History of Crusade and Jihad
History of Crusade and Jihad History 402
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by James Creighton on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 402 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Sarah Davis-Secord in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Medieval Crusade and Jihad in History at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Day 2: January 22 A. Europe and Western Christianity in the year 1095 1. Dynasty of French Kings: Capetians, exist around 1095. No kings go on Crusade since there was no unifying leader. Capetian kings weak and controls Paris and surrounding lands. Dukes and Counts are not under king’s authority; local princes, dukes, and lords who control land and have loose affiliation with king. King in England actually strongest kings at time. Holy Roman Empire not unified. Title of Emperor has virtually no power. Ceremonial and ritual authority, no practical authority. Local control is the order of the day. All of Latin Christian Europe is fractured and decentralized. 2. Feudalism is the prominent social structure. Knights not a class; can be rich and poor but the only common thing is the ability to fight on horseback. Serfs serve lords of land and do not move from land much at all. Knights are granted land by their lord in exchange for fealty (love). Fealty is service to the lord by giving them your sword, your men, and resources if needed. Vassalage. Men who own land must be strong and likable to hold land or risk losing it to rivals. 3. Christianity: prominent religion in Christian Europe. Monasticism is the highest ideal for the Christian life. Withdraw from the world and live a life of prayer. Cloistered, spiritual environment. Western Europe covered with Monasteries. Lords pay for monasteries to be built on their land and monks pray for their donors. Spiritual fulfilling for monks and those who receive their prayers. Masses of land donated to these monasteries. Church during this time was in control of doctrine and growing in power as it begins to centralize around the Pope in Rome. This takes place in the Gregorian Reform movement. Pope is Vicar of Christ, heir to St. Peter, and control all Christian churches in Latin Christendom, and over Christian lords, kings, and Emperors. Reforming Popes promote and fight: assert supremacy of Rome over Constantinople, authority over secular leaders, penance, clerical sins and abuses-simony (buying selling offices in church), celibacy (Clerics remain chaste), sin and violence amongst laity, Jerusalem as patrimony of Christ. Investiture Controversy: Byzantine Emperor and Pope argue for supremacy over who places people in offices. Popes able to push back against secular leaders from choosing offices and winning. Emperor of Byzantine eventually excommunicated. Peace of God and Truce of God: restrict/end violence against clerics, peasants (lay people), etc. and restrict how much violence will take place, if at all. Weren’t truly successful. Precursor to crusades and church seeks to restrict and restrain violence. When this doesn’t work, church will control where violence takes place. