of this full -scale invasion was Batu Khan (1207 -1255) who was one of the grandsons of Genghis Khan. He had a large, well -trained army as well as Chinese engineers who built siege engines that allowed the Mongols to storm fortifications of the Kievan Rus cities. These Chinese engineers were prisoners of war. This brought some Chinese civilization into Russian History. The Russians watched and learned from the Chinese engineers. They used some of their techniques for the building of architectural works and siege machines. Exam questions: WRITE WHETHER RUSSIAN HISTORY IS A MIX OF DIFF CIVILIZATIONS OR IS IT SIMPLY ASIATIC OR EUROPEAN? • Novgorod • Principalities • Vassal State • Knyaz, boyar, Rurik Dynasty • Taxes and Tribute • Yam System (Mongol "Pony Express") The Mongols destroyed a lot of Kievan Rus including killing lots of peoples and burning buildings (churches, homes, farms), but they didn't take over the gov't. They made it a vassal state that was subservient to the Golden Horde. The separate principalities of Kievan Rus each ha d a Knyaz ruling over it. Most were members of the Rurik dynasty and most were also boyars (Russian aristocrats). The Mongols kept this old order of Kievan Rus. They left most of the same Knyazi in charge only if they showed loyalty and obedience to the Mo ngol overlords. Those who didn't were removed from power and killed. Populations who resisted the Mongols were also often killed as well. All principalities under Mongol rule had to pay taxes to show loyalty and obedience. Wealth is why the Mongols wanted Kievan Rus in the first place. Taxes were sometimes paid in money (coins of gold or silver), food, or military support using peasants, or muzhik. Later, the Knyazi were allowed to collect the taxes for the Mongols. The Mongols had efficient systems for mai ntaining control over the princes and territories. They established the first postal system in Kievan Rus, all operated on horseback (Yam System). Posts were set up at various points throughout Kievan Rus and the Golden Horde to pass correspondence. The po sts had food for the riders and horses, places for them to rest, for instance. This system continued on after the Mongols left. • Baskaki: Military governors • Darugi: Civilian governors • Census • Orthodox Church • Möngke-Temür (Golden Horde ruler in 1267) • Iarlyk; 1267 iarlyk • Immunity from taxes The Mongols set up an administration. Baskaki (military governors) were placed where the Knyazi weren't loyal or were even rebellious. The Darugi (civilian governors) were placed where there was no disloyalty, so they didn’t need a military background. There was a dual system of administration. These governors collected taxes and were in charge of keeping order. They also developed an effective system for collecting taxes and deciding how much to collect. They creat ed a Census (system of counting people and their property). They used the Base Ten counting system (look up later). They counted people, animals, farms, forests, orchards. They counted anything that could be taxed. Peasants who couldn't pay would pay with their labor. This Census was learned by the Mongols from the Chinese, another example of mixing of cultures in Russia. The Mongols gave the Orthodox Church a special tax break. In 1267(Batu Khan had died at this point) the ruler was Möngke-Temür, and he issued a iarlyk which was a gov't decree from a Mongol ruler. It gave the Ortho Church in Kievan Rus immunity from taxes. In return, the Mongols wanted the Ortho Church to show loyalty to the Golden Horde. The Mongols were very tolerant toward different r eligions, and they saw the Ortho Church as a possible pillar in Kievan Rus. The Ortho Church got richer during the period of Mongol Empire. • Muscovy • Moscow (city founded 1147; became center of Ortho Church in 1322) • Prince Ivan I (Prince of Muscovy, 1325 -1341 • Principality of Tver (1327 Tver Rebellion) • Muscovy iarlyk (c. 1327) • Great Standoff at the Ugra River, 1480 • Prince Ivan III (also called Ivan the Great), ruled 1462 -1505 Eventually, the Mongol invasion contributed to the rise of a new Russian state which was Muscovy (also called Grand Principality of Moscow). It was founded around the town of Moscow which was founded in 1147. It was younger than Novgorod and Kiev. 1322, Moscow became center of Ortho Church in Kievan Rus. It was in Kiev before, but moved to Moscow in 1322. The leaders of Moscow were great at gaining favor of the Mongols. Prince Ivan I was the Knyaz of Muscovy and was part of the Rurik Dynasty. He was determined to free Muscovy from the yolk of the Mongols (wanted independence). He looked for ways to win the Mongols' favor to heighten the power of Muscovy. He saw his chance in 1327 becau se that's when the neighboring Principality called the Principality of Tver tried to rebel against the Mongols. Prince Ivan I mobilized some Muscovite forces and helped the Mongols to put down the Tver Rebellion in 1327. This greatly won Muscovy the favor of the Mongols. They were seen as a key ally. They were very appreciative of Prince Ivan I, and showed it by granting Muscovy its own iarlyk around 1327 which granted Muscovy immunity from paying taxes to the Mongols - major gain for Muscovy. Muscovy appreciated what loyalty to the Mongols could