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Early Europe History Notes Feburary 1-5

by: jmooney1 Notetaker

Early Europe History Notes Feburary 1-5 HST015

Marketplace > University of Vermont > History > HST015 > Early Europe History Notes Feburary 1 5
jmooney1 Notetaker
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About this Document

One week of notes covering The Capetian dynasty through the Establishment of the Holy Roman Empire and mass expansion of the Church.
Early Europe
Dr. Sean Field
Class Notes




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by jmooney1 Notetaker on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HST015 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Sean Field in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Early Europe in History at University of Vermont.

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Date Created: 03/02/16
Europe expanding, 900­1000 Key Terms: King Alfred, Hugh Capet, Capetian Dynasty, Otto I, Ottonian Dynasty, King Cnut King Alfred ­ Vikings had conquered the lower half of the British Isles ­ Alfred = King of Wessex ­Over ~Thirty years, he pushes the Vikings out of “England” ­ The area he liberates becomes the heart of modern day England ­ Divides the area of “England” into shires controlled by powerful lords who serve under Alfred ­ English language begins developing in the Isles, “Olde English” ­ English political and cultural identity begins developing alongside a more coherent, unified  “kingdom” The Capetian Dynasty and the Emergence of “France” ­ Carolingian Emperors essentially lost all real political authority ­ Vikings attacking “France”, Emperors do not do enough to stop it, lose support from nobles and commoners ­ Hugh Capet = First king of “France” ­ Takes the throne from the Carolingians, establishes the Capetian Dynasty ­ The Capetian king do not control all of France, but are the most powerful lords in the kingdom  at the time Ottonian “Germany”: The New Empire ­ Dukes in the eastern empire claimed power when the empire collapsed ­ German kings rule a more centralized state than the French kings and wield more political and  military power ­ Henry of Saxony chosen as king ­Otto the Great (Son of Henry) ­ Defeated the Magyars at Lechfeld, 955 ­ Invaded Italy, 951, 962 (Italy still in political chaos) ­ Crowned “Emperor of the Romans” , 962 ­ Papacy establishes similar relationship with Otto as it did with Charlemagne ­ “Holy Roman Empire”  The New Christian Monasteries ­ Poland, Hungary, Russia all develop Christian Monarchies, ~1000 AD ­ Norway, Sweden, Denmark ­All develop Christian monarchies ~1000 AD ­ Not necessarily a religious decision, it was mainly a political decision necessary for  interactions with other Christian monarchies Danish Kings conquer England ­Swein Forkbeard (985­1014) ­ Cnut (1014­1035)  The “Take Off” Economy and society, 1000­1300 Key Terms: Agricultural Revolution, Manors, Manorialism, Serfs, Communes Population expansion ­1000­1300 AD, European population triples ­ 15­25 million in ~1000… 60­80 million by ~1300 ­ Climate Improves, allows for land expansion and agricultural success ­ No major epidemics between “Justinian’s plague” and 1348 (The Black Death) ­ End of major invasions by outside forces ­ Western Europe starts producing more food = healthier citizens = longer lives = more  children  Agricultural revolution (Two theories) ­People began clearing more land (Bottom­Up economics) ­The more land the peasants expand into, the more successful they will be. This in turn  builds up the local lord, by making his land more prosperous ­ Economic self­Interest of the Lords (Top­Down Economics) ­ The lords fuel the peasant’s expansion for their personal gain, they are the source of  expansion not the peasants The Commercial Revolution ­ Agricultural Surplus ­ People lived longer and healthier lives, allowing for more time to be spent on  technological improvement, since there was less concern about starvation ­ New fairs ­ New Trade and Trade routes ­ New roads slowly established, but most routes went along rivers by boat, making it  much easier to sell products across “Europe” ­ New banking Techniques ­ Money vouchers and checks, make it safer to travel on business without having to worry about