Intro to Philosophy Notes 02/05
Intro to Philosophy Notes 02/05 PHIL 10100-01
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Notetaker on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 10100-01 at Ithaca College taught by Prof Frederik Kauffman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Intro to Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Intro to Philosophy Notes Week 02/05/16 What is philosophy? The study of human condition (Socrates) Study of the world/ reality What is the world made of? Thales= first philosopher (600 BC) He said the world was made of water. Water comes in different form, but it is the same throughout. Galileo started to realize that the moon had imperfections in the early 1700s. Democratus= Atomic theory of matter (400 BC) Atom means “cannot be divided” Lucretius= Atomist (200 AD) “Nothing but body can touch or be touched.” Put together the study of the world and the study of human condition: Stoics thought the world is fundamentally rational. We all have within us this spark of logos Natural Law= there is a natural order and we should reflect that order in our lives To the religious mind, somehow the world is good. Look at us as knowers: What can we know? Empiricism= all knowledge comes from experience (Locke, Hume). Souls do not come from the census. Human minds begin with a blank slate Rationalists= not all knowledge comes from experience W.E.B DuBois Double Consciousness always being aware of oneself and how people see one’s self Rationality could be considered universal Ethics= (right and wrong) moral philosophy 1. Ethical Disagreement= disagreement about what is right and wrong 2. No Objectively (true) moral beliefs 3. Some views are mistaken there are objectively correct (true) moral beliefs Right and wrong is relative to a specific culture Different cultures have different beliefs about what is right and wrong therefore there are no objectively correct (true) moral beliefs (moral relativism) Murders are wrongful killings, but what counts as murder? Self defense? War? Abortion? A universal agreement doesn’t always mean they are right. Moral Relativism= theoretical view about the nature of ethics There are no objectively true moral beliefs because different cultures have different opinions Just because a group of people agree, doesn’t mean it is right If relativism is true, then both right and wrong arguments are correct. If moral relativism is true, then no moral progress is possible What defines moral progress? There is no better or worse, there is just “different” No legitimate crosscultural moral criticism is possible It should be easy to answer a moral question KANT (17241804) Categorical Imperative= Kant’s Core Principle Hypothetical Imperative= If you want___ then you ought to do ___ If you do not have a relevant desire, then there is no “ought” Kant is arguing that the moral “ought’s” are categorical not hypothetical The moral “ought” is independent upon the wants When you act on a principle, that can be universalized Three Basic Ideas in Kant 1. Persons are defined as rational agents (not all members can act for a reason; act for moral reasons) 2. Persons are autonomous (selfgoverned) Recognition of Categorical Imperative 3. Persons are ends in themselves; not means The difference between a person or thing Imposing your own will without the respect of others Not something to be used Intrinsically valuable (persons) where everything else is considered a means Kant makes the connection to slavery; slavery is a way of using people as means
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