One Week of Bio Notes 2/29-3/2
One Week of Bio Notes 2/29-3/2 BIOEE1780: Evolutionary Biology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Siege on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOEE1780: Evolutionary Biology at Cornell University taught by Dr.Sarvary in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Biology: Evolution and Biodiversity in Biological Sciences at Cornell University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Pre Lecture Loggerhead Shrike impales it’s prey on thorns or yucca plants - maybe to attract mates Darwin’s Postulates individuals variable in some trait. at least some of the baritone is heritable the carnation cases diﬀerential survival and reproduction convergent evolution Artiﬁcial Selection human caused evolution not random humans can artiﬁcially select for certain desired traits by breeding two dogs with those favorable traits or characteristics Lundehund Dog Breed 6 toes for scrambling up cliﬀs to ﬁnd puﬃns nesting on Lofoten Islands in Norway Directional Selection selection favors phenotypes at one end of the distribution darwin ﬁnch response to drought Stabilizing Selection selection favors values towards the middle of the distribution while ﬁtness at either end is low body weight in newborn babies (not over weight or underweight) Disruptive Selection selection favorites individuals who are towards the two are ends, further from the mean origin of new species (hybrids) Water and Minds Notes Nested Social Processes and the Environment Individual: attitudes and values interpersonal interaction: norms impersonal interaction: institutions and policy broad abstract processes: globalization, culture Thinking at the Individual Level we are shaped by and shape our environment our relationship with the environment is transactional key domains: person, place, process EX: when we study illegal wildlife hunting we might focus on aspect of some group of persons (hunters and motivations) particular place (area relevant to wildlife) certain processes (subsidence or recreation) Black Box Problem we can’t see whats going on inside of a person we can only see what goes in and what goes out we need an elegant (simplicity and eﬀectiveness) model to think about the individual Building Blocks of Studying A Person behavior thoughts (cognition) the process by which we form concrete ideas, based on perception or process of perceptual inputs beliefs (statement you accept to be true values evaluative beliefs feelings (aﬀect) sublime, attachment subjective feeling state and/or nervous system response Emotion + Cognition = Attitudes + Behavior attitudes are consistent with behavior Values a value is an enduring believe that a speciﬁc mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable that on opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state. - Milton Rokeach values are taken for granted (zero sum beliefs, beliefs that are not based on other beliefs) we possess very few values we all posses the same values to diﬀerent degrees they emerge from broad social processes born into value systems they are stable over time really hard to change not directed at an object Beliefs cognitions or thoughts not knowledge do not need to be correct only things we accept to be true when ties to values we get evaluative beliefs attitudes are founded on a horizontal structure of beliefs Attitudes combining emotion and belief to get attitude likes and dislikes aﬃnities for and against situations, objects, persons, groups… any identiﬁable aspects of our environment including abstract ideas and social policies represent a summary evaluation of a psychological object captured________ not all attitudes are created equal key principles of attitude strength: consistency increase in consistency, increase in attitude strength stability/direct experience increase in stability, increase in attitude strength identity/emotion increase in association with identity, increase in emotion, increase in attitude strength your wolf example makes me think that because people have never seen god they can’t believe in it and have very strong attitudes about it? Key Takeaways individual phenomenon are nested in broader processes black box is a simpliﬁed model emotion and cognition lead to attitudes attitude behavior consistency pre lecture Senescence: a decline with age in per capita reproductive performance, physiological function, or the probability of survival Antagonistic Pleiotropy: when a genetic variant with beneﬁcial eﬀect on one trait also has a detrimental eﬀect on another trait an allele may be favored bc it leads to a beneﬁcial trait early in life enhancing reproductive output, or ensuring early surveil, even though the same allele may lead to other traits that are very detrimental later in life Antagonistic Pleiotropy in the context of Senescence What is selection for reproduction early in life favors a trait that also causes shortened overall lifespan? ﬁtness depends on reproduction, positive selection on post reproductive traits is absent or weak Virginia Opossum Sepelo Island separated from mainland and from danger (bobcats, cars, humans) longer lifespan on island than on mainland test to see if the diﬀerence in survival has any adaptive aﬀects relating to senescence test tail collagen breaking points found that collagen aging is a good general measure of the physiological aging found that island longevity is greater litter size is larger on mainland allocation tradeoﬀs mainland females should invest now bc they won’t survive to give birth another year life history evolution has molded organisms to do allocation tradeoﬀs Fitness: an individual’s proportional representation in the bene pool of subsequent generations Direct Fitness: determined by number of oﬀspring (and that survive to maturity) involves tradeoﬀs among present and future reproduction Life History Evolution: the timing and duration of key events during a life time age and duration of reproduction number and size of oﬀspring lifespan Central Theme is Tradeoﬀs Extrinsic Mortality the rate at which external events (predation, starvation) lead to death Intrinsic Mortality the rate at which internal events (aging, disease, mutations) lead to death Recap tradeoﬀs arise when investment in one trait result in lower investment in another trait investment in reproduction is often at the expense of investment in growth or maintenance selection may favor alleles that are beneﬁcial early in life, even if they’re deleterious late in life Conﬂicts with in the family in tradeoﬀs, individuals are allocating resources in other rather than other strategy bc resources are ﬁnite and cannot have both can’t have high reproduction AND high survival these conﬂicts relate to the allocation of resources but not between stages but between individuals in a family blue footed boobies: only the slightly older chick will survive and kick the younger away from the nest siblicide (oﬀspring-oﬀspring conﬂict) Male sand Gobies will eat some of their eggs when there are stressful conditions (low oxygen and high egg density) in order to ensure the survival of the clutch as a whole parent-oﬀspring conﬂict eurasian penduline tits mothers and fathers compete to leave the nest and mate with other parent parent conﬂict