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INFO-I 101 Problem Solving Notes

by: Mei Lin

INFO-I 101 Problem Solving Notes INFO-I101

Marketplace > Indiana University > Information technology > INFO-I101 > INFO I 101 Problem Solving Notes
Mei Lin
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INFO-I 101 Week 5 Lecture Notes
Introduction to Informatics and Computing
Nina Onesti and Dan Richert
Class Notes
Informatics, I101




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mei Lin on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to INFO-I101 at Indiana University taught by Nina Onesti and Dan Richert in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Informatics and Computing in Information technology at Indiana University.

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Date Created: 03/02/16
Binary  On/off button (circle and dash) represents the 0 and 1  Mean on/off on a very "base" level  Can also represent letters o Eight digits to a single letter  Hexadecimal (16 digits) that represent color codes o Red Green Blue values o No color = black, max colors = white o For each hexadecimal symbol = 1 binary symbol Problem Solving  Problem ­­> Thinking ­­> Solution The Process  Problem ­­> problem solving activities ­­> solution  Traditional Process (The Waterfall Method) o Step 1 (gather data) ­­> step 2(analyze data) ­­> step 3, etc.  o Linear, sequential o Scientific Method! o Very specific o EX: baking  Modified Process o Jumps back and forth between the "steps" o More flexible o Seen in more "creative" things o EX: debugging, cooking (especially seasoning) Steps  First Step: Identifying the specific problem o Asking Questions: who, what, where, when, why, how, etc. o Diagrams: flow charts, brainstorming charts… o Research with stakeholders: interviews, focus groups (specific demographics),  ethnography (EX: submerging yourself into a culture to learn more about it), etc. o Writing exercises: thought exercises, writing ideas/thoughts down, etc. o Wicked and Tame Problems  Wicked Problems: difficult or impossible to solve b/c of incomplete,  contradictory, and changing requirements that are often difficult to recognize. Always  involve people in one way shape or form, and people are unpredictable  EX: designing a safe way for students to cross 10th St, eliminating global hunger  1st characteristic: you don't understand the problem until you have  developed a solution (EX: highway construction)  2nd characteristic: No stopping rule ­­> problem still exists after  solution, since problem is constantly changing  3rd: no right/wrong solution, only better or worse. NO ABSOLUTE  4th: Every wicked problem is unique and novel  5th: Every solution to a wicked problem is a "one­shot operation" ­­>  eventually have to implement solution to see if it works. No do­overs  6th: No given alternative solutions ­­> paradox of choice = too many  appropriate/good options  Tame Problems: have a definite solution or set of solutions that can be evaluated, is defined and stable. Does not change  EX: detailed instructions for peanut butter and jelly sandwich, chess  game  Thinking o Logical Thinking  Using all info on hand ­­ analyze  Clearly define factors/parts of the problem and surrounding the problem  Requires a language where:  Each phrase has one and only one meaning ­­> no confusions  EX: giving directions, etc.  Rules are clear and do not change  Very specific language  Structured o Design Thinking  "creative thinking"  Unstructured  Jump around steps a lot, free form  Used more creatively o Computational Thinking  How people solve problems using computers  EX: putting need things in backpack = prefetching and caching  Retracing steps to find lost things = backtracking  Which line to stand in at the supermarket = performance modeling for  multi­server systems  "marriage" between logical thinking and design thinking What makes the best solution?  10 common problem solving mistakes o Satisficing (to satisfy/suffice)  EX: Duct Tape  Doesn't actually solve the problem, just temporary solution  1st solution that comes to mind, problem could be getting bigger o Palliative  Cures the symptoms of the problem but not the problem itself   Not getting to the root of the problem  Problem could come back o Bold Statements  "Always", "Never"  Making an promise that can’t be kept o Procrustean  Procrustes: fabled inn­owner that only has one bed, forces customers to fit in that one bed  One­size fits all solution o Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc ("After This Therefore Because of This")  False Causality  EX: superstition  Taking whatever happened before the problem was solved as the solution, when  it was most likely a coincidence o Rose Colored Glasses  Actually solving the problem, but causes another issue elsewhere o Celebrity Endorsement  Shouldn't be taking solutions just because a celebrity or someone else told you o Primary and Regency Effect  Creating/making solutions based on the first/last thing that was good  EX: google glasses o Haste  Immediately regretting decisions  Making a solution because of time pressure…  Jumping to conclusions o Special Occasion  Only evaluating problems and solutions on "special occasions" and no other  times  Not good solutions  Avoiding mistakes o Adding structure  Plan ahead  Use methodologies  Conduct research  Test solution  Delegate responsibilities  Prioritize and triage  Be open minded  Assess and evaluate often  Document everything


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