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BSC 215- Week 7 Notes

by: Alexia Acebo

BSC 215- Week 7 Notes BSC 215

Alexia Acebo
GPA 3.7

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A collection of notes from the seventh week of BSC 215!
Human Anatomy & Physiology I
Dr. Jason Pienaar
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Jason Pienaar in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology I in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 03/02/16
BSC 215- Week 7 Notes Hyaline cartilage most abundant, mostly thin collagen fibers, few chondrocytes, major component of epiphyseal plates Elastic rich in fibers, ear pinnae Fibrocartilage coarse bundles of collagen, resist compression, intervertebral discs, knee joints  Muscle tissue o Cells=myocytes (muscle fibers)  Excitable  Cytoplasm filled with myofilament (myofibril) proteins o ECM  Endomesium (similar to basal lamina of epithelial) o 3 Types:  skeletal  smooth  cardiac o SKELETAL o CARDIAC o SMOOTH o Long, cylindricalo Branching o Fusiform o Multi-nucleated o Uni or bilateral o Uni-nucleated o Obvious o Obvious o No striations striations striations  Nervous Tissue o 2 Cell Types  Neurons  Cell body  Dendrites  Axons  Neuroglia  ECM= mostly ground substance Organ- 2+ tissues that combine to perform common function -muscle tissue -connective tissue Lecture 9 -Bone Tissue- LO 1. What are the functions of the skeletal system? Support Protection Movement Mineral Storage & Homeostasis Acid-Base Balance (using minerals) Adipose tissue storage (yellow bone marrow) Blood Cell Formation (red bone marrow produces both) LO 2. Classification 206 Bones in average adult  Long bones- length>width (humerus)  Short bones-length=width (carpals& tarsals)  Flat bones- thin and broad (skull, sternum, pelvis)  Irregular bones- don’t fit any category (vertebra)  Sesamoid Bones- bones found within tendons (patella)  Wormian (structural) bones- found within skull structures LO 3. Compare long bone structure to short, flat, irregular and sesamoid !!!Periosteum: Outer dense irregular collagenous layer and inner osteogenic layer. Collagen fibers extend into bone matrix as perforating (sharpey’s) fibers !!!Diaphysis: Shaft of the bone !!!Epiphysis: end, short parts of bone !!!Medullary Cavity: hollow inside of diaphysis (stores yellow marrow) !!!Articular Cartilage (hyaline): covers articulating surfaces !!! Nutrient Foramina: minute holes in bone tissue allow blood penetration !!!Endosteum: reticular connective tissue, lines narrow cavities and converts trabecular surfaces of spongy bone !!!Epiphyseal plate/line: hyaline cartilage, zone of bone elongation Compact Bone  Dense, osseus tissue, encloses medullary cavity Spongy (cancellous) bone Within ends of long bones and inner portion of short, flat, irregular bones Contains bone marrow Always surrounded by compact bone Bony struts=tuburculae Flat Bones  Periosteum: outer dense irregular collagenous layer and inner osteogenic layer. Collagen fibers extend into bone matrix  Diploe: layer of spongy bone sandwiched between 2 compact bone layers. Taberculae lined with endosteum LO 4. Difference between red and yellow Red marrow (epithyses) -Hematopoietic cellsproduce blood cells Yellow Marrow -stores triglycerides in adults Clicker Quiz  Which has most ECM? o Connective  Responsible for mucus secretion o Goblet cell  Not function of skeletal o Vitamin storage and homeostasis  Patella is sesamoid because o Located within tendons  Diploe o Internal layer of spongy bone LO 5. Describe organic and inorganic components of extracellular matrix Osseus Tissue Cells ECM Osteogenic cells Inorganic Osteoblasts organic Osteocytes osteoclasts LO 6. What are the functions of bone tissue cells? 4 major types: Embryonic Mesenchymalosteogenicblastcytes Embryonic monocytes osteoclasts Bone Building cells osteogenic o highly mitotically active, found in periosteum and endosteum, some dif.--> osteoblasts Osteoblasts o Don’t divide, secrete collagen fibersbone matrix Osteocytes o Mature bone cells in lacunae, maintain and signal Bone Dissolving Cells  Osteoblasts o Dissolve bone tissue o Formed from the bone cell lineages o Found in resorption bays o Ruffed border LO 7. Compare and Contrast compact and spongy bone Spongy trabeculae, bone marrow Compact central canal, lamellae, lacunae **all bones surrounded by periosteum w/ Sharpey’s  Nutrient foramina: openings on bone surface of perforating canals that allow capillaries & nerves passage through compact bone  Central canals: innermost osteocytes receive nutrients from blood vessels  Osteon: with concentric lamellae structural cylinders **bone grows from the outside in envelope blood vessel & nerve & form concentric layers -SPONGY bone: fed by capillary network (very much alive) -COMPACT bone -osteon (structural unit) -elongated cylinder of concentric lamellae rings **strength of bone from inorganic matrix  Collagen fibers in adjacent lamella twist in opposite directions  Osteoblasts secrete collagen, become osteoclasts trapped on borders between lamellae after mineralization -SPONGY bone -lighten bone and provide house for bone marrow **structurally similar and grows similarly to compact bone  osteoblasts usually under periosteum !!NO osteons AND- blood supply obtained from compact bone vessels Lecture 13 -Bone Tissue II- LO1. Summarize bone development and explain difference between primary and secondary bone Ossification/Osteogenesis: formation of bones 2 ways: 1. Intramembranous a. Flat bones of skull and clavicle b. Starting material= membrane of embryonic connective tissue 2. Endochondral a. Rest of skeleton b. Starting material= hyaline cartilage PRIMARY  Irregular arrangement of collagen fibers  Abundant osteocytes, little inorganic matrix  Present during embryonic development/fracture repair  Absorbed by osteoclasts replaced with secondary bne SECONDARY  Higher % inorganic (stronger)  Fully formed lamella with regular arrangement of collagen fibers LO 2. Describe intramembranous ossification Mesenchyme cells -condense into soft tissue permeated with blood vessels  differentiate into osteogenic cells, line up along blood and become osteoblasts, secreting collagen in primary ossification centers Osteocytes -become trapped in matrix deposited by osteoblasts hardened by minerals  osteoblasts continue to deposit osseus tissues Spongy Bone -formed by continuous trabeculae formation - meanwhile, more mesenchyme adjacent to spongy bone condenses to form periosteum LO 3. Describe Endochondral Ossification View graphic on lecture slide for details LO 4. Compare longitudinal and appositional bone growth **Continuation of ossification process long chondrocyte division in epiphyseal plate App osteoblasts under periosteum deposit new compact bone LO 5. Describe hormones that affect bone growth Hormone: chemicals secreted into blood by endocrine glands/cells that affect various aspects of target cell physiology Growth Hormone Testosterone Estrogen -increases mitosis -increases rate of -increase rate of of chondrocytes in appositional longitudinal growth epiphyseal plate growth -potently and activity of -accelerates accelerates closure osteogenic cells & closure of of epiphyseal plate osteoblasts epiphyseal plate


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