Carbohydrates EXSC 408
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ticynn London on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXSC 408 at Old Dominion University taught by Kim Baskette in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Physical Education at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
DIET, METABOLISM & FUNCTION OF CARBOHYDRATES Dietary carbohydrates • Simple carbs - Monosaccharides: One sugar- glucose, fructose, galactose - Disaccharides: Two sugars- lactose, sucrose • High Fructose Corn Syrup - Manufactured carbs - Conversion of glucose in corn syrup to fructose Complex carbohydrates • Polysaccharides - Starches: plants, pasta, corn, rice, potatoes - Glucose polymers – commercially prepared polysaccharides - Ex: Maltodextrin used in sports drinks Fiber (total) • Dietary – nondigestible carbs & lignin found in outer layers of plant • Functional – isolated, nondigestible; have physiological effects - Used in additives Types of fiber • Soluble Fibers - Helps lower glucose levels & blood cholesterol. - Ex: oatmeal, nuts, beans, apples • Insoluble Fibers - Helps move food through digestive system to promote regularity and prevent constipation. - Ex. Wheat, whole wheat bread, carrots, tomatoes Health Benefits • Bulk, intestinal transit • Carcinogens in intestines • Bile salts, cholesterol: Protein against heart disease • Regulation of blood sugar • Effects on gut bacteria • Protects against some types of cancer Dietary Carb Recommendations • RDA – 130g/day - Average minimum amount utilized by brain • AMDR – 45-65% of total daily calorie • DV – 60% of total daily calorie • Added sugars – 10% or less • Fiber (2000calorie diet) - <50yrs – < 50 = 30g males, 25g females - >50yrs – > 50 = 38g males, 21g females - DV – 25g Metabolism of Glucose • Normal fasting blood glucose – 70-100mg/dl - Hyperglycemia - > 140mg/dl - Hypoglycemia - <40-50mg/dl • Prediabetic range: 100-125mg/dl - Diabetes: > 126mg/dl • Reactive hypoglycemia (postprandial) - Occurs with rapid, excessive transport of glucose into cells due to hyperglycemia - Occurs within 4 hours after a high carb meal Glycemic Index • Glycemic index - Measures how carbohydrate-containing food effects blood glucose response over 2hrs - Ranking based on blood glucose response compared to reference food • GI of foods - Low – 55 or less - Medium – 69-55 - High – 70 or more Glycemic Load • Glycemic Load: Incorporates GI and portion size; subtracts out gram of fibers • High GL food – 20 or more • Medium GL food – 19-11 • Low GL food - <10 *All sugars are converted to glucose (fructose is converted in the liver)* Storing Carbs as Energy • Bloodstream - about 5 grams - 90mg/dl equivalent to 4.5g • Glycogen stores- increases with carb-rich diet and decreases with starvation • Muscle glycogen- affected by muscle mass
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