ANSC 1111 Exam 1 Review
ANSC 1111 Exam 1 Review ANSC 1111
Popular in Principles of Animal Nutrition and Feeding
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Catherine Cabano on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 1111 at University of Connecticut taught by Dr. Safran in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Principles of Animal Nutrition and Feeding in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
ANSC 1111/SAAS 113 Review Sheet – Exam 1 February 19 th9:30-10:20am Oak Hall 101 The exam format will be part multiple choice and matching using a scantron form, so bring a #2 pencil to the exam. The rest will be short answer questions. A calculator will not be needed. 1. What is a nutrient? List the six major nutrients and describe the structure and function of each. 6 major: water, carbohydrates, protein/amino acids, fat, inorganic elements (minerals), vitamins, (oxygen) Plant requirements? - Sunlight, water, minerals, carbon dioxide Animal requirements? – 44 specific nutrients; oxygen, water, essential fatty acids, 10 essential amino acids, specific vitamins and minerals o Variable between species/physiological stage – lactation, pregnancy, growth… 2. Which nutrients can be used for energy? Carbs, protein, fat used for energy 3. Which nutrient do we require in the largest amount? Water! Animal composition is mostly water 4. Water is a solvent. Describe how this property affects digestion, absorption and metabolism. Properties of water: o Hydrogen bonds with itself o Polar-covalent bond with oxygen and hydrogen o Cohesion/surface tension o Temperature moderation o Ice is less dense than water o Water is a solvent (very important) Dissolves everything; lets it keep flowing 5. How do marine mammals get the water their bodies require? Through the fish they eat 6. Name three factors that increase water intake. Affected by: high protein diet, ambient temperature, dry matter intake, activity, physiological state/age 7. What is metabolic water? Fat, protein, carbs can get water from these Essential in the survival of some animals that reside in dry lands or in habitats where water sources are not available. Ex: the chief source of water for kangaroo rats (thriving in desert) is metabolic water. They never have to drink; the metabolic water produced within their cells is sufficient for their survival. 8. Define osmosis. Describe water toxicity. Osmosis: the movement of water from high concentration to low concentration Water toxicity drinking too much water; not enough electrolytes; cells burst (they keeps getting bigger!) o Ex: woman in 2007 Sacramento drank over two gallons 9. What is mesentery? A fold of tissue that attaches organs to the body wall. The word mesentery usually refers to the small bowel mesentery, which anchors the small intestines to the back of the abdominal wall. 10. Draw and label the parts of the digestive tract of the groups of animals we have discussed. List the functions of these parts. Hind-gut fermenters/Horse: Sheep: Ruminant Dog: Monogastric Chicken: Cattle Cat/Dog Sheep Horse - Simple-stomached - Ruminant - Hind-gut fermenter (single stomach - Has a reticulum, - Large cecum compartment) omasum, abomasum, and - Longer digestive tract - Mono-gastric duodenum – 4 - Single stomach - Shorter digestive tract compartments compartment - Longer digestive tract compared to monogastric - Esophagus – peristalsis (muscular contractions) moves the food down into the digestive tract; bolus formation - Stomach – enzymes are produced here, such as HCl and pepsin - Small intestine – duodenum (net secretion), jejunem (net absorption) and ilium (net absorption) - Large intestine – water absorption - Cecum – “blind sac,” microbial fermentation - Crop – moistens food, holds food - Gizzard – breaks up and grinds food - Proventriculus – HCl and pepsin produced here Cat/Dog Sheep Horse - Smaller - Large – 4 stomachs - Very large cecum – “u - Shorter digestive tract compared to one shaped”’ - One main compartment - Cecum smaller (the - No rumen to break down fiber before SI fibers are already so cecum does it - Stomach is more stretched broken down) - Cecum sacks – optimal place out - Fermentation occurs in for fermentation - Cat has smaller cecum the rumen - Present on left side of body; curls Avian: Canine: - 2 ceca - 1 ceca - Shorter large intestine - Longer tract - Cloaca is a unified exit - Do not have a crop or gizzard; have canine - Crop and gizzard teeth - Digestion is very rapid - Monograstric - Monogastric - Proventriculus 11. How do non-ruminant herbivores digest fibrous food without a rumen? - They have a larger cecum for microbial fermentation 12. What organisms do ruminants depend on for digestion of feed? Ruminant animals use a special four-chambered stomach with a unique microbial flora to digest tough cellulose found in the plants in their diets. Most vertebrates cannot make cellulase, the enzyme that breaks down cellulose, but microbes in the rumen produce it for them. 13. Which teeth are missing in a cow or sheep? Why? No top incisors – use a dental palate Once a wad of grass is partially chewed, the cow swallows it. The cow then regurgitates it and chews it again using the top and bottom molars in the back of its mouth before swallowing it again. 14. How does saliva aid in digestion in a ruminant vs. monogastric? Monogastric: o Moistens food; lubrication o Composition: Salivary amylase – ex: starch in mouth; starts to taste sweet; salivary amylase is pulling off glucose Sodium bicarbonate – ex: in cattle, manages pH o Salivary glands in dogs parotid, zygomatic, sublingual, & mandibular Ruminant: o Bicarbonate and phosphate buffers o Continuous production and flow to rumen (fermentation vat) ideal fermentation pH = 6 Buffers the large quantity of acid produced in the rumen and is probably critical for maintenance of rumen pH o Mass amounts of saliva 15. What is peristalsis? Muscular contractions that move food; constriction of smooth muscles throughout digestive tract 16. The stomach produces hydrochloric acid, pepsin and mucus. Describe how these secretions aid in digestion. HCl HCl can denature pepsin then can make it into a smaller protein; breaks down the bolus into chyme Pepsin produced in inactive form; activated when in small intestine; breaks down proteins; cleaves amino acids from protein Mucus protects cells and keeps it moving 17. Gastric bypass surgery is a complicated medical procedure used to decrease weight drastically. The stomach size is decreased. First, how does this surgery allow a person to lose weight? Second, ketosis can be the result of this surgery, as well. Describe how and why ketosis can happen in this case. Allows a person to lose weight: o The first step makes your stomach smaller; use staples to divide your stomach into a small upper section and a larger bottom section. The top section of your stomach (called the pouch) is where the food you eat will go. The pouch is about the size of a walnut. It holds only about 1 ounce of food. Because of this you will eat less and lose weight. o The second step is the bypass; connect a small part of your small intestine (the jejunum) to a small hole in your pouch. The food you eat will now travel from the pouch into this new opening into your small intestine. Because of this, your body will absorb fewer calories. o Breaking fat down too quickly; causes you to get ketosis Ketosis = a metabolic state where most of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis where blood glucose provides most of the energy o Low blood glucose; early lactation dairy cows (high energy demand, inadequate gluconeogenesis); signs: sweet urine and breath o Lathargic; do not look healthy o Treatment: rapidly degradable sources of glucose; ex: IV sugar water 18. Describe how food is formed into a bolus and eventually becomes chyme in the small intestine (SI). Bolus formed by tongue; mass of food that has been chewed at the point of swallowing. Under normal circumstances, the bolus then travels down the esophagus to the stomach for digestion Chyme semifluid mass of partly digested food that is expelled by the stomach into the duodenum and moves through the intestines during digestion 19. The SI has three sections. Name and list the functions of each. Duodenum – for net secretion of enzymes on chyme o Amylolytic – carbs o Lipolytic – fats o Proteolytic – proteins o Nucleases – nucleic acids that make up DNA Jejunem – net absorption Illium – net absorption 20. How does the structure of the SI lining enhance absorption of nutrients? Villi and microvilli – increase surface area and absorption 21. What are the accessory organs of the digestive tract? Describe how they enhance digestion. Pancreas – secretes enzymes into duodenum o Lipase (fat); Trypsin (protein); Chymotrypsin (protein); Carboxypeptidase (protein) Liver – produces bile; bile emulsifies fats (breaks into small particles); broken down into micelle (binds something “oily” and “watery”) Cecum – “blind sac;” microbial fermentation (glycolysis +VFA production, B vitamins) o Size varies with type of foods eaten o Caecotropy = eating material from cecum; ex: rabbits eat soft pellets; unabsorbed nutrient like protein from microbes o Versus cophragy = eat feces; no nutritional reason 22. Animals that live in an arid environment can have a longer large intestine (LI) than animals adapted to wetter areas. Knowing what you do about the function of the LI, why is this so? How is structure related to function, in this case? Large intestine water absorption Secretes mucus Peristaltic Longer in dryer areas of the world in order to absorb more water 23. Compare and contrast digestion in ruminants vs. hindgut fermentors. Hindgut fermenters: o Prehensile lips o Enzymatic breakdown of grains in SI o Fermentation cell wall – cecum (VFAs, B vitamins absorbed) cecum isn’t as efficient as rumen; have more waste than ruminants and eat more o Lower digestibility with regards to ruminants loss of microbial protein unless eating caecotrophs Ruminants – 4 compartments: reticulum, rumen (largest), omasum, and abomasum (HCl, pepsin) o Prehensile tongue o Dental palate – no top incisors o Saliva bicarbonate and phosphate buffers o Reticulum – “honeycomb;” magnet catches metal o Rumen – microbial fermentation; type altered by diet; rumen contractions (retroperistalsis = throwing up) o Omasum = “many plies;” restrict particle size; fluid/VFA absorption o Abomasum = “true stomach;” acid digestion 24. Describe rumination and microbial digestion of feeds containing carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. Carbohydrates: o VFA in liver o Starch: Amylolytic microbes Primary VFA = propionic acid Process creates: carbon dioxide (bloat); methane; B vitamins; heat o Cellulose: Cellulolytic microbes Primary VFA = acetic acid Process creates: carbon dioxide (bloat); methane; B vitamins; heat o Lignin – cannot be broken down Protein: o Reticulum/rumen Deamination, energy source Non-protein nitrogen – urea Microbial protein use – NH 3 o Abomasum Microbes (destroyed by enzymes) – HCl, pepsin Rumen bypass protein/amino acids Rennin – enzyme that coagulates milk; curds; slow down digestion and absorb protein o SI Endopeptidases – cutting peptide bonds within center Exopeptidases – cut peptides from outside Active transport Lipids: o Low dietary lipid Leaves Seeds – TAG o Rumen No bile; no pancreatic lipase High fat diet – reduce digestibility Unsaturated fat – kill bacteria Fatty acids hydrogentated add hydrogens Lipolysis 25. What is the function of rumen papillae? Extensions of the surface of the rumen Increase surface area 26. When classifying different ruminants, how does the structure of the digestive tract change given the change in function? (Browsers vs. grazers) Browsers: highly digestible plant material (leaves of bushes, not pasture) o Moose, giraffe, deer o Smaller rumen, reticulum, omasum, larger SI Grazers: relatively indigestible plant material (grass, pasture) o Cattle, buffalo, antelope o Larger rumen, smaller SI, LI; fermentation Intermediate: flexible diet, sheep, goats, elk (will eat anything) Other: camelids (llamas, alpacas, camels), no omasum 27. Identify and describe the function of the crop, proventriculus, and gizzard in the chicken. Crop – moistens food; holds food Proventriculus – acid and pepsin produced here Gizzard – breaks up and grinds food; don’t have teeth Caeca – 2 caeca; not too useful Cloaca – exit point of all tracts; ex: eggs with uric acid and feces on it 28. How does an omnivore’s