ANSC 1111 Exam 3 Review
ANSC 1111 Exam 3 Review ANSC 1111
Popular in Principles of Animal Nutrition and Feeding
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Catherine Cabano on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 1111 at University of Connecticut taught by Dr. Safran in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 222 views. For similar materials see Principles of Animal Nutrition and Feeding in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
ANSC 1111/SAAS 113 Review Sheet – Final Exam, new material (75 points) May 7 810am Oak Hall 101 The exam format will be multiple choice and matching using a Scantron form, so bring a #2 pencil to the exam. The rest will be short answer questions and calculations. A CALCULATOR WILL BE NEEDED, NOT A PHONE! The cumulative portion of the exam will be worth 75 points. For cumulative material review, go back to your first two exams. Correct answers are posted on Husky CT. 1. Review lab materials from farm visits etc. There will be questions pertaining to the labs, if you attended and review the notes you may have; you should be able to answer the questions. 2. Be sure to look over the horse ration calculations from the lab with Dr. Nadeau. (Only new calculation we would need to know) 3. What is roughage? How is it classified? Which animal species consume roughages? Ingredients high in structural fiber More than 18% CF; less than 70% TDN TDN = CP + CHO + ether extract (fat) x 2.25 Species: ruminants and hindgut fermenters Quality: o NDF – digestible cell wall (neutral digestible fiber) o ADF – indigestible cell wall (acid digestible fiber) o Lignin – indigestible, increases with plant maturity Ex: hulls, wheat bran = roughages (high fiber) 4. Describe the differences between grasses and legumes. Name an example of each. Under what circumstances would feeding a grass be useful? Feeding a legume? Unlike grasses, legumes are associated with bacteria that go directly into legume roots, making nodules—they fix atmospheric nitrogen, allowing plants to be higher in crude protein and fiber content. Legumes, if fed too often to ruminants, can cause foamy bloat—this can be treated with oil. Grass ex: blue grass, Timothy grass Legume ex: beans, peas, peanuts, alfalfa o Bacteria in rot nodules “fix” atmospheric N Plant leaves are higher in CP Usually higher in fiber o Foamy bloat can’t belch out gas due to foam; use a tube to separate bubbles Grasses are categorized by their type of photosynthesis and seasonal growth: Photosynthesis: o C3 cool, moist or hot, moist climates Higher protein, less fiber Ex: wheat, rice, legumes, potatoes o C4 hot, dry, or moist climate (tropical) More efficient photosynthesis rate Ex: corn, millet, sorghum Seasonal growth o Cool season: grows quickly in the spring/fall ex: timothy, bluegrass o Warm season (early summer): grows quickly in early summer ex: corn, bermudagrass (typically C4) More lignin in warm season More nutrients in soil = more plant growth 5. How does forage quality change as maturity increases? Which components of the forage change? Why? Quality decreases as matures Digestibility decreases More lignin; some of the nutrient decompose More fiber in older forage Fertilization also affects digestibility—the more nutrients in the soil, the more the plant will grow. Time, method of harvest, and storage affect digestibility. Relative Feed Value (RFV) o RFV = 100 cutoff level between good and bad o 41% ADF and 53% NDF o <100 lower quality forage o >100 higher quality forage 6. What is harvest time of corn silage based on? 80 million acres Three main types: o Dent – animal feed (corn kernel gets dented) o Sweet – human o Pop – human Milk line 7. How is a high protein grain defined? How is CP calculated? Name some high protein feeds. >20% CP N% measured, CP calculated o 100/16 – 6.25 o N% x 6.25 = %CP Sources: fish meal (protein from animals more closely matches requirement o Soybean meat (50% protein from plants) o Maillard reaction: when the denatured proteins on the surface of the meat recombine with the sugars present. The combination creates the "meaty" flavor and changes the color. Oilseed meals (high in protein) By products (digestibility vs. cost) Urea (bacteria can remove N from it and make amino acids – only ruminants can get it) o Source of protein matters dictates amino acid content 8. Define a high energy grain. List some examples. >70% TDN Cereal grains o Corn Highlysine Brown midrib (corn silage with less lignin) o Grain sorghum Milo – drier climate o Barley Ruminants, horses Brewing industry (byproducts) o Oats Must be milled Lower energy, moderate CP Breeding horses, ruminants 9. Name some fat sources. Animal fats (tallow, lard; not much for ruminants) Vegetable oils (often horses for fat source, increases energy content in diet) Casalts of long chain fatty acids (bypass fats; aren’t digested until intestine in ruminants) 10. What does the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) do? Regulations of what to put on the food label standardize food labels so consumers know what they’re buying Can’t make something hidden Because of human food safety, animal safety, ensure production of effective additives, reduce environmental impacts to a minimum 11. Why are feed additives put into animal diets? Nonnutritive no fat, CHO, protein Enhance o Palatability o Growth rate o Metabolism o Animal utilization of feed (more digestible) o Health – drug (sickness prevention) 12. What does the Food and Drug Administration monitor regarding animal feeds? Monitors the drugs added to animal feeds. 