New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Lecture Notes from Week 1 material for Exam 3

by: Camille Hizon

Lecture Notes from Week 1 material for Exam 3 ECOL 182R

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Science > ECOL 182R > Lecture Notes from Week 1 material for Exam 3
Camille Hizon
GPA 3.6

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This covers material from lecture that will be on Exam 3. It includes Animal Homeostasis, Oxygen, etc. (slide 38 on) and Nervous Systems and Sensors.
Introductory Biology II
Bonine, Hunter, Martinez
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Introductory Biology II

Popular in Science

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camille Hizon on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ECOL 182R at University of Arizona taught by Bonine, Hunter, Martinez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Science at University of Arizona.

Popular in Science


Reviews for Lecture Notes from Week 1 material for Exam 3


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/02/16
Animal Homeostasis - Oxygen, etc. Cont...   I. Lymph System  A. No red blood cells; therefore not red  B. Drains interstitial spaces  C. Has valves and smooth musculature  D. Empties into thoracic duct at vena cavae   E. Transport system for large hormones and fats into blood stream   F. Filariasis, elephantiasis   II. Local Circulatory System Control  A. Vasodilation or Vasoconstriction  1. Decreased O2 levels with opposite effects on the l​hy?  W 2. Homeostasis ­ maintain​onstant nternal environment   B. Vasodilation typically when   1. Temp ​up  2. [Oxygen] down  3. [CO2] up ​= pH down)  III. Poiseuille’s Law  A. Use to approximate flow in a vessel  B. Small change in radius ​large change in flow rate  IV. Hemodynamics in Vessels  A. Flow depends primarily opressure gradient and resistance  B. ½ ​radius 1/16​the flow   V. How can blood carry even more oxygen?  A. Carrierproteins that bind oxygen and thereby take it out of solution (temporarily)  1. Do endotherms or ectotherms have higher oxygen transport needs?  Why?  VI. Hemoglobin  A. 4 heme + 4 protein chains  B. 98% ​of O2 transported via carrier molecules  C. can carry 4 O2   VII. Hemoglobin Fun Facts  A. Fetal Hemoglobin: gamma chains (not beta) with higher affinity for O2  1. Enhance O2 transfer from mother to fetus  2. Affinity for CO = 200x greater than for O2  B. Antarctic icefish lack pigment  1. low metabolic needs = low metabolism  2. high cardiac output, blood volume  3. large heart  VIII. oxygen dissociation curve  A. Hyperbolic (myoglobin)  B. Sigmoidal ​​hemoglobin) ­ rate of binding changes  C. Hemoglobin ​ cooperativity  1. binding of 1st O2 facilitates more binding  2. oxygenation of 1st heme group increases affinity of other 3 for O2  D. Steep part of oxygen dissociation curve: quickly unload oxygen   E. Unload more oxygen when tissues need more  F. Why does partial pressure of oxygen​ecrease​ith exercise?  Nervous System, Sensors, etc.   I. When reflexes occur, sensory information bypasses the brain   A. Signaltransduction  B. Electricaand chemical signals   C. Effector responds   II. Squid  A. Squid usewater­jet propuls​system for making brief but very fast movements ­  usually whe escaping predator​Between the tentacles of a squid​iphon  through which water can be rapidly expelled bast contractio of the body  wall​uscles ​f the animal. This contraction is ini​ction potentian the  giant axo. Action potentials travel n a larger ax​than a smaller one, and  squid have evolved the giant axon to improve the speed of their escape  response.   B. We study squid giant axon (up to 1 mm) because it is BIG!  C. “Squid axons are important to physiologists, and to the squid”  III. Nervous System  A. Role is to quic​ransmit informatio​and signals  B. Evolved to also be important​earning and memory   C. Works via combination chemical ​nd electrica​ignaling  IV. Typical Neuron:   A. (cell body, terminal, axon) (afferent, efferent)  V. Knee­jerk Reflex  A. Antagonistic Muscle Pair   B. Role of Spinal Cord  C. Monosynapse  D. Polysynapse   1. Afferent​in)  2. Interneuron)  3. (Brain)  4. Efferent(out)   E. Steps:  1. A hammer tap stretches the tendon in the knee, stretching a receptor in  the extensor muscle  2. A stretch receptor fires an action potential  3. In a monosynaptic pathway, the sensory neuron synapses with a motor  neuron in the ventral horn of the spinal cord.  4. The motor neuron conducts an action potential to the extensor muscle,  causing contraction  5. In the polysynaptic pathway, an action potential travels from the sensory  neuron via a spinal interneuron that then inhibits the motor neuron of the  antagonistic flexor muscle.   6. The leg extends   F. Glial​ells “support” neurons   1. Glial cells outnumber neurons 10:1 in the mammalian brain   G. Centraland Peripheral​ervous System (CNS, PNS)  1. CNS  a) Afferent and Efferent  b) Brain and spinal cord  2. PNS  a) Somatic sensory neurons and receptors  b) Autonomic sensory neurons and receptors  c) Autonomic motor neurons  (1) Sympathetic and parasympathetic   (a) Autonomic effectors  d) Somatic Motor neurons  e) Striated muscle   3. Efferent Nervous System  a) Somatic/​​oluntary  4. Autonomic   a) Smooth muscle  b) Cardiac muscle   c) Glands  d)  “Housekeeping  (1) Sympathetic= Fight or flight  (2) Parasympathetic​ rest and digest  e) Antagonistic Pair​­ Antagonist and agonist muscles often occur  in pairs, called antagonistic pairs. As one muscle contracts, the  other relaxes. An example of an antagonistic pair is the biceps and  and triceps; to contract ­ the triceps relaxes while the biceps  contracts to lift the arm.  