digestive tract differ from a carnivore’s? Monogastrics and Poultry = omnivorous o Enzymatic digestion; some in mouth o Relatively small gastrointestinal tract Hind-gut fermenters and ruminants = herbivorous o Microbial digestion (fermentation) o Relatively large gastrointestinal tract 29. How do plants and animals store carbohydrates? What are the functions of these carbohydrates? How does starch differ from cellulose? How are these the same? Plants store energy in starch and cellulose; Animals store it in glycogen Starch vs cellulose = structure Only ruminants can digest cellulose Cellulose helps with cell wall structure; more cellulose = more rigid 30. Name an example of a monosaccharide. What monosaccharides make up sucrose and lactose? Glucose (6C), Fructose (6C), Galactose (6C), Mannose (6C), Ribose (5C) Sucrose — common table sugar = glucose + fructose Lactose — major sugar in milk = glucose + galactose 31. Describe the enzymatic digestion of sucrose and lactose. Where does this happen? How? Both disaccharides Lactose – Small Intestine: o Lactase variable: some people can digest lactose, others can’t = lactose intolerant Sucrose – Small Intestine: o Little produced by young mammals mostly get it from mother’s milk o Ruminants not a lot of production; already broken down in the rumen 32. How are carbohydrates absorbed? What form can enter intestinal epithelial cells? Once carbohydrates are broken down into their simplest forms, they are quickly absorbed along the upper and lower parts of the small intestine. Small, finger-like projections, called villi, absorb the carbohydrates, then they are transferred to the blood stream and carried to muscles and the liver. Through: o Glucose transport proteins Passive diffusion – not require energy Active transport – requires energy o Phagocytosis – “eating” 33. Which organ balances the metabolism of carbohydrates? Pancreas o Too much glucose in blood = insulin released Diabetes little/no insulin produced o Too low glucose in blood = glucagon is secreted 34. Describe the enzymatic digestion of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Carbohydrates: o Salivary amylase – starch o Pancreatic amylase – starch o Lactase – SI Production variable o Sucrase – SI o Little produced by young mammals Proteins: o Stomach HCl – denaturation Pepsinogen – inactive form of pepsin o SI – enzymes secreted by pancreas, SI Exopepsidase; endopepsidase; active transport Lipid: o Emulsification – SI Bile salts Mixing o Pancreatic lipase – TAG 2 Free fatty acids (FFA) and 1 monoacylglycerol o Micelle formation 35. What are VFA’s? What are they used for? Volatile Fatty Acids Water-loving; need gateways and transport proteins to get across membranes 6 Carbons or fewer Main energy source for ruminants They are used primarily by the microorganisms for reproduction and growth, with the excess production being used by the ruminant itself. 36. What source of protein enters the abomasum for digestion and absorption by ruminants? Amino acids 37. Describe carbohydrate metabolism. Be sure to include glycogen metabolism, glycolysis (anaerobic), and TCA/oxidative phosphorylation (aerobic), and gluconeogenesis. Think about when each of these pathways would be active in an animal’s body. Begins with digestion in the small intestine where monosaccharides are absorbed into the blood stream Blood sugar concentrations are controlled by three hormones: insulin, glucagon, and epinephrine If the concentration of glucose in the blood is too high, insulin is secreted by the pancreas. Insulin stimulates the transfer of glucose into the cells, especially in the liver and muscles, although other organs are also able to metabolize glucose. Maintenance of blood glucose o Glycogen – storage liver/muscle o Glycogenesis = making glycogen VS. Glycogenolysis = breaking glycogen down o Endocrine hormones: Insulin Blood glucose high Energy storage Glucagon Blood glucose low Energy release o Glycolysis (liver/muscle) Glucose (6C) 2 Pyruvate (3C) Anaerobic (bacteria, too) 10 steps of reaction occur in cytosol (liquid in cell around nucleus) o Glucose catabolism to ATP 2 Pyruvate move into mitochondira 2 Pyruvate 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) + CO 2 Pyruvate dehydrogenase Requires thiamine, niacin, pantothenic acid (B-vitamins) Glycolysis pyruvate acetyl CoA o 2 Acetyl CoA about 38 ATP + CO + H 2 2 Citric Acid/Krebs Cycle Oxidative phosphorylation Requires riboflavin ATP for energy 38. Draw the general amino acid structure. Label the amino and carboxyl group. 