13. What are probiotics, melengestrol, monensin, and coccidostats? When would each be fed? Probiotics – helpful bacteria o Do not produce toxins o Outcompete diseasecausing bacteria MGA – melengestrol acetate o Hormone added to feed; increase efficiency of microbes o Beef heifers inhibit estrus, increases growth rate; tells them to focus on eating only Monensin, Lasalocid o Antibiotic added to feed, water o Beef cattle – improve rumen fermentation efficiency, growth Coccidiostates o Coccidia – protozoal parasites, cause diarrhea and death; common in lambs and calves; reduces disease incidents 14. List three reasons why antibiotics may be fed to animals. Describe some of the controversy surrounding the use of antibiotics in feeds. Why did the FDA restrict usage of antibiotics in animal feed? 1) Prevent disease 2) cure disease 3) promote growth Creation of “superbugs” – antibiotic resistant bacteria considered a high risk Does not increase growth in stress free environment Policy changed usage of animal antibiotics for treatment, control, prevention of disease under veterinarian control o “Limitations needed for use in disease prevention” 15. What are the seven nutrients required by poultry (or any animal)? Carbohydrates Protein (13) Fat (1) Mineral (1316) Vitamins (13) Water (about 2x water as feed) Oxygen 16. What are common feeds fed to poultry? Cereal grains corn and soybean meal Animal proteins Vegetable proteins Microbiological ingredients Synthetic amino acids Purified amino acids/proteins. Fats and carbs sugars, starches, gums (corn, oats, barley, rice) Fats and oils: corn oil, vegetable oils, animal fats Ex: corn and soybean meal combined 17. What minerals are especially critical to layers? To broilers? Layers calcium (lots of calcium in eggs); lower need for CP; less total energy Broilers protein; slightly more sulfur, met and cys for muscle growth; more energy 18. List some characteristics of marine mammals that are carnivorous and use their teeth to catch prey. Ex: killer whales, sperm whales Cylindrical teeth, all the same Swallow food whole Stomach – 3 compartments o Forestomach – storage o Main stomach – HCl, pepsinogen o Pyloric stomach – other enzymes SI, LI – 54 m in length Accessory organs No cecum 19. Which species of marine mammals use suction feeding to ingest food? What modifications have occurred in their mouth parts to enable them to better catch prey? Specialized teeth Sensitive, movable “whiskers” helps capture foods Front paws (move things in front of their face) Try to suction up food Ex: seals, walruses, manatees 20. Describe how filter feeders capture their food. Name an example of a filter feeding aquatic mammal. Keratinized epidermis = teeth Eat plankton, amphipods, fish Three types: o Skim strategy: to suck in large amounts of water and catch prey between baleen teeth o Lunge strategy: to open mouth wide and swim up to surface to collect prey o Filter sediment strategy: to swim along the ground to kick up sediment and catch what prey comes out Ex: baleen whales, like the humpback whale 21. What type of food do manatees eat? Why do they have to live in warm water? Why can other marine mammals, such as killer whales etc., survive in very cold waters? Why are marine mammals large in size? “Sea cow” Fresh or saltwater – tropical or subtropical Location: US east coast, West Africa, West India, Amazon Herbivorous (occasional carnivore) Prehensile lips Front flippers – aid in feeding Hindgut fermenter (like elephant) LI > 20m long Cecum – 2 horns lots of space to digest Need less protein and high fiber than carnivorous animals Carnivorous animals get water from the fish they eat, but herbivores need fresh water sources (like rivers) for water Large in size: o Advantages: Thermoregulation Increased length of time between feedings (excess fat) Increased travel distance to find food o Disadvantages high energy requirement Warm water Arrhenius equation o Water temperature increases by 10 degrees Celsius, chemical reaction rates double o Water temperature decreases by 10 degrees Celsius, chemical reaction rates decrease by half 22. Which trace mineral is deficient in sow’s milk and is usually given as an injection to piglets raised indoors? If piglets are raised with exposure to dirt, why is this injection unnecessary? Creep feed is a carbohydrate source for piglets and other young animals Most young animals, like calves, use a creeper feeder 23. What is creep feed? What types of animals are fed from a creep feeder? A method of supplementing the diet of young livestock, primarily in beef calves, by offering feed to animals who are still nursing. Creep feed is sometimes offered to swine, but it is impossible with companion grazing animals such as sheep and goats Creep feed is a carbohydrate source for piglets and other young animals. Most young animals, like calves, use a creep feeder. 