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SOCY 305 Notes (3/15/16 - 3/17/16)

by: Julia Lensch

SOCY 305 Notes (3/15/16 - 3/17/16) SOCY 305 001

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Sociology > SOCY 305 001 > SOCY 305 Notes 3 15 16 3 17 16
Julia Lensch

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About this Document

These notes cover lectures 3/15/16 = 3/17/16
Sociology of the Family
Jennifer M. Augustine
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Lensch on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCY 305 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Jennifer M. Augustine in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Sociology of the Family in Sociology at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 03/02/16
Contemporary Topics: Working Women with Children ▯ Second shift => tension and challenge women experience on home front (women have to come home after work and take care of household). Balancing work and family on home front. ▯ Women's labor force participation increase especially among married women with children ▯ In today's workplace: o Values: ▯ Facetime => being present at work ▯ Lengthy workweek ▯ Average workweek changed from 40 hours to 47 hours International Perspective ▯ Singapore and Korea have highest amount of workweek hours ▯ Germany is at the bottom (300 hours less per year) Increase in amount of facetime --> showing up to work, putting in more hours Problem for work and family balance uniquely for women => culture of women in workforce: Reading: Newspaper Article ▯ Single women have to work (given a free pass) ▯ Married working women seen as they put work over family (believe women should be with their children) Warner (2013) Reading ▯ People have a problem with "working motherhood" Gendered Norms of Work and Parenting ▯ Moms should take time off to take their kid to the doctor, attend parent-teacher conferences, leave work early to take their kids to extracurricular activities => assume women are better caregivers ▯ If a man asks to take off time from work for previous examples, his masculinity is challenged and he is stigmatized and almost punished Consequence for Women's Wages Motherhood wage penalty Key Issues Modern work life: ▯ Culture of facetime ▯ Greater personality (increase in work week) Gendered norms in work week Maternity/Paternity Leave and Sick Leave ▯ Paid leave is rare (only 12% have it) ▯ FMLA => family medical leave act (1993) o Allows up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave o Covers pregnancy, adoption, personal or family illness o Only covers about 50% of US workforce ▯ Most countries offer at least 50% of paid leave unlike the U.S. which offers 0% of paid leave (the U.S. has 12 weeks of unpaid leave) (U.K. offers 52 weeks of paid leave) Paternity Leave ▯ They don't really take leave ▯ Unusual for a man to take time off ▯ This is a problem for women because men will always be considered over women because they aren't required to take leave Lack of Flexibility in the Work Place ▯ When women take an "alternative work schedule" ▯ They are often relegated to the "Mommy Track" ▯ Lack of affordable childcare o Multigenerational ties ▯ On average, 22-26% of women's wages Tuesday's Reading by Anne-Marie Slaughter ▯ She began as a lawyer then professor at Princeton's law school and became dean of school of public privacy ▯ High powered, highest prestige ▯ Even among most exceptional position, women are still underrepresented ▯ Her messages => it continues to be more difficult for women to balance work-family life than men ▯ Women foresee barriers through their occupation in the future ▯ "Leaky pipeline" - women pursue higher levels of education, but opt out of labor market Parenthood--> Particularly Motherhood ▯ Childlessness is on the rise ▯ People choose not to have kids ▯ It's become more acceptable and stigmatized ▯ "Sex and the City" => this show glamorized childlessness (path breaking show because it provided a different outlook) Childfree ▯ Much of this reflects a deliberate desire not to have children ▯ In turn, many women have adopted the language of child free o Implies more freedom and that you don't have kids by choice o Childfree implies that having children is a burden ▯ Majority of Americans still have children and still want children ▯ Childlessness is on the rise ▯ Modern parenthood is expensive: o Education o Clothes o Childcare ▯ Kids' education schedule not compatible with your work schedule (7:45am – 2:00pm) (spring break, winter break, summer) ▯ Having kids is intensive Intensive Parenting Reading (Hays) ▯ Cultural representations/beliefs we have around motherhood ▯ Motherhood is characterized by intensive mothering --> not meeting the kids' basic needs, but characterized by intensive caregiving ▯ "A good mom": o Not about being authoritative, but warm and interactive o Spanking your kids isn't very normative o Reasoning and explaining to your kids o "Authoritarian" --> negotiation process, softer discipline, interacting o LOVE => essential ingredient, require a degree of selflessness, sacrifice, kindness, patience ▯ Childhood/children are sacred, innocent, pure and its our job to protect them from hard cold reality o Parenting should be child-centered ▯ Adjust to their needs and desires o Raising a child is energy absorbing ▯ Investing time, energy, and effort you have to spare o Mothers sacrifice more than fathers do and mothers do a better job at parenting than males o Cultural assumption that mothers should be nurturers and are the better nurturers o In the reading, mothers described fathers as incompetent, lack of knowledge and interest ▯ Men aren't worse caregivers, women are just socialized better at it o Parents are spending a lot more time with their kids ▯ Work week is getting longer o Work family balance is becoming more salient o Leads to: ▯ Lack of sleep and free/leisure time o Working part-time is best because you can spend time with kids while also making money Reading: Simon (2008) ▯ (Kids are fulfilling and so life without kids would make you feel empty/lack purpose and meaning) ▯ Parents with kids report lower levels of happiness, but people without kids experience more positive emotions, have less depression, and are happier ▯ Helps us understand "leaky pipeline" (Anne-Marie Slaughter), parenthood has consequences that effect mobility and work ▯ Attachment parenting => always having your kids with you (breastfeeding, skin to skin contact, "baby wearing" instead of using a stroller) ▯ Can we have it all? o Parenting is becoming harder because the bar is being raised/higher expectations ▯ Cultural representations of different roles: o Image (troupe of a professor => old, glasses, corduroy, socially awkward, brilliant) o Supermom troupe: (image is not reality) ▯ Works (professional) ▯ Happy, well-behaved kid ▯ Carrying kid and groceries ▯ Going home to cook dinner o Convincing women we can do it all It Has Changed ▯ Child raising is getting harder/change in meaning of childhood ▯ Rise in breadwinner model Social Meaning of Childhood ▯ Children used to work at age 4 (tiny adult) ▯ Economy changed ▯ Reconfigure what childhood means o Changed their value from economic to sentimental Breadwinner Model ▯ Women legitimize men's attachment to work and detachment from home ▯ Take ownership of role when they can excel, but men can't ▯ "Having it all" --> being able to have a rewarding and successful work life as well as family life being rewarding and successful Having children is culturally imperative => called to duty by out culture Assume that all women should have kids and want kids Parenthood: Cultural Imperative: ▯ Spinster --> single women without kids (negative) ▯ Single childless man --> (bachelor) no male equivalent to spinster (positive) We still assume people without kids are unhappy, selfish, and that there is something wrong with them ▯ Contradictory messages between ideal worker and ideal mother ▯ Idealization of motherhood without change in structural conditions to support it


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