39. What are the 10 essential amino acids required by animals? Which extra amino acid is required by cats? = PVT TIM HALL 1. Phenylalanine 2. Valine 3. Threonine 4. Tryptophan 5. Isoleucine 6. Methionine 7. Histidine 8. Arginine 9. Leucine 10. Lysine Extra for cats Taurine 40. Describe protein structure. How does the process of denaturation and enzymatic digestion alter protein structure? 1 = primary; chain of amino acids 2 = hydrogen bonds with amino acids (alpha helix, beta pleated sheet) 3 = hydrophobic interactions (polypeptide) 4 = two or more chains of amino acids (form complete protein) Prions = many different forms; cause proteins to miss-form; holes in sponge on brain tissue Denaturation of proteins involves the disruption and possible destruction of both the secondary and tertiary structures. 41. Describe protein catabolism and synthesis within an animal. What is unique about protein metabolism? Three pathways o Synthesis of protein for tissue growth o Enzymes, hormones all enzymes are proteins Insulin, IGF, growth hormone o Energy formation Deamination (removal of amino group) Transamination (transfer of amine group) Protein Synthesis o Proteins unique to species, animal o Types of proteins made dependent on genes (DNA) o 4 nucleotide bases A – T; G – C o DNA in nucleus of cell RNA = ribonucleic acid o Complementary copy of DNA; moves DNA out of nucleus Genetic code 3 RNA nucleotides = one amino acid Protein synthesis o Amino acids connect together o Peptide bonds Most growth in tissue = highest synthesis high protein and lysine o Not as much degradation; lysine takes place where those broken down amino acids would’ve gone Urea cycle o NH c3n be toxic (if accumulated) Absorbed by digestive tract o Processed to urea, uric acid for removal Fish – ammonia excreted via gills o Occurs in liver, intestinal cells o Use as non-protein nitrogen feed source N cycling o N enters intestinal lumen from blood Amino acids, urea, nitrogen o N secreted in saliva, rumen bacteria remove amino groups; carbon skeletons Urea, N o Utilized by cells, microbes amino acids Rumen microbial protein o Sources of nitrogen: Dietary protein Non-protein nitrogen (NPN) Recycled N o Microbial protein amino acids then flow through omasum, abomasum to SI o Optimize fermentation [Ammonia] = [carbohydrate] Microbial growth 42. Compare the amount of energy contained in carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Heat of combustion: higher potential for storing energy Carbs: 4.2 kcal/g Protein: 5.65 kcal/g Lipid: 9.4 kcal/g 43. Define saturated, unsaturated, hydrogenation, cis and trans double bonds, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and triacylglycerols. Be able to identify these structures and molecules. Saturated = net amount of H and C that can bond; no double bonds Unsaturated = double bond; can’t have another hydrogen attached; can have more hydrogens attached if double bond is removed; kills bacteria Cis = hydrogen on same side Trans = hydrogen on opposite side Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) = contain more than one double bond in their backbone Triacylglycerol (Triglyceride) = three fatty acids; major components of human skin oils glycerol fatty acids carboxyl end methyl end 44. What are the functions of lipids in animal bodies? Essential Fatty Acids o C 18:2; Linoleic acid OR C 20:4 Arachidonic acid o C 18:3; Linolenic acid o Function: membrane, eicosanoids Skin integrity Phospholipids found in cell membranes Steroids o Cholesterol o Hormones Estrogen, testosterone Cortisol, aldosterone o Vitamin D 45. How does bile enhance lipid digestion? Where is this made? Bile is produced to digest/emulsify fats you eat If having trouble with bile production you may get gallstones, have big swings in your blood cholesterol and lipid levels, or