being robbed  ­ Growth of Towns ­ Trade centers begin popping up along trade routes, aiding the economy and fueling  expansion within the towns Communes and Guilds  ­ Communes, A lord grants a town autonomy with the requirement that they pay him a certain  amount of money every year ­ Guilds, Body of Merchants and Artisans that oversees the trade and production of a certain  good or service that their town produces   The Aristocracy: Military Technology and Power ­ Knights, heavy Calvary, wore ~50 Lbs. of Armor and carried many weapons essentially  medieval tanks) ­ Bowmen ­Short bow, short­range combat  ­ Crossbow, can pierce chainmail, better range than short bow incredibly effective in  battle ­ Castles ­Heavily fortified castles began developing  ­ Originally small, crude, and functional, powerful castles expanded and became  increasingly ornate as a display of wealth and power by the lords that controlled them ­ Chivalry, Tournaments turn from a team sport into fight for individual glory ­ The idea of chivalry was used by knights to justify their existence in a world that didn’t  need them ­ Tournaments turned from training for war to entertainment for lords   Popes Vs. Emperors, 1000­1200 Key Terms: Cluniac Reforms, Gregorian reforms, Pope Gregory VII, Emperor Frederick I Cluniac Reforms ­ Began ~910 ­ Network of daughter houses outside of lay (secular) control, reporting only to the pope ­ The monastery at Cluny, established by the Duke of Aquitaine ­Unusual, as the duke was surrendering power to the church ­ First example of a monastic order reporting directly to the papacy  Gregorian Reforms… or revolutions? ­ Advocated a the separation of the church from all secular powers, primarily kings and emperors ­ Attempts to establish a strict church hierarchy stemming from the Papacy  ­ ~1000AD, Ottonian Emperors rely on bishops and abbots for administrative functions and  spiritual validation. The Emperors are more powerful than the Popes at this time ­ Goals of the Eleventh Century reform points ­ Instance on Clerical Celibacy ­ End of Simony (Bargaining and payment for church offices) ­ Papa investiture of bishops (the pope gets to decide who gets to be bishops) Investiture controversy: Emperor Henry IV (r.1056­1106) Vs. Pope Gregory VII (r. 1073­1085)  ­Gregory forbids any secular authority (emperors) from investing Bishops (1075) ­ German emperors clash with popes, German nobility backs the popes because they benefit from a weakened emperor ­ Henry IV humbles himself at Canossa: an attempt to reunite with the church after his  excommunication ­ Compromise is reached with The Concordat of Worms in 1122 ­ Emperor Henry V and Pope Calixtus II ­ Popes invest Bishops with their spiritual authority, and the emperors have limited ability to appoint bishops ­ The popes “win”, they end up with more power and control over the Bishops. If they  want a certain person to be bishop, they simply have to refuse to invest power in anyone else the  emperor attempts to appoint Papal Monarchy ­Success in the Investiture Controversy ­ The papacy gains political authority… The First Crusade is called in 1095 ­ Lateran councils, 1123, 1139, 1179, 1215 (Once a generation) called to establish church  doctrine and address issues facing the church powers ­ Europe­wide network of church courts  ­ Territorial Claims to central Italy (Papal States) establish the church as a more powerful  political force Imperial Struggles in the First Half of the Twelfth Century ­Henry V dies without an Heir, leading to political infighting and chaos within the empire  Frederick Barbarossa (r.1152­1190) ­ looking for new sources of imperial power ­ New title = Sacrum Imperial (Holy Emperor) ­ The canonization of Charlemagne gave him a direct link to divine authority ­ Establishes a series of “Anti­Popes”, in order to avoid recognizing Pope Alexander III ­ Alexander III encourages the formation of the Lombard League in 1167 to resist Frederick’s  attempts to dominate Northern Italy ­ Battle of Legnano in 1176 (The league wins), is the major battle in their conflict ­ Frederick and Alexander finally make up around the time of the third Lateran Council in 1179 ­ Frederick I drowns in a river during the Third Crusade in 1190


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