History 101, Notes on Ancient Greece
History 101, Notes on Ancient Greece HIS 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Catie Naylor on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 101 at a university taught by Dr. Chambers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 172 views.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
ANCIENT GREECE A civilization that included the islands surrounding modern day Greece as well as the mainland The Greek civilizations were politically divided but culturally unified Their Golden Ages were also times of war PERSIAN WARS 499-479 BCE At first they were fighting against Darius as the emperor of Persia, and the Xerxes took over At the time Greece was made up of about 200 city states or polis (cities) o The city-states in Ionia were under Persian rule 2 MAJOR CITY-STATES ATHENS: the naval power of Greece o they were a city of merchants so they were a trade post o they were the center of the Greek world o they wanted to become rich so they could support and expand the arts o their political system was a demos, meaning the people should rule (democracy) citizens elected an assembly only 15% of the population were citizens who could vote 85% were helots (slaves) SPARTA: the major land power o Had an excellent military, they were a military society o No one cared about the arts, they only wanted to become a famous warrior o Hoplite: a Spartan foot soldier, highly trained 7yr old boys were sent to military school to become a hoplite Men over the age of 20 served in the army until they were middle aged Young women married in their teens and began having children Wanted more soldiers These were marriages of convenience for the purpose of having children Men were meant to develop a love of comrade They loved the men they fought with o Only 10% of the population were citizens 90% were helots They fought the Persians for a century o In 490 BCE, the Battle of Marathon occurred Persians sent 20,000 man army to punish Athens Greeks defeated them A messenger was sent 26.2 miles back to Athens to tell them that they won o In 480 BCE, Xerxes invaded with his 150,000 man army who marched 500 miles They got to Thermopylae, a valley between two mountains 300 Spartans fought them off long enough for the Greeks to retreat and get help Killed 4,000 Persians in the process Persians end up sacking Athens and completely destroying it Acropolis is the remains of Athens that still stands o Parthenon: the most famous of these remains o In 479 BCE, Greeks defeat the Persians This sparked the true golden age o 478 BCE, Greece still remains separated into two groups, Athens and Sparta AFTER THE PERSIANS o ATHENS Created the Delian League Still supported the arts From 450-429 BCE (its peak), Athens was ruled by Pericles Created the “city of a hill” Democratized Athens further Had a vision of an empire o SPARTA Created the Peloponnesian League Still focused on Military Spartans grew jealous of Athens’ growing power o In 431 BCE, Sparta declared war on Athens Peloponnesian War, it was a civil war (Greeks vs. Greeks) Sparta cut off Athens and starved them out 429 BCE, Pericles died from a plague 404 BCE Athens was starving and surrendered to Sparta They had to give up their navy, empire, and political dominance They lost their political stand, but Athens still influenced culture and knowledge for another 100 yrs HELLENISM o A Greek civilization was called Hellas o Hellenism focuses on humanism, rationalism o They taught the pursuit of truth through rational thought o 3 important Greek philosophers include Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle Socrates: lived from 470-399 BCE He grew up in the time of Pericles and war Believed the “unexamined life is not worth living” Provided the Socratic method to learning o Students ask questions and the teacher leads discussion o Ask people questions to find answers He believed you only know by learning o And you only learn by asking questions He was charged with the crime of creating a new god (the god of reason) and for corrupting the youth with this knowledge o He was found guilty and given the choice of exile to Thebes or to commit suicide They would sentence him to death but he would not know when they were going to kill him. They wanted the paranoia to drive him to kill himself o He chose to kill himself Had his students bring him poison from a hemlock tree Plato: lived from 430-347 BCE Socrates’ most famous student He tackled the question “what is really real?” is it the physical or the ideas? He decided the idea of a thing was more real than the physical thing itself o He could draw a triangle on the ground and then erase it, but everyone would still know what a triangle is Created idealism: what is most real is the ideas that produce the physical thing o It would be 2000 yrs before this theory was replaced by Isaac Newton’s He also asked “what is the purpose of life?” o Decided it was happiness in moderation: virtue o Hedonism: enjoy happiness without moderation, the opposite of virtue o Epicurus was another scholar who said “the goal of life is the pursuit of happiness” He was inspired by Plato Plato also asked “what’s the best kind of govt.?” o He wrote his explanation in his book, The Republic He wanted a philosopher king Only educated people to rule He did believe in slaves Aristotle: lived from 384-322 BCE Plato’s most famous student He wanted to understand experiences and the senses (i.e. the physical world) He believed that we had to understand ourselves to understand the physical world He included literature in his study He instigated the Rule of 3 o 3 supporting reasons to an argument is the strongest o A story has a beginning, middle, and end Other Miscellaneous Important Information about Greece The gifts of the Greek include democracy, philosophy, and tragedy o Tragedy came from drama The hero has a fatal flaw, it’s not just when something bad happens o Sophocles: was a Greek playwright (496-406 BCE) Wrote Oedipus the King Sappho: a Greek lyric poet o Wrote on the pursuit of happiness for women in their love of each other o From the polis of Lesbos