BSC 215- Week 7 Notes
BSC 215- Week 7 Notes BSC 215
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Jason Pienaar in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology I in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
BSC 215- Week 7 Notes Hyaline cartilage most abundant, mostly thin collagen fibers, few chondrocytes, major component of epiphyseal plates Elastic rich in fibers, ear pinnae Fibrocartilage coarse bundles of collagen, resist compression, intervertebral discs, knee joints Muscle tissue o Cells=myocytes (muscle fibers) Excitable Cytoplasm filled with myofilament (myofibril) proteins o ECM Endomesium (similar to basal lamina of epithelial) o 3 Types: skeletal smooth cardiac o SKELETAL o CARDIAC o SMOOTH o Long, cylindricalo Branching o Fusiform o Multi-nucleated o Uni or bilateral o Uni-nucleated o Obvious o Obvious o No striations striations striations Nervous Tissue o 2 Cell Types Neurons Cell body Dendrites Axons Neuroglia ECM= mostly ground substance Organ- 2+ tissues that combine to perform common function -muscle tissue -connective tissue Lecture 9 -Bone Tissue- LO 1. What are the functions of the skeletal system? Support Protection Movement Mineral Storage & Homeostasis Acid-Base Balance (using minerals) Adipose tissue storage (yellow bone marrow) Blood Cell Formation (red bone marrow produces both) LO 2. Classification 206 Bones in average adult Long bones- length>width (humerus) Short bones-length=width (carpals& tarsals) Flat bones- thin and broad (skull, sternum, pelvis) Irregular bones- don’t fit any category (vertebra) Sesamoid Bones- bones found within tendons (patella) Wormian (structural) bones- found within skull structures LO 3. Compare long bone structure to short, flat, irregular and sesamoid !!!Periosteum: Outer dense irregular collagenous layer and inner osteogenic layer. Collagen fibers extend into bone matrix as perforating (sharpey’s) fibers !!!Diaphysis: Shaft of the bone !!!Epiphysis: end, short parts of bone !!!Medullary Cavity: hollow inside of diaphysis (stores yellow marrow) !!!Articular Cartilage (hyaline): covers articulating surfaces !!! Nutrient Foramina: minute holes in bone tissue allow blood penetration !!!Endosteum: reticular connective tissue, lines narrow cavities and converts trabecular surfaces of spongy bone !!!Epiphyseal plate/line: hyaline cartilage, zone of bone elongation Compact Bone Dense, osseus tissue, encloses medullary cavity Spongy (cancellous) bone Within ends of long bones and inner portion of short, flat, irregular bones Contains bone marrow Always surrounded by compact bone Bony struts=tuburculae Flat Bones Periosteum: outer dense irregular collagenous layer and inner osteogenic layer. Collagen fibers extend into bone matrix Diploe: layer of spongy bone sandwiched between 2 compact bone layers. Taberculae lined with endosteum LO 4. Difference between red and yellow Red marrow (epithyses) -Hematopoietic cellsproduce blood cells Yellow Marrow -stores triglycerides in adults Clicker Quiz Which has most ECM? o Connective Responsible for mucus secretion o Goblet cell Not function of skeletal o Vitamin storage and homeostasis Patella is sesamoid because o Located within tendons Diploe o Internal layer of spongy bone LO 5. Describe organic and inorganic components of extracellular matrix Osseus Tissue Cells ECM Osteogenic cells Inorganic Osteoblasts organic Osteocytes osteoclasts LO 6. What are the functions of bone tissue cells? 4 major types: Embryonic Mesenchymalosteogenicblastcytes Embryonic monocytes osteoclasts Bone Building cells osteogenic o highly mitotically active, found in periosteum and endosteum, some dif.--> osteoblasts Osteoblasts o Don’t divide, secrete collagen fibersbone matrix Osteocytes o Mature bone cells in lacunae, maintain and signal Bone Dissolving Cells Osteoblasts o Dissolve bone tissue o Formed from the bone cell lineages o Found in resorption bays o Ruffed border LO 7. Compare and Contrast compact and spongy bone Spongy trabeculae, bone marrow Compact central canal, lamellae, lacunae **all bones surrounded by periosteum w/ Sharpey’s Nutrient foramina: openings on bone surface of perforating canals that allow capillaries & nerves passage through compact bone Central canals: innermost osteocytes receive nutrients from blood vessels Osteon: with concentric lamellae structural cylinders **bone grows from the outside in envelope blood vessel & nerve & form concentric layers -SPONGY bone: fed by capillary network (very much alive) -COMPACT bone -osteon (structural unit) -elongated cylinder of concentric lamellae rings **strength of bone from inorganic matrix Collagen fibers in adjacent lamella twist in opposite directions Osteoblasts secrete collagen, become osteoclasts trapped on borders between lamellae after mineralization -SPONGY bone -lighten bone and provide house for bone marrow **structurally similar and grows similarly to compact bone osteoblasts usually under periosteum !!NO osteons AND- blood supply obtained from compact bone vessels Lecture 13 -Bone Tissue II- LO1. Summarize bone development and explain difference between primary and secondary bone Ossification/Osteogenesis: formation of bones 2 ways: 1. Intramembranous a. Flat bones of skull and clavicle b. Starting material= membrane of embryonic connective tissue 2. Endochondral a. Rest of skeleton b. Starting material= hyaline cartilage PRIMARY Irregular arrangement of collagen fibers Abundant osteocytes, little inorganic matrix Present during embryonic development/fracture repair Absorbed by osteoclasts replaced with secondary bne SECONDARY Higher % inorganic (stronger) Fully formed lamella with regular arrangement of collagen fibers LO 2. Describe intramembranous ossification Mesenchyme cells -condense into soft tissue permeated with blood vessels differentiate into osteogenic cells, line up along blood and become osteoblasts, secreting collagen in primary ossification centers Osteocytes -become trapped in matrix deposited by osteoblasts hardened by minerals osteoblasts continue to deposit osseus tissues Spongy Bone -formed by continuous trabeculae formation - meanwhile, more mesenchyme adjacent to spongy bone condenses to form periosteum LO 3. Describe Endochondral Ossification View graphic on lecture slide for details LO 4. Compare longitudinal and appositional bone growth **Continuation of ossification process long chondrocyte division in epiphyseal plate App osteoblasts under periosteum deposit new compact bone LO 5. Describe hormones that affect bone growth Hormone: chemicals secreted into blood by endocrine glands/cells that affect various aspects of target cell physiology Growth Hormone Testosterone Estrogen -increases mitosis -increases rate of -increase rate of of chondrocytes in appositional longitudinal growth epiphyseal plate growth -potently and activity of -accelerates accelerates closure osteogenic cells & closure of of epiphyseal plate osteoblasts epiphyseal plate