BIOL 5600 Notes 2/16/16
BIOL 5600 Notes 2/16/16 BIOL 5600
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by LaurenC on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 5600 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Mendonća in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Biomedical physiology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
BIOL 5600 2-16-16 Telencephalon/Cerebral cortex External gray –lobes White matter- tracts -Commissural tracts -Sexually dimorphic tracts (larger in females than males) -Association tracts -Projection tracts> projecting up, gathering information from the high portion of the brain and sending it down *Specific synapses, integration, association areas Internal Gray -Made up of basal nuclei (old name is basal ganglia… this name is not accurate) >They tweak motor movements >They function in the facilitation or inhibition of conscious motor commands o Parkinson’s: is a condition where you have death/dysfunction of cells in basal nuclei -These cells secret dopamine -So you’re not getting proper secretion of dopamine -You can’t steady a movement -You can control movements o Huntington’s chorea: -You have uncontrollable flailing of conscious skeletal commands -The commands cannot be stopped correcting -Dysfunction of these nuclei Diencephalon -“Core of the mushroom” -Major portions are: >Thalamus >Hypothalamus -Lots of info coming in and out -Very dense with nuclei o Thalamus -THE relay center -All incoming sensory information synapses (Except olfactory) -Integration center that will channel integration information to the right areas -All cortical commands synapse here -Sends motor commands to right areas *The major nucleus of the thalamus (looks like a seahorse) >An area of memory -Argument whether or not it’s short or long term memory that resides here -Helps with association by accessing a memory -Lots of cross talk, lots of interneurons o Hypothalamus -THE visceral center -The control center for the autonomic nervous system -Highest regulatory point of endocrine system, which also has an important affect on glandular function, metabolism, etc. -Interaction here between the autonomic and endocrine systems -Has a lot of nuclei that control different body functions and behaviors -Specific nuclei involved in: >Circadian clock >Temp regulation >Thirst center >Hunger/ Satiety >Sexual behavior -Male -Female >Maternal behavior >Aggression >Aversion to new stimuli Limbic system: -Series of nuclei that span the thalamus and hypothalamus -Known as our emotional brain -It overlay/integrates an emotional context in sensory information coming in -Adds anger, fear, love, etc. -Sometimes you feel these emotions viscerally because of the close association with the autonomic nervous system and this part of the brain o Psychosomatic -Depression >When under stress, neurotransmitters begin producing in odd relations to each other >Neurotransmitters involved: NE= norepinephrine DA= dopamine 5-HT= Serotonin Schizophrenia -Excess of dopamine in limbic system -Treated with a drug that blocks dopamine receptors Depression -Generally too little epinephrine, serotonin, or both -Hard to treat because of the THREE neurotransmitters involved >Some people use Prozac -Known as an SSRI -A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor -It blocks the deactivation/ removal of serotonin Ex. Situation: serotonin is removed from the synapse by a reuptake mechanism and can get back into the pre or postsynaptic neuron -The drug increases serotonin concentration/ amount of serotonin and the amount of time/ increases the time that it is at the synapse All above was diencephalon Midbrain o Motor: -One of the major nucleuses is the tectum the top or ceiling Responsible for neck or eye movements depending on the group of nuclei -The start of the tectospinal tract -Red nucleus >Start of the rubrospinal tracts -Responsible for muscle coordination of complex motor commands -There are other nuclei that aren’t important Pons= bridge -Has transverse tracts, which makes it different -These tracts connect the ascending and descending tracts to the cerebellum (mini brain) >Has integration centers that have things to do with muscle coordination >somatotopic Medulla Oblongata -Has a lot of ascending and descending tracts -Has a series of important nuclei >The reticular formation - A series of nuclei -Origin of reticulospinal tract -Most of these are in the medulla; some go up into the pons -Vestibular nuclear >Origin of vestibulospinal tract >Response to maintain equilibrium, not sense of, unconscious o Sensory: -Nucleus gracillus >Goes to fasciculi gracillus -Nucleus cuneatus >Goes to fasciculi cueatus >Fine touch, pressure, and proprioception -Other nuclei in medulla: >Cardiac center >Vasomotor center >Respiratory center -The lower parts of your brain are hat keeps you “alive” (as a vegetable) >You can maintain heart rate, blood pressure Cerebellum: -Mini cerebrum -Has external gray with gyri and sulci and with a somatotopic map on these gyri -Has two hemispheres (right and left) -Has white matter underlying the external gray -These are the transverse tracts coming in from the pons -Has an internal gray -Subconscious control of your skeletal muscle movements >Functions in muscle coordination >Monitors upper brain commands, sees what has changed in the meantime, intercedes to make a coordinated response >Gets “real time” information >Getting proprioception and integrating it and overlaying/ issuing overriding motor commands >More up to date info Meninges -The covering of CNS -Three layers 1) The outer Dura mater (Latin for tough mother) -Made out of dense Con. Tis. -Protective covering 2) Arachnoid Layer -Spider web delicate layer 3) Pia mater (Latin for delicate mother) -Very thin delicate layer -There are spaces between layers -The space between the spinal chord and the Dura mater is called the epidural space >Has blood vessels, lymph vessels, and fat -The space between the Dura mater and the arachnoid layer is the subdural space (under Dura) >Has serous fluid -The space between the arachnoid layer and the pia mater is the subarachnoid space (under arachnoid) >A wide space has CSF -At the brain, it’s a little different. The Dura mater has two parts to it. One part is stuck to your skull bones and the other continues away, there are blood sinuses inserted to prevent build up of CSF