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Notes for the week

by: Veronica Morgan

Notes for the week NTDT 10003

Veronica Morgan
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

Theses notes cover whats going to be on the next exam
Contemporary Nutrition Concerns
Dr. Dority
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Contemporary Nutrition Concerns

Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Veronica Morgan on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTDT 10003 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Dority in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Nutrition Concerns in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Texas Christian University.

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Date Created: 03/02/16
Lecture 2/29/16­3/2/16 Diabetes a Global Perspective - 194 million people with diabetes worldwide - Ranks as the 4  or 5  leading cause of death in most developed countries - Becoming epidemic in many developing and newly industrialized nations - Certain to be one of the most challenging health problems in the 21  centuryt - Comparing 2003 to 2025  - 2003 = 194 million; 2025 = 333 million - IGT = impaired glucose tolerance  - 2003 prediabetes (IGT) and diabetes = 314 million people  - 2025 prediabetes (IGT) and diabetes = 472 million people  Artificial Sweeteners  - 1879 first artificial sweetener discovered  - 5 sweeteners approved in US for use (if its an additive ie put in soda) - 1. Acesulfame­K – sunnet / sweet one  - 2. Aspartame  - 3. Neotame - 4. Saccharin - 5. Sucralose  - Stevia = herbal sweetener, not approved as food additive  - If sweetener herb based, doesn’t need approval (supplement) - Takes about 10­15 years to approve new things for additives - For new herbal supplement, notify FDA 75 days before selling  Aspartame  ­ equal  - Made of two amino acids: phenylaline, aspartic acid  - Broken down and digested by body - More than 200 studies show safety - Placebo studies showed same side effects - People born with PKU need to avoid aspartame - FDA approved for pregnant women - Margin of safety 1/100 of amount of safe material  - FDA Acceptable Daily Intake = 50 mg/kg of body weight Saccharin – sweet and low   Oldest artificial sweetener  Studies showed bladder cancer in rats –  Given the amount of saccharin equal to 850 cans of soft drinks a day!  No link shown in humans  ? Safety during pregnancy – crosses the placenta Sucralose – Splenda - Manufactured by replacing 3 hydroxyl groups on the sugar molecule with chlorine - Chlorine prevent sucralose from being metabolized for energy  - Altered so body cant digest in and eliminates it - Measures one for one with sugar – same amount sweetness  - Introduced fairly recently - Margin much lower than compared to aspartame because newer  Stevia and / or truvia  - Herb in the chrysanthemum family - First recorded in 1887 - Extract approved by FDA in 2008 (whole leaf has not been approved) 3/2/16 Macronutrients – Lipids  Classification of Lipids 1. Triglycerides  - 95% of lipids in our diets - Fats and oils  2. Phospholipids  - Lecithin is the most common  3. Sterols  - Cholesterol is the most common  Functions of fat in the body – necessary  - Concentrated form of calories - Serves as an energy reserve - Major component of cell membrane - Insulate the body – people in cold climates have higher body fat over all  - Provide padding and protection to vital organs - Nourishes skin and hair  Functions of fat in foods - Provides calories - Provides satiety = felling of fullness or satisfaction after meals - Carry fat­soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids - Contribute aroma and flavor  Triglycerol = glycerol plus three fatty acids What are fatty acids? - Chains of carbon and hydrogen - Contain an acid group (COOH) - Chain length = number of carbon atoms hooked together - Short chain FA = soluble in water - Long chain FA = insoluble in water; take effort for body to process  - Saturation = number of hydrogen atoms in a fatty acid  - Saturated fatty acid is fully loaded with hydrogen atoms  - Saturated is hard solid at room temperature - Not vulnerable because no double bond  - Unsaturated fatty acid has a point of unsaturation - Monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) = one point of unsaturation - Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) = two or more points of unsaturation  The truth about trans fats - Both saturated fat and trans fat boost levels of LDL - In large amounts, trans fat may lower HDL - Trans fats contribute 2.6% of total calories but saturated fats contribute 12% of  total calories - Evidence does not warrant going back to foods that have more saturated fat  (butter) - Need to keep the intake of total saturated and trans fats to a minimum  - Made by adding hydrogen to unsaturated – looks like saturated but healthier  Essential fatty acids - The human body can synthesize all the fatty acids it needs from CHO, PRO, and  FAT except two - Linoleic acid –omega 6, PUFA, found in vegetable oils - Linolenic acid – omega 3, PUFA, found in fish oil and flax seeds  Healthy benefits of Omega – 3 FA - Lower blood cholesterol and triglycerides - Slower clot­forming rates in blood veins  - 2 types of omega ­3: EPA and DHA - Enhanced defenses against cancer - Reduced inflammation in arthritis and asthma sufferers 


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