earn them. So, Prince Ivan I and his successors worked hard to keep in favor. Eventually, the Muscovites became tax -gatherers for the Mongols. As part of this privilege, the Muscovites got to take a bit off the top for themselves. The Mongols began having internal problems during the late 1300s as rulers began to compete for power. At this time, Muscovy is growing in power and the Golden Horde is going down in power. This allows the Grand Principality to overthro w the Mongols. The last event that led to the end of Mongol domination over the Russians is known as the Great Standoff at the Ugra River in 1480. The Mongols decided to retreat rather than fight. The leader of the Muscovite forces at the Great Standoff wa s Prince Ivan III (Ivan the Great) who was also a prince of Muscovy. He came into power in 1462 until 1505. He's called Ivan the Great because he made very important changes to the Russian state that laid the foundation for a stronger and much larger Russi an state, what became Imperial Russia during the 1800s. Some historians argue that he was an autocrat. He listened less to the other aristocrats than did some of the other leaders before them. People who argue he was an autocrat also point to the fact that he introduced the term Tsar (Czar) to Russian history. It's the Russian equivalent to Caesar. Caesar was used in the Roman Empire (Rome) first and then in the Byzantine Empire (Constantinople aka second Rome). Ivan the Great called himself Czar because he wanted Muscovy to be the third Rome. Byzantine Empire was over in 1453 when it was taken over by the Ottomans, before Ivan the Great came to power. He also took the double headed eagle from the Byzantine Empire. Another mixture of civilizations. Ivan the Great and Ivan the Terrible Thursday, January 21, 2016 12:24 PM Ivan the Great (also called Ivan III), ruled 1462 -1505 • Autocracy: Did it exist in Russia? • Tsar (from Caesar) • Double-headed eagle • Principality of Novgorod • Principality of Lithuania • Rebuilding of Kremlin Double-headed eagle symbolism - Tsar belonging to both Secular and Divine world or the gov't protecting its land by looking East and West. Ivan the Great tripled the size of Muscovy. He took over the Principalities of Novgorod and Lithuania. As part of his efforts to make Muscovy the third Rome and Moscow the second Jerusalem, he spent a lot of money on rebuilding, including the Kremlin which means "fortress within the city." There were other Kremlins, but Moscow's is the most famous. He rein forced its walls, built a palace inside, and three churches within it. He hired Italian architects for this (more cultural mixing). • Sudebnik of 1497 • Russkaya Pravda • Serfdom • St. George's Day (November 26) • Full Serfdom in 1597 • Emancipation of Serfs 1861 "A Peasant Leaving on St. George's Day," by Sergei V. Ivanov (1864 -1910) He also created the Sudebnik of 1497. It was an up -to-date list of laws and legal procedures of Muscovy. It replaced the document by Yaroslav the Wise. Do autocrats need law? "If you're caught stealing for the 1st time, you are publically flogged. 2nd time, you're killed." AL SO talked about serfdom. Serfdom was a form of bonded labor that tied serfs to their master. Serfs couldn't leave that land, even after their master died. Serfdom wasn't spread throughout Russia until much later. In the Sudebnik, the peasants or Muzhiki, weren't fully tied to the land in 1497 - every year for one week before and after St. George's day, peasants could choose to leave their master's land and choose somewhere else to live. St. George's day was on November 26 which was very cold in Russia and m ade it difficult for the peasants to do this. Full Serfdom came to Muscovy in 1597 and lasts until the Emancipation of 1861. Ivan the Terrible (Ivan IV) ruled 1547-1584 • Tsar • Oprichnina (Oprichniky), 1565 -1572 • Streltsy He continued the use of the title Tsar and the use of the Double -Headed Eagle. He's very famous for his love of torture and his cruelty. He created the Oprichnina (Oprichin iky) m. It was a policy from 1565- 1572. It was put in place to destroy all opposition to Ivan the Terrible, specifically from the Nobles (boyars and knyazi) who wanted power for themselves. This policy created a secret political police to spy on, torture, and kill his enemies. The boyars didn't like the Oprichnina or the Oprichniky. They got together and ordered Ivan the Terrible to stop it, so he did in part because of the Boyars and in part because it was creating more trouble than he needed. He also created the Strelsty, which were special guards for him. He gave them firearms. Ivan the Terrible was a very devout Ortho believer. He was also very successful as a leader and further expanded the borders of Muscovy. • Kazan (defeated 1552) • St. Basil's Cathedral, first opened 1561 • Postnik Yakovlev, architect/builder of St. Basil's Cathedral He took Kazan and greatly expanded the power of Muscovy after that defeat in 1552. He built St. Basil's Cathedral to celebrate the victory over Kazan. He saw that v ictory as a sign of divinity. After Ivan the Terrible died, he was followed by Fyodor I, ruled 1584 -1598. He was the son of Ivan the Terrible and also the last Rurikid leader.
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