ANFS251 Week of 02/29/16
ANFS251 Week of 02/29/16 ANFS251
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Schmuckler on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANFS251 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. Lesa Griffiths in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Animal Nutrition in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Lipids Organic compounds Insoluble in water Soluble in organic solvents Range from fats/oils to complex sterols Fat = 2.25x more energy than carbohydrates Expensive feed ingredient, not common in livestock diets Omegas common in dog diets as a marketing technique because they are linked to immune system health Glycolipids: combinations of carbohydrates and lipids Lipoproteins: combinations of lipids and proteins, important constituents of cells Phospholipids: contain phosphorus and fatty acids, constituents of cellular membranes Sterols: compounds such as Vitamin D and cholesterol Fats Concentrated form of stored energy Source of essential fatty acids Composed of fatty acids of varying lengths combined with a glycerol molecule o Fatty acids – chains of carbon atoms (2 to 24 carbons) Saturated – all bonds on the carbon atom are taken up by a hydrogen i.e. butter, beef (marbling in the muscle tissue) Unsaturated – one or more double bonds i.e. pork (no marbling in the muscle) Solid consistency at room temperature Plant and animals are generally in the triglyceride form o Some are found as diglycerides (two fatty acids attached to a glycerol) with a molecule of galactose (monosaccharide) attached to a glycerol Oils Liquid consistency at room temperature Composed of short chains of fatty acids or unsaturated fatty acids Omega-9 means 9 carbon down the chain, omega-3 means 3 carbon down rd the chain, etc. Digestion and Metabolism Monogastrics o Primary site of fat digestion is the small intestine o Bile and pancreatic lipase (attacks lipids by breaking fatty acids chains off of glycerol) o Transformed back to triglycerides o Transported to cells to be metabolized Long-chain fatty acids in lymphatic system Short-chain fatty acids in circulating blood system Easy absorption of fats (highly digestible) o Oils absorb more completely than fats Adequate amounts of fat essential for absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) Fats synthesize various compounds required by the animal or stored as fat deposits as an energy reserve End products of energy metabolism = CO2, water, heat, ATP Ketosis o When animals metabolize large amounts of fats to provide energy, abnormal conditions cause energy-metabolizing process to shut down and ketones are produced o Microbes found in ruminants are capable of altering dietary fatty acids They can saturate unsaturated fats Fat that ends up in the animal’s body regardless is saturated o Ketones have a characteristic odor o Most commonly seen in dairy cattle o Toxic condition in animals Malnutrition Cells shrink because protein being eaten away Compensatory gain: upon re-feeding an animal before all protein has disappeared, the animal regains its weight at a rapid rate Essential Fatty Acids Required but cannot synthesize in adequate amounts o Linoleic acid (C18:2) o Linolenic acid (C18:3) o Omega 6 fatty acids First double bond inserted 6 carbons from the fatty acid’s terminal end Good immune health o Omega 3 fatty acids Some aquatic species require fatty acids with the first double bond 3 carbons from the terminal Good immune health i.e. fish oil Integral part of the lipid-protein structure of cell membranes o Lipids help the cell membrane retain its permeability o Proteins inside the lipids are the channels that allow certain chemicals to pass through the cell membrane Important in the structure of prostaglandins (hormone-like compounds, important in reproduction) Essential Fatty Acids in most common feedstuffs o Corn and soybean oils – excellent sources of linoleic and linolenic acids, predominant animal feeds Essential Fatty Acids are watched most closely with poultry (other animals = not as much of a concern) Composition of Body Fat Fatty acid composition of the fat deposits reflects what the animal consumes o Fat is saved in the adipose tissue in a similar form that it was consumed i.e. unsaturated fatty acids in oils deposited as unsaturated fatty acids into adipose tissue If an oil is fed to poultry or swine: Carcass fat becomes less saturated, is softer, and has a lower melting point Dramatically changes processing characteristics Minor changes in diet do not have a marked influence on body fat deposits of ruminant animals because the rumen microorganisms produce saturated fats Firm Pork Belly vs. Very Soft Pork Belly Dietary intake determines pig body composition (especially fat composition) because pigs can deposit dietary fat into their fat depots o Transfer from diet