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notes week 5

by: mattis.12

notes week 5 PHILOS 2120 - 0010

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About this Document

These notes cover a wide variety of topics discussed in the Gita.
Asian Philosophies
Steven Brown
Class Notes
philosophy, Asian philosophy, Gita




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by mattis.12 on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHILOS 2120 - 0010 at Ohio State University taught by Steven Brown in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Asian Philosophies in PHIL-Philosophy at Ohio State University.

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Date Created: 03/02/16
Monday, February 22, 2016 idea of submission - On a day to day basis, we serve/submit to/etc a SINGLE personal deity. - This helps us act without desire as we pursue even deeper understanding of ultimate reality. (Atman is Brahman, moksha, etc) - Islam - One of the 3 Abrahamaic Religions • Judaism • Christianity • Islam - god (OmniGod) • Omnipotence • Omniscience • Omnibenevolence/ Perfect Goodness - Greatest Possible Person • Knowledge —> to know all the truths • Power to Act —> Able to do anything • Reasons/Intentions/Character —> only good Groups within Islam Sunni and Shia Originate from a dispute over succession from Mohamed Sufism: A school of thought, group of methods, and ideas within the other groups the mystical arm of Islam Focused on mystical experiences 1 Monday, February 22, 2016 Why are we studying this? - -Islam didn't originate in Asia • Thematic similarities to things we’ve seen in other Asian philosophies • Kupperman does • Avery large percentage of Muslims live in Asia • Because it it interesting - Descartes, the founder of modern philosophy • Epistemology - in the middle of his life, he notices that he has believed many things that later turned out not to be true. - seeks true beliefs that he can know with certainty - Method: Skepticism - Step 1: Experiences - Nearly all of our beliefs are based on experiences - our own experiences - Our experiences of others communicating their experiences - Have we ever been led astray by our experiences/perceptions? • flatness of the Earth • mirages - Yes, but usually only in usual circumstances - As long as we are confident that those circumstances aren’t relevant we continue to believe - Step 2: Dream Argument - Step 3: Evil Demon/ The Matrix - Can anything survive this type of skepticism? • YES! 2 Monday, February 22, 2016 - Cogito ergo sum —> I think, therefore I am • It means: If I am doubting, I am thinking. So as a doubter, I know that I exist as a thinking thing. - One can also report on what his/her experiences are like • allowing one to say things such as, “It appears as though I am teaching class.” - There is a gap between our experiences/perceptions and reality • I can only know my perceptions - Berkeley • Defends Idealism: The only things that exist are ideas • Esse is Percipi: To be is to be perceived. • We form our concepts of things, by partially perceiving them and then stringing together those partial perceptions into a complete picture. • Berkely’s claim is that all it is to be an object is to be that bundle of perceptions - challenges/ Questions - Is this relative to individual people? no • - What about mistaken perceptions? can we make sense of them? • yes, we can make sense of them - What happens if no one perceives a thing? Does it go out of existence? • No, because God perceives it What’s perceiving God?-God - The argument: It is impossible to conceive of an unperceived object, so unperceived objects are nonsense. - Panenthism: The created world is a part of/ aspect of/ etc God but God is not exhausted by that world. • How does this affect free will? - Libertarian: the freedom to choose between alternatives, the freedom to do otherwise 3 Monday, February 22, 2016 - Compatibilist: freedom of the will is compatible with determinism, the freedom to do what we want to do. • As long as the action proceeds from our being in the right way, it still counts as free. is compatible with panentheism • • The theory of libertarian free will means that a person can choose between two actions or many actions, without the constraining influence of a sovereign God. • • A compatibilist believes that a person’s will is constrained by a sovereign God, but that person retains moral free agency – the ability to choose along with the responsibility of that choice. - Omniscience: All knowing, Knows all truths • does God know what it is like to be Julia Mattis? - Some suggestions: • 1.) All of my thoughts are thoughts that God thinks • 2.) All of my actions are actions that God performs • 3.) My body and other material objects are fundamentally ideas in the mind of God - Ibn al ‘Arabi • 13th Century Sufi • -Bezels of wisdom -based around the ideas and lives of prophets being discussed • • not in chronological order • Not obviously related to the prophets being discussed - Immanence vs. Transcendance • God is transcendence beyond our ideals • immanent is right here, right now; overwhelming - The Wisdom of Light in the World of Joseph 4 Monday, February 22, 2016 • Divine Light and Cosmic Shadow - we, and the whole world are the shadow and God is the Cosmic Light - it is true that God’s immanent presence in the world is not always easy to see - “All we perceive is nothing by the being of the Reality in the essences of contingent beings” - Dreaming • this world is a dream within a dream • who’s dream? God’s dream - i am an idea within an idea - Because of our limited understanding of God, there are many religions - God is radically other than us • Leads toward a mandate for religious tolerance - The wisdom of Breath in the word of Jonah - The importance of mercy (forgiveness/ being given better than you deserve) - Hell • Those who defend the idea of Hell, usually appeal to the guilt of the damned • but this is problematized by panentheism/ compatiblism because every action of the damned is also and action of God • Does this undermine omnibenevolence? • not necesarilly. It could be that there are some good which can only exist in the presence of evils. - Courage. Compassion, etc • if so, then evil must exist for those goods to exist and God might have good reason to allow them/create them. - According to al Arabi, Hell is not a permanent state of suffering • The flames of Hell will cool for those who experience them - 5 Monday, February 22, 2016 - Against the death penalty • everything and everyone represents God’s will • Everyone is capable of becoming more like God by embracing the divine nature within them. • Murderers deserve to die, but it is best or us to act mercifully and not kill them. • This leads to a form of pacifism - The Wisdom of Intimacy in the Word of Elias • Elias lived before Noah, he had his lust supernaturally removed • have to be careful about saying such sexual desires are bad because as a pantheist he believes they are a part of god • is this a better way of living?.. No • Our lusts and sexual passions are good. They are part of what it is to be human. • It is better to master these passions, and use them well, than to get rid of them - Celibacy is not the ideal. Marriage is. - 6


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