suffer from constipation. Bile is made in liver; stored in gallbladder Bile salts are amphipathic -- they have both water-soluble (hydrophilic) and water- insoluble (hydrophobic) regions. The water-soluble regions are repelled from fats, but the water-insoluble regions are strongly attracted to fats in the gut. This arrangement allows bile salts to associated with one part of the fat glob and then cause the region nearby to break off form micelles; by forming micelles, bile salts break up (or emulsify) large fat particles into smaller ones. 46. Describe the activity of pancreatic lipase. What is a micelle? The primary lipase (enzyme) that hydrolyzes (breaks down) dietary fat molecules in the human digestive system, converting triglyceride substrates found in ingested oils to monoglycerides and free fatty acids. Creates 2 free fatty acids (FFA) and 1 monoacylglycerol Micelle = lipid molecules that arrange themselves in a spherical form in aqueous solutions 47. How do hydrophobic lipids travel through the blood? They form micelles when in aqueous solutions 48. Where is lipoprotein lipase located in the body? What does it do? Chylomicrons Carrier of dietary FFA Small Intestine VLDL (very low density Carrier of liver FFA to tissues Liver lipoprotein) LDL (low density lipoprotein) Carrier of liver cholesterol VLDL and FFA to tissues HDL Carrier of tissue cholesterol Liver, intestine, VLDL, to liver chylomicrons 49. Where are fatty acids catabolized and synthesized in the body? How is energy (ATP) created from this breakdown of fatty acids? Catabolism = breaking down FA oxidation – mitochondria in liver, adipose, muscle cells need oxygen to occur o Acetyl CoA (2C) removed o Enters TCA cycle o ATP produced What if fat is broken down too quickly? low blood glucose; ketosis FFA synthesis o Excess CHO, amino acids – converted to Acetyl CoA o 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) attached etc.. o Enzymes in cytosol of liver, adipose cells o Animals synthesize all but C 18:2 (C20:4), C18:3 o Except – cats; cannot synthesize require other fatty acids 50. What is the function of the liver as it relates to metabolism? Bile production, storage in gallbladder Store excess CHO (glycogen), amino acids as TAG Synthesize/make lipoproteins and cholesterol Alter fatty acids – chain length, saturation TAG FFA ketones 51. Review your notes on the labs we’ve completed so far, except for the calculations. We will save those for the exam 2. Water Lab: Use the most water: o Countries: China, India o States: California, Texas, Idaho, Florida 24 gallons to produce one pound of meat 70% of water used goes towards agriculture Most water to produce Chocolate vanilla Least water to produce tea, lettuce Food Safety Modernization Act o October 2013 o Enacted after spinach contamination in California o Shifting focus from responding to contamination to preventing it o FDA include standards for water Sources of water for agriculture rain, irrigation, wells, creeks, municipal water, springs… Non-point source pollution = comes from different places o Land runoff, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, drainage etc. o Point source = pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel.. o Can include: excess fertilizers, herbicides, salt, pet wastes… o Prevent it: limit amount of impenetrable surfaces, plant trees, no litter, alternatives to chemical fertilizers Consumptive = removal of water from a source that isn’t replaced back into the source system; ex: agriculture – not returned, rather absorbed by crops Non-consumptive = take it from the source and put right back in; ex: hydro- elective dam – collects water and put back into source Increased water scarcity creating competition; population is growing; countries becoming more economically developed; prices will become higher Water footprint = total water that is needed or polluted to make a product o Blue = volume of surface and ground water consumed o Green = rainwater that can be used to make product o Gray = measure of pollution in the surface and ground water consumed Letting animals graze reduce water footprint
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