to body fat = characteristic of grow-finish pigs Saturated fatty acids positively influence fat quality by increasing firmness when included in the diet Unsaturated fatty acids all tend to negatively affect fat by causing it to have a softer composition Photo of a very firm pork belly and a very soft belly Carcasses high in unsaturated fat acids are characterized by higher levels of oxidation Minerals Inorganic components of the diet Cannot be decomposed or synthesized Classified based on the concentrations found in an animal’s body Macrominerals – concentrations that exceed 100ppm, calcium and phosphorus Microminerals/trace minerals – concentrations of less than 100ppm Largest amounts of minerals – occur in the skeleton, provide structural rigidity Involved in complex biochemical reactions Iron: essential constituent of hemoglobin (blood, O2) and myoglobin (muscle, O2) o Changing the color of meat to brown through oxidation of myoglobin Cobalt: structural component of vitamin B12 ( Iodine: component of thyroid hormone (rate of metabolism) Other minerals (i.e. Ca, K, Mg, Na) involved in activity of nervous system o Na, K, Cl involved in regulation of osmotic pressure and pH of body fluids Minerals are components of vitamins Deficiency of a mineral = deficiency of a vitamin Absorption and Metabolism Converted/absorbed into ionic (free) form o Absorbed into GI tract – active or passive transport Active transport: intestinal wall pumps minerals from lumen to intestinal cells Passive transport: diffusing across lining of GI tract, most common, high concentration to low concentration, affected by levels in the diet Some digesta components may chelate (bind) minerals, making them unavailable for absorption Sometimes interfere with utilization of other essential elements Young animals more efficient in absorbing minerals Form (organic vs. inorganic) and pH of the intestinal tract also affect absorption Requirements and Deficiencies Essential macrominerals most commonly deficient/imbalanced in livestock rations = Ca, Mg, Na, P o Clinical signs and symptoms vary between species Rickets (in young animals) o Deficiency/imbalance of Ca, phosphorus, or vitamin D o Curved bones, enlarged joints o i.e. bulldogs, large breed dogs and horses whose long bones grow rapidly Pica – Mild to severe phosphorus deficiencies are not uncommon in grazing species, behavioral change where animals begin to chew everything (i.e. soil, wood) in attempt to consume phosphorus When salt is not provided and the soil or water supplies do not contain sufficient sodium, deficiencies may occur Potassium found in high concentrations in forages o Deficiency occurs when animal is fed high levels of grains o Symptoms similar to those of a sodium deficiency Tetany: magnesium deficiency o Not common in most livestock species o Tends to show up in cool, cloudy, spring weather – tremendous amount of lush grass growth that has magnesium in an unavailable form for animals o Fatal Symptoms: CNS symptoms (irritability, nervous) convulsions coma death Happens very quickly o Older animals more susceptible because they do not mobilize Mg from bones/reserves as well as young animals o Lactating animals also more susceptible o Mineral supplements! Iron o Always deficient in very young pigs Body reserves of Fe are low in newborns Young pigs grow very rapidly Milk contains inadequate amounts of Fe o First limiting nutrient for E. Coli bacteria that causes diarrhea and is the leading cause of death in baby animals Perosis: chicks and other poultry species may be deficient in magnesium Iodine o Deficient in most species o Depends on source of feed Cobalt o Deficient in some soil types o Plants grown on these soils are also deficient Copper o May not be present in sufficient amounts in some situations o Other cases, deficiency may result from excessive amounts of Mo or sulfate (both depress Cu utilization) o Toxic to sheep Selenium o Low in some soils (especially on the east coast) o Issue of domestic livestock (especially those that graze) o Highly toxic if in large amounts – labeled by itself on all feeds o Not uncommon to give young calves/lambs a vitamin E and selenium injection to support development of immune system Zinc o Relatively common o Increased when high dietary levels of Ca are being consumed o Symptoms: rough itchy dry skin All deficiencies will eventually affect animal performance, even though the appearance of the animal may not be affected Toxicity Toxicity is much less of a problem than deficiencies Water containing high levels of some alkali salts may be toxic NaCl toxicity is often a problem in poultry and swine Fluorine toxicity can occur if the animal is fed rock phosphates containing fluorine Copper toxicity o Young animals o Fed mineral supplements made for other species
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