History 150: Exam 3 notes
History 150: Exam 3 notes 150
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Rusnak on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 150 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Malone in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
3/2/16: Imperialism Imperialism: 18701914 . ***test questions*** Statistics of European imperial expansion: o Europeans will expand their control over peoples across the globe. Europeans acquired over 10 million square miles of territory in Africa and Asia containing 150 million people. Africa. o The scramble for Africa: 1870 11% of the continent was under European control. 1914 A little over 90% of the continent was under European control. No more than 7 countries obtained Africa. Liberia and Ethiopia were independent. o Motives for imperial expansion: (1) Economic. The major motive innovation. Colonies were essential to economic wellbeing. Colonies will provide markets for the economy. o Provide raw material and resources. o Jules Ferry 1890: “Colonial policy is the child of the Industrial Revolution…the European consumergoods market is saturated…New consumer markets will have to be created in other parts of the world.” (2) Nationalism. Every veil people has established colonial power. Colonies are a reflection of power, status and strong standing in the world. o Status of the nation determined by how big the empire was. Every empire will compete against the other. o Empire envy. Must have a bigger empire than their enemy. Great Britain: o Added 5.2 million miles containing 80 million people to its existing imperial possession. o A little over 14 million square miles by the Eve of WWI. (3) The European ‘civilizing’ mission. Believed in racial and cultural superiority in the west. Racism was the center of imperialism. o Racial hierarchy. Western culture was the best. 3/2/16: Imperialism o It was a duty and obligation to bring inferior cultures into western culture. “The most potent factor is this truly wonderful restriction of a whole people, so visibly taking place before the eyes of the present generation is unquestionably the railway system of the country.” The Conquest of Africa: The Tools of Empire. 1) Quinine and Malaria. o African strain of malaria in the center of Africa was lethal to Europeans. o West Africa was the “White man’s grave.” Branch of the Cinchona Tree was used as the source of quinine. Made it safer for Europeans living in tropical areas. It was the only antimalaria drug used before the 1940s. 2) Ironhulled steamboats. o Movement of traders, missionaries and explores. 3) European weapons. o Most significant improvement. o Especially the maxim gun. A machine gun invented by Hiriam Maxim in the early 1880s. Fired 500 bullets a minute. Critical in colonial battles and conquest of territories. o 1898: The Battle of Omdurman in the Sudan. British: o 20,000 soldiers. o Fought with 20 maxim guns. o Only 48 killed. Sudan: o 50,000 soldiers. o Fought with spears and singleshop muskets. o 11,000 killed. Only took a couple of hours. Victory was crucial to territory acquisition in Africa.
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