PSYCH 3110: Social Psychology, notes week 8
PSYCH 3110: Social Psychology, notes week 8 Psych 3110
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alison Carr on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3110 at Bowling Green State University taught by Joshua Ricker in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
PSYCH 3110: Social Psychology, Spring Semester 2016 Week 8 The Danger of Justifying Decision-Making and Dissonance Change attitudes/beliefs to change dissonance Adding new cognitions If your original cognition I wrong, adopting a new, correct one reduces dissonance Escalation Justification often leads to identical or more extreme actions o Sort of like a snowball effect Foot-in-the-door technique o The process of using small favors to get people to agree to larger requests Irrevocable actions Dissonance is low if the action is incomplete Once you have committed to it, dissonance increases If not able to take it back, dissonance will be high Irrevocability also decreases motivation to decrease dissonance When irrevocable is revocable Lowballing- initially offer a low price, but then raise it Internal vs. External Justification Internal- justification form a change in your attitude or behavior External- situation determines the justification o If there is not enough external justification, we start to believe our own lies- “saying id believing” o Counter-attitudinal advocacy You express a belief that is against your belief, and since you’ve been saying it so much, you stat to believe it Rewarding change Reward=external justification Reward can influence the amount of dissonance we feel o Big reward More likely to perform No change in belief o Small reward Change of attitude occurs Longer lasting effect Festinger & Carlsmith Got students to do boring tasks for an hour Told other students that they enjoyed the task o Some got $20, some got $1 o $1 did not have enough external justification (had to come up with another reason why they did it) Over justification effect Over emphasize the external justification Only doing something because they got a reward for it Reformulating the theory Festinger o Attitude/behavior 1 does not match A/B 2 Dissonance arises Aronson o Threats to our self-concept cause dissonance o Change results in attempt to save our self-image o Aronson’s Self People strive to maintain a sense of self that is consistent and positive We want to see ourselves as: Competent Moral Be able to predict our own behaviors Dissonance and Self-concept Effects are greatest when: o People feel personally responsible for their actions o Actions result in serious consequences o Increase consequenceincrease responsibilityincrease dissonanceincrease attitude change Punishment to induce dissonance Too large punishment = external justification Too little = no deterrence Moderate = just right Effort The more effort you put into something, the more dissonance you will have to make up for it Aronson & Mills sex talk experiment o Obscene sex words- severe initiation (lots of effort, but justified that it was more interesting) o Mild sex words- moderate initiation o No words- no initiation (said it was really boring) o No talk about sex, just women talking about boring things Justification of effort Cruel Dissonance Acts of cruelty cannot be undone, so we change our perception of the victim Making the others seem like bad people reduces dissonance High self-esteem- worse perception of the other person o Bad people do bad things, so less dissonance Chance for retaliation from the victim = reduced dissonance Self-esteem People with high self-esteem experience high levels of dissonance when doing bad things Doing bad things goes in line with low self-esteem o No mismatch = no dissonance Inevitability If there is no escape, dissonance increases, and we justify o Inevitable death We can’t change the situation, so we change our cognitions Not just psychological Dissonance can affect physiological drives as well Skin conductance responses shows people will feel less pain under high-dissonance situations o Zimbardo shock study o Low external justification= people who volunteered to get shocked high dissonance less pain lower skin conductance response o High external justification= told they were going to get shocked Low dissonance More pain Higher skin conductance response Dissonance is a psychological thing but also a physiological thing Areas of the brain responsible for reasoning are not active in fMRI during presentation of dissonant information o Prefrontal cortex Limbic system o Active during dissonance reduction o Involved in emotional processing What influences dissonance?: Amount of reward Responsibility Consequences Irrevocability Self-esteem Effort Inevitability Cognitive dissonance makes us not regret out decisions Gives us a reason to feel good about what we have done Self-perception theory We are unsure of our attitudes, so we observe our own behaviors and adjust attitudes from them o No discomfort is involved o Can only happen when there is no strong belief
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