24. Define ideal protein. What sorts of feeds would contain an “ideal protein”? Steps: o Nursing piglets (316 lbs) Colostrum Fe shot Creep feed, CHO source Warning around 34 weeks of age o Weanling pigs (1650 lbs) High protein (lys) initially then decreases Ideal protein sources fed o Growing/finishing pigs (50265 lbs) Adequate nutrients for rapid feed: gain Ideal protein = proteins that will meet all of the specific amino acid requirements of the animal Sources: animal protein from milk and blood sources 25. What is flushing? Which species benefit most from this practice? Flushing refers to an increased level of feeding (67 lbs/d) two weeks before breeding until one week after breeding. Flushing results in an increase in litter size as a result of an increase in ovulation rate Goats, pigs 26. Discuss sow housing. What are the benefits/disadvantages to housing pregnant or lactating sows in confinement? 27. What is the environmental impact of feeding excess protein to pigs? How could utilization of dietary protein be increased by pigs? Increased amount of nitrogen excretion per day, which can eventually cause increased waste that can travel to water sources and pollute them. To increase the utilization of dietary protein pigs, phytase can be added to the diet, which will break down phytate and reduce dietary and fecal P. 28. What nutrient can be increased in a pig diet to minimize the negative effects of increased environmental temperature? Why does feeding this help? Phosphorous can be increased to maximize negative effects of increased environmental temperatures. 29. What three uses can sheep and goats provide? Sheep: meat, wool, dairy Goats: dairy, angora, meat (boer blood line) 30. Describe the changes that occur in the rumen/reticulum and omasum/abomasum of lambs as they grow. Rumen grows in size as it gets older; born with nonfunctional rumen Abomasum elongates; rumen is not developed for 1.52 months RR vs. OA ratio: o Birth 1:2 o 30 days 1.4:1 o 60 days 2.6:1 o Adult 2.7:1 31. Which macromineral is required for optimal wool growth in sheep? Wool growth affected by age, temperature change, lactation, parturition, hormone implantation, injection Sulfur containing amino acids is critical Copper 32. What factors alter water consumption of animals? Body size plays a crucial role Dry matter intake Protein intake Mineral intake Environmental temperature Stage of production Lactation – drink more 33. In class we looked at a picture of a bunch of goats in a tree. What were they doing up there and how does this activity shed light on what they normally eat? How does the feeding behavior/dietary choices differ between sheep and goats? 34. Which type of horse could be given a mostly hay diet? Which type of horse would require more grain? Can horses eat only grain and no forage? Horses that do not do strenuous exercise can be given a mostly hay diet, as they do not require the extra energy that grain gives. Horses that are put into exercise should be given grain to give them the energy they need. Horses should not be fed grainonly diets, as it will negatively affect their digestive system. 35. Why would senior horses be fed an extruded grain product? More digestible than pelleted feed due to added moisture Heats it, makes it puffy, adding moisture predigesting the food before it’s fed to the horse Crude fiber digestibility lower in aged horses Lower BCS Dental abnormalities 36. What would a good source of fat be for a horse? Canola oil, corn oil, flaxseed… Takes about 3 months for them to adapt to using fat as an energy source 37. What are the four R’s of rumination? Which VFA is primarily converted into glucose in the dairy cow’s liver? Which one provides energy and is converted into milk fat, primarily? Regurgitate – bolus moves up esophagus Rechew remastication Reensalivate Reswallow VFA Acetate (2C) and buterate (4C); how milk fat is made VFA converted to glucose in liver= propionate VFA converted to energy and milk fat= acetate and butyrate 38. How is forage fiber fermentation maximized in the rumen? Optimize the pH – keep it at a good, healthy level; keeping the bacteria happy for fermenting o Buffers – keep pH at a neutral level o Make sure the diet has the right amount of fiber in the diet o Right length of the fiber to contract the rumen By optimizing the pH in the rumen for bacteria by using buffers to balance acidity. By feeding the right amount of corn to avoid acidity. By blending feeds well to avoid sorting behavior. By keeping the right amount of fiber in the diet. By keeping a certain fiber length to keep the rumen stimulated. Having higher quality forage with less lignin to increase digestibility. By having the right amount of moisture in the diet 39. Describe the stratified layers of fermenting feed in the rumen of a cow on a hay/grain diet. 40. Where is rumen undegradable protein digested into amino acids and absorbed? What sort of dairy cow may require more undegraded intake protein (undegradable protein)? Why? Digested in the abomasum Lactating or high lactation dairy cow need more undegradable protein Bypass rumen degraded to amino acids and used by the cow 41. What would an appropriate forage:concentrate ratio be for a lactating dairy cow? Why is it important that a dairy cow (as well as other grazing ruminants) have a certain amount of long forage in their diet? 4060% forage in the diet concentrate would be the opposite of this (60% to 40%) Poke at the sides in order to stimulate rumen contraction in order to have the 4 R’s stimulates digestive process Stratification in rumen 42. In early lactation, a dairy animal cannot eat enough calories to support her milk production. Where do these extra calories come from? How do farm managers measure changes in a dairy animals’ body over a lactation? Why is important to measure these changes? Describe a dairy cow’s change in body weight over a one year period. Fat that she built up Body condition scores check and access whether diets are adequate for nutrients 43. Define microbiome. Are animals mostly animal or microbe? Where are these microbes primarily located? Bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa Animals are mostly animal per pound; mostly microbe per cell (1 animal cell per 10 microbes) Microbiota = all the organisms Location main areas digestive tract (large intestine, small intestine, cecum), skin, urogenital tract, nasal passages 44. Can diet affect the microbiome? If so, how? How does age alter the microbiome? You can alter microbiomes based on feed being taken in and digested Population changes with age as you get older, variation within microbes decreases again At a very young age, variability is low; as an adult, variability reaches its peak and stays relatively constant; at old age, variability lowers again 45. How do the microbiota benefit from their relationship with animals? How do animals benefit from our close association with microbiota? Symbiotic relationship Host benefits: aid in food digestion, Bvitamins, development of digestive tract growth and immune function Microbe benefits – home, nutrients 46. How does the digestive tract of dogs/cats change following weaning? Describe nutrient requirement changes over the life of a dog or cat. They transition to solid food after weaning, as opposed to milk; Require more water Nutrient requirement will increase as weight and age increases. Enzymes amylase and sucrase will be required as well as cellulase. Adults o Gestation – energy requirements increase at the end o Lactation – increased nutrient concentration o Senescence – increased digestion; aging; digestibility need to increase; high quality protein = less nitrogen excretions = decrease stress to kidneys 47. Would you recommend feeding dogs and cats ad libitum? Why or why not? Ad libitum = Food out all the time – sitting in bowl No, dogs and cats can continue to eat if they’re bored or just want a snack. 48. Cats are “true” carnivores. How does that fact alter their metabolism and requirements? Higher protein, lower carbohydrate diet o Higher gluconeogenesis go through pathway easily and quickly o Higher amino acid metabolism Taurine Eye function; Component of bile Extra fatty acids Vitamins o Vitamin A o Niacin can’t make enough because they’re true carnivores source of meat provides these things; lost the ability; they don’t need it o Pyridoxine 49. Why are male cats prone to crystal formation in the urine? How might this ailment be treated? They don’t drink water Low urinary water; high urinary ammonia; mineral concentration High amino acid metabolism; acidic urine sending out waste products from high amino acids 50. What steps could be taken to attempt to balance a diet for a new zoo animal that was the first of it’s kind at a zoo? Now, zoo nutrition is a very complex field, where the animal is looked at as an individual and needs are met through careful assessments and knowledge on their natural diets. 51. How has zoo animal management changed over the past 50 years? Before, it was more of a guessing game to see what an animal required in its diet. Now, zoo nutrition is a very complex field, where the animal is looked at as an individual and needs are met through careful assessments and knowledge on their natural diets. 52. What challenges do zoo nutritionists face when feeding carnivores at a zoo? How about browsers? The temperature to feed the meat at The time to feed the meat The space between feeding to avoid fights The storage of the meat When feeding browsers, zoo nutritionists have to take into account the huge amount of leaves and branches that they require in their diets. 53. Compare and contrast beef steer/heifer management in grassfed versus feedlot finished situations.
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