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PYS 150 Ch6 Lecture & Textbook Notes

by: Lorelei Wong

PYS 150 Ch6 Lecture & Textbook Notes PSY 150A1

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Psychlogy > PSY 150A1 > PYS 150 Ch6 Lecture Textbook Notes
Lorelei Wong
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Ch6 Lecture & Textbook Notes
Structure of Mind & Behavior
Dr. Adam Lazarewicz
Class Notes
Pyschology, Structure of Mind & Behavior, learning
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorelei Wong on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Adam Lazarewicz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Structure of Mind & Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 03/02/16
PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz Lecture Notes Chapter 6: Learning  Learning – due to experience, a lasting change in thought or behavior o Basis of adaptability  Conditioning – leaning associations between events o 2 types  Classical  Operant  Classical conditioning o Classical conditioning – stimulus A causes an automatic reaction, when pairing stimulus B with stimulus A over time, stimulus B will have the same response as A o ***These will be on test***  Unconditioned stimulus (US) – automatically will prompt a response  Unconditioned response (UR) – automatic response to a stimulus  Conditioned stimulus (CS) – conditioned stimulus from a neutral state that will eventually prompt a response  Conditioned response (CR) – learned response to CS o Unconditioned = automatic Conditioned = learned o Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)  Russian physiologist (digestion)  Dogs salivate at sight of food dish, person who brings food, etc.  Began studying learning (pre-behaviorist)  Ex: experiment training dogs with food & a tuning fork  Unconditioned stimulus: food  Unconditioned response: salivate  Conditioned stimulus: tuning fork tone  Conditioned response: salivate when hearing tone o Extinction – ridding of a CR by repeatedly presenting a CS without the US  CS no longer is a good indicator of US  CR are new learnings, so they won’t be forgotten with extinction, they just won’t be useful or hold the same reliability  Reacquisition – re-pairing CS and CR after elimination by making CS a good indicator of US again  Reacquisition happens faster than the original conditioning took to learn o Stimulus generalization – CR can be elicited by stimuli similar to CS, but not identical  Ex: a different pitched tuning fork could get the same salivating response from the dogs  The more similar it is to the original CS the more CR  Very adaptive o Stimulus discrimination – ability to distinguish between similar CS and only respond to actual CS PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz  Ex: knocking on something is similar to hitting a tuning fork, but wouldn’t get the same CR  Very adaptive as well  Applications of Classical Conditioning o 1. Conditioning attitudes  Attitude – positive/negative evaluation of something  Olson & Fazio (2001): The Pokémon Study  2 other characters appeared (with positive/negative words/images)  After task preference for characters associated with positive stimuli o 2. Conditioning emotions  Conditioned emotional response – response as a CR  Could this create and train phobias?  Little Albert  Can fear be conditioned?  Orphan boy 11 mo. old allowed to play with a white rat; he had no fear of the rat and actually like the rat, but he did fear loud noises  Once a happy association with the rat, experimenters would place rat with the boy then bang loud noises just as he’d go to pet the rat and Albert would start crying o Loud noise: US o Crying because of noise: UR o White rat: CS o Crying because of rat: CR  Eventually Albert became afraid of the rat and developed a generalized fear of other similar objects o Furry dog, rabbit, sealskin coat, one of the experimenter’s dressed as Santa Claus (with white cotton ball beard) o 3. Conditioning biology  Biological preparedness – innate readiness to fear threatening stimuli  Less learning required to condition a fear  Taste aversion – avoidance of food/taste that made you sick at some point or another, classically conditioned o Taste aversion occurs with single paring occurs even if illness is several hours after taste o Garcia & Koelling (1966): studied radiation effects on rats  Drank less water in radiation chamber (plastic bottles) than home cages (glass bottles)  IV: rats drink sugar water, followed by no/mild/strong radiation PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz  DV: amount of sugar water/regular water consumed  Results: 80% sugar water was consumed in rats without radiation, 40% was consumed in rats with mild radiation, and 10% was consumed in rats with strong radiation o 4. Medical uses of classical conditioning  Ader & Cohen (1975): How long does taste aversion last in rats?  Paired sugar water with cyclophosphamide o Drug for organ-transplants  suppress immune system o Side effect = nausea  Taste aversion, then extinction… o But then all the rats started dying! (why???) o The taste of sugar water became associated with a suppressed immune system  Pairing sweet sherbet & adrenaline  boosts immune system o 5. Classical conditioning and therapy  Systematic desensitization – used to treat phobias & fears  Associate a relaxation technique with the presences of feared object/situation  Slowly adjust patient into dealing with those stimuli  Operant conditioning o Operant conditioning – conditioning where behaviors are associated with consequences (rewards & punishments) o Edward Thorndike: puzzle box  Stuffed cat in the box with a lever to open the door and placed food outside box  Cat eventually figured out that the lever would let it out and allow it to get to the food  Cat got faster at doing this behavior the more and more it was put in the box and given freedom & food as its reward for pushing the lever  (“Pull the lever Kronk!”