HIST 3323 The Church in Latin America
HIST 3323 The Church in Latin America HIST 3323
Arkansas Tech University
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Notetaker on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3323 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Hollis M. Tarver in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Modern Latin America in History at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
The Church in Latin America notes Religion: o Catholic Church Until the 20 century, very few non-Catholics in Latin America. Predominant religion in Latin America today. Religion was a major part of the people in the Americas. o Long before the Spaniards arrived. Aztec, Toltec, Inca, and other Mesoamericans Possessed pantheon of gods o Some serve the same gods, but with different names Believed kings were descendants of gods Religion ALWAYS played a central role in the lives of the inhabitants in Central and South America. o More so in these two regions than in North America and its natives. Ancient Cultures in Latin America: o Pyramids and Temples: Central part of every pre-Colombian center (villages, etc.) Practice within these temples varied from group to groups o Human sacrifices, etc. Blood sacrifices/blood letting Blood source o Gives it value/natural fit Colonial Period: o Religion was a centered aspect Church was responsible for: Education Civil functions o Marriage o Death o Baptisms etc. Entity of legal authority of records that the state takes care of today o The Church plays a rather significant role of the inhabitants of Central and South America during the Colonial period. o Ex: The Church will be have possession of the best land They were able to achieve this by: Convincing wealthy estate owners to include the Church in their will to inherit the land after they die. Take the oldest or youngest daughter into a nunnery o Whichever daughter doesn’t get married at a reasonable time. For being admitted into a convent, the family will give land to the church. The Church acquires its wealth this way, mostly. The notion of the Church having so much power created problems later on. o Non-institution groups Liberals Anti-religion (Anti-clerical) o Seized the lands of the Church o Did away with tax exempts Opposed to the apparatus of the Church o Church had become so powerful Acquiring wealth when it should be going to the state. Nineteenth Century: o Ex: Mexico Civil Wars where the Church was right in the middle of the conflicts. o Religion still HIGHLY important. Two prime examples: Mexico Venezuela o After war, the government would seize the land, shut down convents, take over churches, and seize their wealth. Backlash against the church o Within any Latin American settlement (any size), there was a church. o Placed in the center of town Geographically: Every colonial city possessed the same layout. Includes: o Santa Fe o Albuquerque Main square: o The Church on one side o Government plaza on the other Cultural center Military office o Outside of the main square, the wealthy lived, then expanded out to the outskirts of the city where the poor and indigenous people lived. Cities were formed with the recognition that authority (power) rested in: o The Church o The Military o And The State Three most important entities They controlled everything o Ex: When a Spaniard owned property and was given the right to the labor of the natives who lived on that property Encomienda System o Person who had the right of the property and the natives who inhabited the land Encomendero o Responsible for the religious upbringing of the natives on his property Christianized Practice of their well-being, but usually un-honored on behalf of the Spaniards Twentieth Century and Today: o Latin Americans put money, effort and time into their religion. Extravagant churches, etc. Regardless of what it looked like on the outside, religion was not embraced by the natives 100%. o Embraced some aspects of Christianity, but the natives did not throw away all of their religious practices/traditions, for example: Bolivia Guatemala Mexico Ecuador And other places with large indigenous populations A mixture of native religions can still be seen today. For example: Walking to the Catholic Church for Mass, indigenous people can be seen performing their traditional religious practices outside of the Catholic Church and then go in for the service. o Acceptance of different religious philosophies today. For example: Santeria Voodoo And other African religious influences with Christianity o Religions created there in Latin America in, so a blending of religions are present. Catholic Mass in a predominantly Hispanic church and a predominantly Anglo church o Would be somewhat different Atmosphere Instruments o Cultural variations between: o Same religions in different areas o Different religions
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