Week 5; Day 9 + 10 Notes
Week 5; Day 9 + 10 Notes Theatre 152
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca LeBoeuf on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Theatre 152 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Bryan Vandevender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Non Western Theatre in Theatre at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Week 5 2/29/2016 Origins Of Sakuntala: ● The Recognition of Sakuntala is considered a masterpiece of Sanskrit Drama. ● Kalidasa’s reputation is based on six surviving works. Little it know of his life. ● The story of Sakuntala is based on a single episode from the Mahabharata the great tale of the Bharata dynasty. Connections To The Mahabharata: ● In Hindu mythology, Shakuntala is considered to be the mother of Bharata and the wife of King Dushyanta who was the found of the Paurav Dynasty. ● Origins of the Kuru dynasty starts with Bharata. ● Bharata had nine sons and three wives. Sakuntala: ● Play in 7 acts witharologue ● Metatheatre (IMPORTANT): theatre about theatre or theatre about the making process of theatre. ● It has been said that Sakuntala is the history of a development. ○ Flower into a fruit. ○ Earth into heaven. ○ Matter into spirit. ○ There are two unions in the play (the two most important). ■ Earlier union of the first act based in an earthly, unstable beauty. ■ Higher union of heavenly bliss in the last act. ● Drama was not meant to deal with a specific character or passion but for translating the whole subject from one world to another. To elevate love from a physical beauty to a moral beauty. ● Representational (IMPORTANT) : aims to replicate real life and to represent the world as it is. ● Presentational (IMPORTANT) : something heightened and directed towards the audience. More directed towards the audience. Looking at the audience when giving lines. Movement/gestures are used for the audience's benefit. ● Very common in sanskrit drama to not have a lot of scenery. There are only a few things placed on the stage; typically with a black curtain in the back. Greetings From China! Early Chinese Theatre And Performance. Contributions: ● The Great Wall Of China: ○ Construction began in the 5th Century BCE and continues for centuries. It is over 5,000 miles long, but not according to Wikipedia. It is also visible from space (maybe). ● Early Chinese Culture gave us gunpowder, fireworks, and printing. Major Religious Practices: ● Buddhism. ● Taoism. ● Confucianism. Tenets Of Buddhism: ● Four Noble Truths: ○ 1. Suffering. ○ 2. Causing of suffering. ○ 3. Cessation of suffering. ○ 4. Path that leads to cessation. ● Karma: consequence for good or bad actions. The consequences of this life determine the circumstances of the next. ● Some denominations of Buddhism believe that there is no divine salvation or forgiveness for one’s karma. Other denomination believe that hearing or reciting religious texts can expunge negative jarm. ● Cycle of Rebirth: 6 planes to which we are reborn gods, demigods, humans, animals, ghosts, and hell. ● Nirvana: supreme state free from suffering that breaks the cycle of rebirth. Free from all worldly concerns. Taoism: ● Living in harmony with tao (way/path/principle). ● Tao denotes both the source of, and the force behind, everything that exists. ● Tends to emphasize balance (yin and yang), action through nonaction (wuwei), naturalness, simplicity, spontaneity. ● Three Treasures: compassion, moderation, humility. Confucianism : ● Focuses on the practical, especially the importance of family. ● Less emphasis on god's or the notion of an afterlife. ● Does not exalt faithfulness to divine will or higher law. ● Humans beings are teachable, improvable, and perfectible through personal and communal endeavor, especially self cultivation and selfcreation. ● Focuses on the cultivation of virtue and the maintenance of ethics. Storytellers, Acrobats, Puppetry, Dancers And Jesters: ● China has a long tradition of theatrical and performing arts dating back from 1,000 BCE. Two Early Traditions: ● Shadow Plays (Puppetry): 100 BCE Present. ● Court/Temple Plays Of The Han, Tang, Yuan, And Ming Dynasties: 6001600 CE. Shadow Puppetry: ● Begins as a sacred tradition; performed at weddings and funerals. ● Not used for commercial entertainment anymore; more of that happened in the past than it does now. ● Puppets are made from rawhide; like bones that are given to dogs. 3/2/2016 Han Dynasty (200 BCE200 CE): ● Sacred Temple/Court Performances. ● Developed Alongside Commercial Enterprises. The Pear Garden School: ● Founded to train actors. ● A student of the Pear Garden School in China = a Thespian in Western Tradition. ● More than 11,000 students in the Pear Garden at one time. ● Men and women attended, but mostly men. Yuan Dynasty (12001400): ● A golden age of theatrical practice: over 500 playwrights working. ● 6 Genres Of Yuan Drama: ○ Love stories. ○ Religious & Supernatural. ○ Historical. ○ Domestic (family and things that happen in the household). ○ Crime. ○ Bandit/Hero (Bandit= not necessarily a villain/real bandit, but a bandit hero; someone who steals something for a good cause). ● Sources: ○ Myth. ○ History. ○ Contemporary Events (current events). ● Depict Confucian Values: ○ Devotion to family. ○ Devotion to work. ○ Devotion to duty. ● Deal in stories of poetic justice (Refers to a consequence that is befitting of a particular crime. A killer kills people in a certain way, so someone in return kills that killer in the same way they killed the people). Staging Of Yuan Drama: ● Actorcentered witsung dialogue. ● Minimal scenic design. ● Lavish costumes/makeup. Symbolism In Makeup/Masks: ● White = Villain/Treachery. ● Black = Courage. ● Red = Loyalty. ● Gold = Gods. ● Green = Demon Spirits. Injustice Done To Dou E By Guan Hanqing: ● Early 14th Century. ● Based on a reallife murder trial. ● Young widow is accused of killing her husband. ● The women is hung. ● The father of the women becomes a judge. ● The women and trial who accused her/said she was guilty were then punished when she came back as a spirit. ● The women accused stated that injustice will be shown by dripping blood that never hits the ground, snow in June, and a drought. The Circle Of Chalk By Li Sing Dao: ● 14th Century. ● Notably adapted by Bertolt Brecht as The Caucasian Chalk Circle (1944). ● About a young girl who was sold into a house of prostitution after her father death. ● A wealthy tax collector takes her in as her second wife. ● She gives him a son. ● The first wife accuses the husband of adultery and kills him. Peony Pavilion By Tang Xianzu: ● Written circa 1600. ● Produced during the Ming Dynasty (late 14th century to mid 17th century). ● Take 18 hours to perform. ● Loves a man who she has only see in a dream. ● The man then appears in real life and visits her grave. ● She is then resurrected. Elements Of Chinese Theatre: ● Music: singing, chanting, instruments. ● Movement : dance and gestures. ● Acrobatics: tumbling and martial arts. ● Costumes : masks and makeup. ● Staging: scenery, props, and theatre spaces. Instruments ● Erhu: 2 strings. ● Ruan: 4 strings. ● Tung: hammer dulcimer. ● Pipa: lute. ● Dizi: flute. ● Percussion: drums, gongs, and cymbals. Music: ● Relationship Of Poetry And Lyrics To Music: ○ In traditional Chinese theatre, the musicians were located on stage (before 1949) when enabled them to react to that actor’s movements. ○ In 1949, Chinese theatres adopted more of a western theatre space which included an orchestra pit for musicians. ● The Music Was Considered As A Combination Of Two Musical Styles: ○ Erhuang (erwang). ○ Xipi (shi pie). ● The combination of these two are defined as metrical arrangements of ban (the accented) and yan ( the unaccented) beat within the measure. When the musicians know this time signature. they are better able to play in such a way as to reinforce. ● Singing is used to indicate human emotions and psychological reactions, melodramatically. ● Pitch And Volume Alone With Enunciation To Create Character: ○ The anrole in a high falsetto. ○ The sheng role in a tenore robusto. ○ The ing role with a thunderous quality. Movement: ● Traditional Dance: ○ “Dance was fundamental to court entertainments, public ceremonies, and temple rituals.” ○ The combination of poetry, song, music, and movement in these traditional dances had to be synchronized. ● Hand Gestures And Accepted Character Movements: ○ Foot movements and pace. ○ Leg movements. ○ Hand and finger movements. ● Hand Gestures: ○ Hand gesture used as expressive mime techniques where even simple gestures became visually attractive interpolations. ○ Pointing as a gesture when done in relationship with the eyes and head movement can mean many things, love hate, and accusation. ● Sleeve Gestures: ○ The long sleeves on the costumes are considered extensions of the hands and help accentuate the movements. ○ Represent wind, air, or water. ● Pheasant Feathers: ○ Used by warriors as part of their costume. ○ Originally used in ritual ceremonies to celebrate the birth of Confucius. ○ Used most effectively by actresses playing an amazon role. ● Beards: ○ Used by more senior characters and can suggest tempestuous natures. ○ Can be stroked in a downward motion. ○ Moved side to side/flicked for effect. ● Acrobatic Movement: ○ Acrobatic training begins in childhood. ○ Martial arts training is used both the inner (breathing and mental control) and outer (physical strength and speed). ○ Acrobatics have been a feature of Chinese theatre since the second century. It used now primarily as an interlude. Costumes: ● Many costumes relate to traditional Chinese characters. ● Embroidery and furs are for characters of higher rank. ● Heavy embroidered satin to represent armor, and pennants or flags on the back represent warriors. Staging: ● Pond seating area has tables and chairs. lowest area in the theatre (most expensive). ● Raised area has benches and are cheaper. ● Balcony above the raised area where women were required to sit until after 1911.
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