Art History 6C Modern to Contemporary
Art History 6C Modern to Contemporary
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Art History 6C May 06 2014 Lecture 11 Cubism and Post Impressionism Post Impressionism group of artists that borrow techniques from the Impressionists nut use these for their own expressive purposes and concerns 1 Pointillism was used by Seurat 2 Passage was used by Cezanne and later Picasso and Braque The Avant Garde advanced guard The Fauves wild beasts Expressionism Salon de Independants held in the Spring and was juried by critics artists and dealers and was established in 1884 Salon d Automne founded in opposition to restrictive policies of official salons 1903 They wanted to break away from d independants and were juried by Progressive artists Gaugin was the king of color and wanted to express an effect through the use of colors Henri Matisse had a fascination with color and some of his paintings share some characteristics in the use of color 1 Luxury peace and pleasure 1904 2 Dots in the painting are bigger than Seurat s he used big pointillism 3 This painting was displayed in the Salon d independants in 1905 4 There were lots of nudes in this painting their faces are strange and women are bathing 5 There is a reference to traditional and past works because he is trying to talk about tradition in a new way 6 He was interested in how color works and this work was actually very popular in the Salons 7 Woman with a hat 1905 Matisse 8 Shown at the salon d Automne and was highly criticized for its exaggerated use of bright colors and thick brushstrokes which resembled work done by kids 9 Gertrude Stein bought the painting but it was ridiculed by others The Fauves were artists who worked together and painted but did not consider themselves a movement or group This movement lasted for a short period but then artists moved on like Matisse Matisse Open Window 1905 1 Looks like a painting of a painting 2 The color becomes the defining factor and places emphasis on the bright colors Pablo Picasso Gertrude Stein 1907 1 Picasso began collecting African masks 2 Simplified features on the masks attracted his attention 3 The Gertrude portrait gives her body a massive appearance Des Moiselle d Avignon May June 1907 1 African art inspired if you look at the women s faces he put gures together to make their faces just like with the masks 2 Nudes are not sensual 3 The title refers to a brothel and prostitutes The Cubist movement began with Cezanne After his death Picasso and Braque became interested in it and developed synthetic and analytical Cubism Analytical cubism is about analyzing the formal elements that make up an element Fruit Dish and Still Life with fruit dish l908are about instability and conceptual knowledge about knowing what we are seeing conceptual knowledge wins out over perceptual knowledge How do we know what we are looking at What point of view is this being seen from In Picasso s Portrait of DH Kahnweiler 1908 1 There is little color used so the focus is on light and shade 2 Must look carefully to make out the figure and the elements that make it up Art History 6C May 14 2014 Lecture 12 Cubism and Duchamp William Hamett Still Life Violin and Music 1888 1 2 American painter doing the trick of the eye or trompe l oeil which is a technique that uses realistic imagery to create the illusion or appearance that the depicted object exists in three dimensions Harnett attempts this by means of the violin and other objects that cast a shadow like a real object would Braque Still life with pitcher 1910 1 2 Braque s goal is not to make the image appear life like Analytic cubism because there are lots of parts that make up the whole but don t really make sense Shows us how when something is put in a particular context it may represent something different He also wants to let the viewer know that this is a painting and the nail at the top of the painting serves as a visual to point this fact out Arbitrary Signs were important in Cubist art because they helped the viewer to make meaning of what they see For example when we see the word Cat we all picture a cat but the cat we picture is different Braque Factories at Rio Tinto L Estaque 1910 and Picasso s Port at Cadaques 1910 1 Once you start to paint it turns 3D at surface has layers and we start to explore the system Portrait of DH Kahweiler 1910 2 4 Patron of Braque and Picasso who paid them for their art and gave them a monthly allowance so all they had to worry about was painting Abstract and lots of lines for his hands viewer knows they are hands because it is a portrait and it makes sense to us this is the use of arbitrary signs we know they are in the form of a folded hands and positioned near the bottom where hands would typically be placed His face is also given some clarification and his hair is visibly parted The Portuguese Braque 1 2 A man maybe in a cafe or dock and holding a guitar or playing it Lots of aspects of this painting are broken down to give the view of the subject from all possible views Includes letters that are added not painted on the painting and give the piece a 3D appearance and let the viewer know it is a painting 0 Picasso s and Braque s exploration was not how to render something but how do we know what we see 0 Ma Jolie 191112 Picasso 1 Refers to a song from that time period 2 Must understand the language of cubism to understand the painting 3 Wanted to ask the question what is representation 0 Shift from analytic cubism to synthetic cubism 0 Analytic Cubism analyzing systems and taking apart the pieces that make up the representation 0 Synthetic Cubism a synthesis of things outside of image and incorporating them into the image 0 Still life with chair canning 1912 Picasso 1 Puzzles of the real and representation 2 Uses real rope to frame the painting this can be seen as a table or even a glass that was seen in cafes during that time period 3 J ai play in French but was also the name of a newspaper 4 The chair canning in the piece is not painted because he used a material that was like wallpaper so he used a mass produced item 5 But asks the question is it real 0 Braque Fruit Dish and Glass summer 1912 1 Paper colle 2 Coller to stick to glue 3 It is a collage and Viewer has to decide if the representation is a real imitation or not 4 Braque worked at a shop where he painted fake wood on fumiture and other objects 5 This is seen in his piece in the brown areas 0 1914Braque Mandolin VS Picasso Fruit Dish Fruits Violin and Glass 1912 0 Marcel Duchamp Nude descending the staircase no 2 1912 1 Was displayed at the Armory Show in New York City in 1913 2 Interested in motion and how a figure could be presented 3 The nude in the image is shown in all forms as she descends from the stairs and appears almost confusing to look at because it looks all combined but this is done to represent the sense of motion in time and speed as things change 0 Duchamp was also interested in the mechanical things and machines 0 The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors or The Large Glass 191523 1 Has a sexual connotation to it 2 There is a chocolate grinder which can be interpreted as the bachelors or the men grinding the females sexuality 3 Was cracked during its transportation and Duchamp said the crack finalized the piece and gave it meaning Art History 6C May 15 2014 Lecture 13 Duchamp Dada and Surrealism 0 Duchamp was interested in machines and how they have a sexual meaning to them 0 He investigates the whole notion of making art itself and wanted to answer questions like 1 Are artists like manufacturers Do they have something special What does culture do How does value get assessed in a work of art Does the artist have the final say What is the distinction between art and commercial products 7 What are the criteria and who determines it U P 0 Duchamp took the term Readymade to apply it to his readymade art pieces it usually is an item that is aesthetically provocative 0 In Advance of the Broken Arm 1964 and Fountain 1917 1 Both were highly controversial when they were given for display at showcases 2 People thought that this was not art because they were everyday objects which Duchamp simply wrote something on and was calling art 3 The Fountain was centered at the Society of Independent Artists but was not accepted and was thrown out because things that were not made by an artist did not classify as art 4 Duchamp wanted to emphasize this point and change the convention of what was considered art 5 He claimed that because he changed the item by signing writing or ipping it it was art even though it was a manufactured item 0 Duchamp s Rrose Selavey 1921 1 Rrose Selavey was Duchamp s alter ego and whose name was a play on the French Eros C est la vie or physical love is life 0 His Wanted 2000 Reward 1923 was raising the questions of who is an artist and where are they He also wanted to point out how artists are always sought after and put pressure on who is an artist and what the artist does an artist can be anyone and is anyone 0 Picabia Francis Amorous Parade 1917 was also interested in machinery his Portrait of a young American Girl in a state of Nudity 1915 plays on the similarities of sparks to start a machine and what a woman needs to get sparked in order for her machinery to also work Futurism was about speed the modem experience machines youth and war wanted to promote industrialization and Modernity It stared in Italy and was during the beginning of the 20th century Umberto Boccioni s Futurist Evening 1911 was a representation of what the Futurists believed in FT Marinetti wrote the Futurist Manifesto which was published in an Italian newspaper and rejected the past and celebrated speed violence youth industry and machines he promoted the enlistment of youths to the war Dada Movement began in Zurich Switzerland as a result of WWI and the disgust that these artists felt toward all the senseless deaths that these countries were allowing They wanted to become something separate from the traditions of society who was allowing war they wanted to be different and they stood against nationalism rationalism and materialism because they felt this contributed to senseless war The Cabaret Voltaire was held in Zurich and were performances that were nonsensical and were put together by Dada artists and initiated by Hugo Ball who lost his friend to the war and had a deep feeling against war Ball would wear cardboard pants a paper hat and crab like hands and would read poetry that did not make sense to the audience but that was the point There was Dada art that political and some that was not but in Zurich they wanted to combat enlistment Hans Arp Collage arranged according to the Laws of Chance 191617 2 Claimed that the pieces of paper landed randomly in that pattem They believed that human art technology can t stop war it is all worthless Post WWI Germany and the Weimer Republic there was in ation and the Treaty of Versailles caused reparation payments to pull Germany father into an economic depression Dada in Berlin There was disillusionment Hanah Hoch 191920 Cut with a Kitchen Knife 3 Was a collage nothing was painted she made a division within her collage of dadas and anti dadas like the Kaiser 4 Uses figures to make up faces and other representations 5 She also uses works and pictures of people 6 She drew from mass culture and did not modify anything The 1 International Dada Fair was in Berlin in 1920 and it put on several shows it criticized culture and went against it things against not only after the war but also before it John Heartfield made collages and photomontages and was disgusted with German government he was a pioneer in the use of art as a political weapon and many of them were anti Nazi and anti Facist Dada movement sort of just ended itself as society began to take more interest in it and for them that was not acceptable because it would tum traditional and they Were against that Surrealism outgrowth of Dada Id instinctive physical desire Ego manages the id mediates between obligation of social life and personal desire tries to satisfy the id in socially acceptable Ways Superego conscience usually imposed by criticism or disapproval family culture extemal pressures Sublimation redirection of id s primal impulses into constructive behavior Art History 6C Lecture 14 May 20 2014 Surrealism 1930 s Movement started by Andre Breton who wanted to tap into the unconscious for revolutionary potential anti bourgeoisie anti capitalism pro imagination the marvelous chance Automatism Frottage rubbing Paranoid critical method by Dali Biomorphic Chance Freud inspired Surrealists 1 ID instincts physical desire 2 Ego makes sure you don t let the id overtake you it mediates 3 Superego conscience we rationalize things like our manners and what we learn from society Giorgio De Chirico The Child s Brain 1914 1 Man has his eyes closed and there is a closed book on the desk he sits behind 2 He appears to be in a constricted space and the sky in the background also appears to be constricted between the tall buildings that for the background 3 De Chirico painted evocative images of the dream and the unconscious so things that do not get out because of our ego and our superego 1924 The Dream Period 1 The dream is the disguised ful llment of the repressed wish Freud Andre Masson tried to figure out ways to tap into the unconscious and came up with automatic drawing which consisted of letting your unconscious take over your drawing You just let your hand and mind wander don t think about it but let your inner thought control what you draw and incorporate randomness After letting his pen travel across the page he would find hints of images like fragments of bodies and objects that emerged from the abstract There was some allusion to sexuality in Masson s drawings as there would be breasts and other body parts Masson Untitled 192425 2 An automatic drawing that had some allusion to sexuality and was done completely randomly by Masson 3 He was able to make out forms from this and other automatic drawings he made Battle of the Fishes 1926 Masson 1 Also an automatic drawing but in this one Masson also freely applied gesso or almost like glue to the canvas and throwing sand on it and brushing away the excess 2 What appeared was an image that gave the appearance of an underwater battle between sharp toothed fish 3 Masson had been in WW1 and as a result of it had been physically and emotionally wounded and many times depicted some form of violence and war Joan Miro Birth of the World 1925 1 Is an example of biomorphic forms in Surrealism 2 Miro wanted to start with a figurative world and then disfigure it 3 In this panting he applied paint on an uneven canvas by pouring brushing and inging it so that in some places of the canvas the paint soaked Max Ernst 1 Utilized frottage and his works looked like he took rubbings and used them for shape and highlighted them with paint and chalk Dali The Great Masturbator 1929 2 Paranoid critical method that suggests something else 3 Dali painted some of his fears and obsessions in this piece such as the grasshopper masturbation and castration 4 There is a sexual suggestion as well both in the title and the figure of a woman and her position near the bottom portion of the man s body Meret Oppenheim Fur lined teacup 1936 1 Release part of your psyche that is repressed by society 2 Brings up the traditional association with feminine decorum into sensuous tableware Rene Magritte The Treachery of lmages 1929 1 Has an image of a smoking pipe and the words saying that it is not a pipe 2 Brings into question the idea of representation of an image and a real object The Human Condition 1933 1 Tension between the representations and the real 2 Displays an easel placed inside a room and in front of a window it holds an unframed painting of a landscape that seems continuous with the landscape outside the window No more Weimar 1930 Hitler assumes power in 1933 The Third Reich 19331945 Heart eld Adolf the Superman 1932 was against Hitler and used a photomontage that allowed him to create the image of Hitler an xray a column of gold coins and a swastika The gold coins are added to show the hidden interest that Hitler had in financial power Propaganda had nothing to do with the truth Spanish Civil War Picasso Guemica 1937 l 2 Guernica was a small city that was bombed by Fascist forces This painting commemorated the atrocity of the event and was made to look like a newspaper because it was in black and white and it was the way in which the world leamed of this event during that time The Degenerate Art exhibition 1938 was meant to make fun of Modern art and was attended by many people There was also the Great German exhibition in 1938 which depicted art the way it should really be and included gures and women as idealized with perfect awless white skin In the l930 s the Great Depression hit the United States and the rest of the world after the Stock market crashed Great Depression The Dust Bowl and the New Deal The New Deal 1 U 39gt Federal Arts Project contracted photographers to go around the country and take pictures and paint murals Migrant Mother Dorthea Lange shows the struggle of a mother and her children Diego Rivera s Man at the crossroads 1934 Depicted Lenin and was destroyed because Rivera did not want to remove him Works Progress Administration Farm Securities Administration Art History 6C Lecture 15 May 22 2014 Abstract Expressionism cont from last lecture 0 Mural by Diego Rivera was commissioned by John Rockefeller a big oil tycoon who had an interest in Mexican art 0 Mural is 63 feet long 0 It put Socialism above Capitalism and included Lenin and this became an issue 0 There was a fight between commissioner and painter because Rivera did not Want to remove or change the mural and Wanted control over his rights as an artist but Rockefeller also Wanted control as a commissioner 0 Mural was eventually tore down and removed from its place and Rivera Went back to Mexico 0 US Isolationism Regionalism Nationalism inspired different art movements and styles 0 Benton Thomas Hart Jackson Pollock and Grant Wood 0 Wood painted during the Regionalist movement which consisted of painting the American countryside and promoting the simple life there rather than in the urban areas 0 Museum of Modern Art played a vital role in promoting Modem Art and for a period before the l930 s collected Mexican and Latin American Art 0 WWII 1 193945 and resulted in the death of 50 70 million people 2 Photography was a huge part of documenting what the concentration camps were doing and photographing the victims of the Holocaust 3 Photographers like Lee Miller were among those who exposed the horrors of concentration camps and revealed What occurred there 4 Atomic bomb August 6 and August 9 1945 in the islands of Nagasaki and Hiroshima 0 Booming post War economy US 1 GI Bill gave retuming veterans the opportunity to return or go to school free of charge and it paid for many future citizens to become educated 2 People began to go to self service art markets Where they could buy art that was mass produced and could decorate their homes 3 There was also the technique of painting by number which allowed people to match the numbers on a painting to the color they correspond to 4 This gave people an easy Way to reproduce art that was pleasing and could be decorative 0 After the War artists began asking themselves how can you say something that Will be meaningful to culture and What language will you use to tell it 1 Carl Jung came up with this idea of archetypes which are universal images 2 Pollock began to become interested in this concept and Wanted to express a feeling from his viewers in his art 3 Clement Greenberg was an important art critic who argued how can people separate themselves from the consumer culture How do We make art meaningful to ourselves Beginnings Post War II abstraction Surrealist inspiration Universal archetypes Abstract expressionism 1 Two types of abstract expressionism action painting and color field painting 2 Color fixed painting was a kind of stained color painting of pigments soaked into canvas layering 3 Mark Rothko painted in this style and he would stain the canvas in color then add layers 4 His Brown Blue Brown on Brown 1953 were three layered colors and in Which he Wanted the viewer to become engulfed in the painting and have a sensibility of a universal idea religious experience 5 Many people however did not respond the Way he Wanted them too Pollock s work was considered action painting because he would drip ing and interact with his canvas and the paint as he painted There was action in his style but he also had control over his method even though it looked random and due to chance Pollock believed it was important for the simple expression of the complex thought and that painting should not be about replicating images Abstract Expressionism was painterly expressive and non objective and leaving traces of your gestures was important William de Kooning Woman I 195052 and Pink Angels 1945 1 Seen as hostile images of the female figure there is this sense of alert and scary like appearance of the figures 2 He painted on the ground too in order to interact with his paintings better and he liked to paint his Works over and over often fixing them over the layer beneath 3 In Excavation 1950 the layers of paint that he paint over have built over on top of each other and show his painting process even more clearly Art History 6C May 29 2014 Lecture 16 Abstract Expressionism l950 s Rosenberg was an art critic who described abstract expressionism as an expression of the self through color line and form Pollock was enacting his emotion by moving the canvas from the wall to the oor and turning it into a stage where he could perform Abstract Expressionism 1 Non narrative 2 Nonrepresentative 3 Non figurative 4 Does not show a window to the world 5 We have to use our thoughts about how abstraction can explain the world Expression 1 Expression of the self through color line and form 2 The self becomes an archetype for all mankind 3 Canvas becomes arena in which to act 4 Archetype is a collectively inherited unconscious idea pattem of thoughts images universally present in individual psyches ex the sun and the moon l950 s was an era of intense sexism Gender women were not seen as masterful in art as men Lee Krasner was Pollock s wife and she was able to articulate Pollock s work when he could not She painted and was interested in repetitive archetypal shapes calligraphy and forms of writing Franz Kline was also interested in language as well and black and white paintings Calligraphic style derived from calligraphy writing the canvas as a text to be read rather than just a gestural space This speaks to the audience and gives it a deeper meaning Krasner after Pollock s death became the holder of his legacy and had to put her painting career on hold before and after her time with Pollock After his death Krasner began painting again and her art became more autobiographical l970 s Krasner painted Paligenesis which translates to again rebirth and can be taken as a rebirth of her own self and her identity as an artist again There is the concept of rebirth growth and change Lee Bontecou was another female artist but works between welding steel into her art and painting Her art comes off the wall and into the space she works in Josef Albers was interested in color and how the eye perceives color and their change His Homage to the square is a perfect example of his interest in color and the effects that colors have on one another Claes Oldenburg The Store 1961 1 Way of rejecting consumer culture less emotional and every item in the store was made from plaster then drenched in paint 2 It is like an inbetween moment because it is on the wall like a painting is but it is also a sculpture Willem de Kooning 1 Painting 1948 2 Abstraction and figures on canvas 3 He wasn t afraid to paint a gure and he had intense brushstrokes and use of color 4 He painted Women but not as individuals but overall and he represents them aggressively everywhere like in their face and body and this is repeated in every piece Robert Rauschenberg studied at the Black Mountain College 1 Made paintings personal through collages and combines 2 Canyon 1959 was a reference to The Rape of Ganymede but adds abstraction to it 3 He abstracts the body of the baby by using a pillow in its place and he includes a real bald eagle in the piece Yves Klein 1 Interested in women and symbolism 2 Women make body prints and therefore living sculptures because they would cover themselves in his signature blue paint and make forms on the canvas 3 The process became a public arena with spectators present like if it Were an actual performance Art History 6C Lecture 17 June 03 2014 Performance Video Art 0 Video art 1 art that uses both the apparatus and processes of television and video 2 can take many forms such as recordings that are broadcasted or viewed in galleries 3 they can be distributed as tapes and discs 4 can be sculptural installations which incorporate one or more television monitors 5 they display live or recorded images and may or may not have sound 0 Sony Portapak was the first battery powered video system that was used by many of these artists in the l960 s and 70 s 0 Much of this equipment was very expensive and artists had to work collectively because they would pitch in to buy it together 0 Nam June Paik was a Korean artist and among the first to do video art 0 Zen for television 1963 were altered television sets 1 He wanted to make television an object of culture 2 He played with the waves on the television screen to create different images and forms 3 Tumed the tv on its side like if it were a canvas 0 Moon is the oldest television 196265 1 Wants to show tv as a silent thinker 2 Shows all the phases of the moon and wants to show though time people have always watched the moon as if it were a TV but now the tv is replacing the moon 3 In the gallery he is trying to create a heightened sensation of the moon 0 He was always pushing limits of his practice with elevating technology as can be seen with Electronic Highway 2002 0 He is playing with the idea of liveliness 0 Peter Campos Shadow Projection 1974 1 Interested in concept of the self dialogue between the public persona 2 He used cameras and surveillance cameras as well and wanted to answer what people do in front of the camera when no one is watching 3 He surveillances himself 0 Vito Acconci Shadow play 1970 1 Used super 8 film and then transferred it to video 2 There was no editing live quality 3 Shadow boxing was his way of fighting with our superego and battling his own demons SeedBed 1970 1 Included only audio for the listeners but no visual content 2 Empty room with the exception of speakers and Acconci underneath the oor 3 He masturbates underneath the ramp of the oor throughout the duration of the gallery to the steps and noises he hears from the visitors 4 The speakers resonate with the sounds that he makes 5 He wants to shock and test the idea of endurance could he endure masturbating for that long 6 It is also a sort of verbal assault because there are no images just soundscape Proximity Space is literally intruding on someone s space that is the performance Acconci takes this into the space of the museum and is being voyeuristic and creeping up on people He made it art however by writing that he would intrude peoples spaces on a notecard as a display this made it art and could not be considered harassment because it s a part of his performance Performance Art is an artistic genre that rejected theater and dance and was rooted in visual artistic practice It is an art form that is central to the dissemination of live experiment that include body art and live art Review Yves Klein had live nude women drip themselves in his signature blue paint and used their bodies as paintbrushes Live Art Pierro Manzini objecti ed the female body as well and marked it as a living sculpture He would sign his name on the women making them objectifying and making them his works of art The Happening a fantasy performed a formal structure and substructure that involves the present and it is live it also requires an audience and their participation Kaprow was the artist who coined the term and was seeking to make non art forms The Happening is an imagined scenario composed by the artist 1 Rearrangeable 1958 is about the idea of randomness in which anyone can arrange the tiles in what order they wish to 2 Ascending latter in the courtyard 1962 documents the live event of people ascending a tall latter and takes pictures of them doing it 3 Fluids 1967 boxes made of ice cubes around the city of LA with the participation of college students and others it is like a poetic gesture because the ice will melt anyway but it is about the actual action and the process of it happening Performance Art Body Art 1 Carolee Schneemann Meat Joy 2 Raw meat is thrown at people participation who are just Wearing bathing suits and the sort and they just dance around and perform 3 It is meant to evoke a type of joy and combined ideas of Kaprow and Pollock 4 She is a Woman and so she takes the reins and becomes subject and the object of Work rather than having a man do it for her Trisha Brown walking on the wall 1971 the idea that dancers can also be in art and she transfers dancers from the oor and onto the wall just as if it were art or a painting It is very important to understand that live art is very important and the live event can t be recaptured unless you are present and taking it in Art History 6C June 05 2014 Lecture 18 2014 The l970 s Feminist Art Guerrilla Girls formed in the 1980s and they were basically a group of female artists who wore gorilla masks and assumed the names of dead female artists They appeared in public and spoke about the problems of female artists and their space in the art world and to convey this they produced posters postcards books and billboards and went around the city of New York doing this Advertisements during the 1950s were very overtly sexist and they conveyed the message that woman were submissive and weak They also advertised a woman s space as belonging in the kitchen and the home as the caretaker Even college educated women would not get positions higher than as secretaries they had no public sphere in the workforce Proto feministl Feminism 1 Term used to define women whose aesthetic artistic and or philosophical contribution anticipated modern feminist concepts yet lived in a time when the term feminist was scorned Feministl Feminism 2 The theory of defining defunding and establishing political economic and social equality of the sexes 3 Organized activity on behalf of women s rights and interests The 1970s feminist identified woman asked Does art made by men look different than art made from women If so why Are women acculturated to be feminine Acculturation The process by which a human being acquires the culture and values of part of a society from infancy to adulthood Meret Oppenheim Object 1 Proto feminist object 2 Takes a domestic object and renders it unusable makes it exotic and associates it with femininity Georgia O Keefe Black Iris 1 Have the appearance of vaginas although they are owers up close 2 She however rejected any bodily comparisons and all the feminist comments made about her and her works Louise Bourgeois 19112010 Femme Maison 1947 1 Print of a woman whose head is covered by a house 2 It is surrealist in nature because the head covering her head represents childbearing and the daily activities that take place in the home 0 Judy Chicago 1 2 Based in LA not in New York and is associated with feminism Changed her last name to Chicago like her hometown and had several happenings called Atmosphere She believed women didn t go to art or sculpture schools with the same set of skills in sculpture as men had and that put women at a disadvantage She set out to train women with the installation woman house in which women students participated and created rooms that held the daily life of a woman like a kitchen with eggs that also are often compared to breasts 0 Shigeko Kubota Vagina Painting using only her body to create artwork 1 She makes fun of Pollock and Klein in their use of gesture in space 0 Institutional critique an artistic practice that re ects critically on its own place within galleries and museums and on the concept and social function of art itself 0 It is questioning the networks and structures of institutional power 0 Adrian Piper Mythic Being and Calling Card 2 She created an alter ego the mythic being and she put on an afro wig and a mustache and played the role of a man in the public sphere She discovered that people would react to her like the role she was playing so women would clutch their bag and walk fast when she was near them It exposed the public actions of racism It was also a social critique but against men s behaviors towards women When she would go out to say clubs or bars she would hand men a card that told them she was not interested and that she wanted to be left alone Reaction against public sphere and engaged the idea of language as powerful tool and she performed as herself 0 Agit prop short for agitation propaganda it was art made with an explicit political agenda 0 Art with a social conscience Art which seeks to provoke social change betterment Women are just as good enough as men to be artists and as painters