-Yzma)  Law of Effect – rewarding behaviors increases their likelihood to be repeated o B.F. Skinner: (most influential behaviorist?) studied operant conditioning  Skinner Box (aka operant chamber)  Rats learn to pull the lever to get food dispersed  Electric floor, light to signal on, lever, and opening for food (reward)  Would slowly train rats to push down on lever  like how you train a dog  Eventually rats learned that to get food, then push the lever  Ex: humans & a vending machine  How does operant conditioning work? PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz o Shaping – gradually reinforcing a behavior that gets a subject closer and closer to the desired behavior  Ex: training a dog, or training a rat to push lever o Reinforcement – increases the likelihood of performing behavior again  ***Increases behavior every time *** will be on test  Positive reinforcement – desired reinforce after behavior that increases future behavior  Ex: skinner box – food pellet, hypothalamus stimulation  Ex: on humans – attention/approval  Negative reinforcement – unpleasant stimulus removed following a desired behavior  Ex: skinner box – removal of shock  Ex: on humans – aspirin for headache (removes pain), fastening seatbelt to stop obnoxious dinging noise  Positive adds stimulus, negative removes stimulus  Primary & secondary reinforcers  Primary – biological reinforcement such as food and sex  Secondary – conditioned reinforcement such as praise or money  Timing of reinforcement – more immediate = more learning, more delay = less learning  Ex: speeding tickets  much less likely to get speeding tickets in future if pulled over and handed ticket than those who receive it in the mail weeks later o Struggle for self-control  Preference or immediate reinforcement  Often need to delay gratification  Mischel et. Al. (1989)  4-year-old give the choice: small amount of candy now or wait a little without eating it and get a larger amount later  Choosing to wait  social competence, higher achievement in adolescence, better SAT scores o 4 schedules of reinforcement  Continuous reinforcement  faster learning  Partial reinforcement  slower learning, but slower extinction  1. Fixed interval schedule  Set time  reward after behavior  Ex: skinner box o Wait 5 min  push lever & get reward  wait 5 min again  Ex: human o Typical student’s study schedule  studying picks up right before a test o Paychecks  Behavior is slow then picks up right around time of reward  2. Variable interval schedule PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz  Changing time interval  reward after behavior  Ex: skinner box o Lever press rewarded after 2 min, then 6 min, then 4 min, then 10 min, etc.  Ex: humans o Studying for pop quizzes, studies a little more every now and then just in case  Slow but steady behavior  3. Fixed ratio schedule  Set # of behaviors  reward  Ex: skinner box o Push lever 10 times for food  Ex: human o Paid for every x amount of products made o Frequent customer programs  Step wise pattern – consistent then spikes, consistent then spikes  4. Variable ratio schedule  Changing # of behaviors  reward  Ex: skinner box o Food pellet after 6 pushes, then 2 pushes, then 10 pushes, etc.  Ex: human o Slot machine  Highest rate of responding, most resistant to extinction (don’t know when you’ll be reinforced) o Punishment – unpleasant consequence of undesired behavior  Decreases likelihood of behavior in the future  Positive punishment – adding unpleasant stimulus  Negative punishment – taking away pleasant stimulus  Types of higher-level learning o Latent learning – learning not immediately useful, but stored for later use  Cognitive map – mental GPS, spatial layout, map inside brain  Tolman & Honzik (1930)  3 groups of rats ran maze daily (forming cognitive map?)  1. Regularly rewarded at end of maze  2. Never rewarded at end of maze  3. Not rewarded until day 11 of the experiment  Group 2 got slightly better as days went on  Group 1 improved consistently day to day  Group 3 looked like group 2 until day 11 then they looked like group 1 & surpassed them soon after o Insight learning – suddenly understanding something (lightbulb moment)  Wolfgang Kohler – insight learning in chimpanzees PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz  Hung or placed banana out of reach & provided chimps with different tools for them to use creatively to get the food o Observational learning – learning by watching others (imitation) o Mirror neurons – neurons that fire when a person is performing certain actions or when observing someone else do those same actions  Early 90’s Italy  Electrodes  single neuron in monkey’s motor cortex  Mysteriously fired, even when monkey wasn’t moving  Why do we have them?  1. Understanding others o Recreate others’ experiences  understand goals, predict behavior o Fogassi et al. (2005)  Bring apple to mouth vs. put in cup  different mirror system  We incorporate others’ goals when creating mirrored recreations  2. Mimicry o Ability to copy others  Ideas, languages, social connections, etc.  3. Empathy o Recreating others’ physical & emotional states o Self-reported empathy positively correlated (when one increases so does the other) with mirror system activity (both motor & emotional)  Women: more active mirror systems  4. Self-awareness/consciousness (currently being researched-new idea) o Can mirror neurons be turned inward?  Consciousness = mirrored representation of earlier neural activity PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz Textbook Notes  Spontaneous recovery – sudden reemergence of a previously extinct conditioned response  Behavior modification – technique of increasing desired behaviors and decreasing undesired behaviors  Cognitive learning theory – focused on thought processes underlying learning abilities


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