H. Nervous system began more simply   1. Sea anemone  ­ anerve ne​serves simple behaviors such as contraction  and relaxation  2. In theearthworm,ganglia in each segment coordinate movement and  an anterior “brain” controls more complex behavior   3. Insquid, more complex behaviors are served by collections or neurons in  specialized ganglia   I. Cortical Maps(definition: collections (areas) of minicolumns in the brain cortex  that have been identified as performing a specific information processing  function; like texture maps, color maps, contour mamore neurons  make more precise movements  J. Application of cortical mapping: Cortical mapping in medicine is establishing the  relationship between various structures of the brain and their functions. It is a  technique used in neurosurgery to determine which parts of a diseased brain  may be safely excised. Helps minimize damage done when removing tumors,  etc.   1. Sensitivity varies   2. Sensory (afferent)  3. Motor (efferent)   VI. Nervous System  A. Comprises   1. Neurons/Nerve cells  2. Glial cells (support)  B. Signaling via combination of Electrical and chemical  C. Integrate information ­ AFFERENT  D. Coordinate response ­ EFFERENT   E. How does this signaling work?  VII. Relative Ion Concentrations   A. ATP used to generate these ion gradients   1. Potassium  2. Sodium  3. Calcium  4. Chloride   B. Neuron Function 1 ­ Electrical  1. Electricity Drives Function  2. Ions ​re the electricity   3. How increase conduction velocity in axon?  a) Diameter  b) Insulation   4. Long axons require insulation​support cells)  5. Glial cells f​yelination ​fatty tissue)aka:  a) Schwann cells in peripheral nerves  b) Oligodendrocytes in CNS  6. Multiple sclerosis caused by demyelination   C. Neuron Function 2 ­ Chemical  1. Axon Terminal  a) Vesicles  b) Neurotransmitter  c) Synapse   2. Chemical Synapses  2+  a) Exocytosis = role of Ca​ b) Ionotropic FASTER  (1) Ionotropic receptors​­ transmembrane molecules that  can “open” or “close” a channel that would allow different  kinds of ions to travel in and out of the cell. Receptors are  not opened until a ligand (the neurotransmitter) binds to  the receptor  c) Metabotropic SLOWER  (1) Metabotropic recepto​­ do not have a channel that  opens or closes. Instead, they are linked to another small  chemical called a G­protein. As soon as the ligand binds to  the metabotropic receptor, the receptor activates the  G­protein (meaning it changes it). Then the G­protein  activates a secondary messenger.   d) Note: don’t need to have definitions of ionotropic and metabotropic  because not included in lecture, but reading it and understanding it  helps make sense of the fact that ionotropic is faster and  metabotropic is slower.   D. Action Potential   1. If an AP is initiated from the spike­initiationravel to the axon  terminals without degradation  2. Intensityof signal at the synapse can only be altered by changing the  frequency ​f APs because they aralways the same siz . 3. More AP’s = more neurotransmitters released    4. Weak stimulus releases little neurotransmitter ­ a graded potential that is  barely above threshold causes a series of action potentials to pass down  the axon and release neurotransmitter   5. Strong stimulus causes more action potentia​and releases more  neurotransmitters ­ a stronger graded potential increases the frequency of  action potential firing in the axon   6. Vision Example  a) Photoreceptors in the back of the eye  b) Fovea  where highest acuity and highest # of cones   (1) Bats have sound fovea  (2) Star­nosed male has touch fovea   c) TRANSDUCTION   (1) Photoreceptorsrods and cones) ­ contain stacks of  membranes  (a) Transduce photons (light) into electrical signal    (2) Rhodopsins visual pigments) ­ def. : transmembrane  protein complex   (a) Opsin (7­transmembrane lipoprotein) plus   (b) Retinal (absorbs photon  (c) The retinal molecule inside rhodopsin changes  shape when retinal absorbs light   E. Vision Receptor Cells  1. Rods​: dim light, low resolution  2. Cones​: bright light, high resolution   3. Blind spot­ the optic disk; the region of the retina where the optic nerve  and blood vessels leave the eye  4. Rhodopsins (visual pigments) ­ located in stacked lamellae   5. Membranes hyperpolarize in response to light  6. Na+ ‘dark current’   +​ 7. When light hits, th current into the cell is stopped and membrane  hyperpolarizes stopping release of NT  F. Bleaching of retinal photoreceptors  1. Cones respond to particular wavelengths of light  2. Their response involves “bleaching” of their responsive pigment, so that  for some seconds they are able to respond again   G. Rod and Cone Details  1. Action spectrum (where absorb light)  a) 3 (humans, fish)  b) 5 (birds)  2. Different photopigments  3. Sensitivity vs. acuity  H. Rhodopsin mechanism:  1. Cis­tranisomerizatio​f retinal molecule  2. Changes conformation of opsin molecule and therefore initiates  transduction  3. Activated retinal changes conformation of opsin molecule (opsin and  retinal separate) and initiates transduction   I. Bats are not blind  1. Many species​mit high­frequency soun​ then listen for faint  returning echoes  2. “See” a reflec​ound ​mage of surroundings  3. Increase frequencof calls when near​rey   4. Energetical​xpensive very brie“shut down”​thei​earing  J. Type of sensation received depends on where in CNS (brain) Aabeled es (l lines)   1. rub eyes and see light   2. Synesthesia eg.smell colors  K. Pit Viper Infrared Imagery  1. “See” infrared​pectrum when heat­sensing pits  2. Detect differences between sides of 0.003C  3. Heat imate in brain  a) Similar to image from eyes  


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.