People Places Landscapes Notes Week 9
People Places Landscapes Notes Week 9 GEOG 1410
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Austin Morse on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1410 at University of Denver taught by Dr. Boschmann in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see People Places Landscapes in Geography at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
1 2/29/16 People Places Landscapes 1st Urban Revolution Why did cities emerge? Domestication of agriculture/animals for food production Agricultural surplus What was their function? Creation of sacred space Provision of basic security Host for commercial market ex: European medieval city types: military political ecclesiastical trading/economic 2nd Urban Revolution Location Large cities why did a city emerge because of its location? New Social Order (19th century cities) Gemeinschaft: Highlights community based off of the idea of long standing family relationships. Agriculture oriented. Gesellschaft: Relationships are based off of economic transactions, no longer kinship. Less shared history, greater self interest. Working and Housing Conditions Terrible living conditions for most City bias: antiurban bias Led to the idea cities are evil places Internal Structures of Cities: Why are activities located in certain places (20th century study) Urban Form: The shape & landscape of a city based on the spatial distribution of urban 2 activities. Urban Places within U.S. Cities: 1.Central Business District (CBD) Highest level of developmen, nonresidential, businesses, office space, service, transportation is composed of walking and taxis 2.Suburbs Dominated by residential development, some retail, transportation is composed of driving private cars. 3.Edge city movement of the CBD to the suburbs, mid rise buildings, shopping malls, confluence of interstate Evolution of U.S. Cities and Transportation 1.WalkingHorsecar era 2.Electric Streetcar era 3.Recreational Automobile Era 4.Freeway era Land use/Bid Rent Curve The father from the center of the city, the more expensive it is. Models of Urban Form 1.Cocentric Ring Model Everything moves outwards in a circle 2. Sectoral ModelCBD starts in the center but circle is divided unequally 3. Multinucleated ModelNo organizational structure, similar to LA 3/2/16 3rd Urban Revolution: World Urbanization What is urbanization? A shift from rural to urban living, and associated lifestyle changes 1. Scale and Pace of Growth a. Urban Population: Percentage of a country’s population living in cities b. Rate of Urbanization: The average rather of change of the urban population over a period of time (annually) c. The world is now 50% urban according to a 2007 study 3 d. Global Urban Population Rates: i. Countries like Bangladesh and Afghanistan has less than 25% urbanization ii. Countries like Singapore and Monaco are at 100% urbanization e. Where are cities growing fastest? i. African countries and LDC’s are growing fastest ii. MDC’s are growing slowest 2. Increased Size of Individual Cities a. City: A Political designation referring to a place b. Metropolitan Area (Urban Agglomeration): a single large city, and the surrounding adjacent suburbs within the sphere of influence. c. Megacity Defined only by population d. Urbanization Curve e. Traditional Model of Urbanization i. Rural: Agricultural farmers pulled to Urban areas for jobs and wages f. Premature Model of Urbanization i. Rural: Agriculture failures, natural disasters push to urban areas with limited opportunities and job stagnation. 3. Metropolitanization a. People can be more dispersed across a city area b. D.C. to Boston is a corridor of metropolitanization 4. Urban Sprawl a. Dispersion leads to suburbs for desire for low density housing i. causes stores to move to suburbs ii. overuse of land iii. higher pollution 5. Rise of Slums (Informal Housing Settlements) i. limited jobs ii. very limited services 4 iii. overcrowding iv. ⅓ of all urban dwellers b. Informal Economies in Slums i. employment unregulated by institutions ii. 66% of GDP is informal economy in Bolivia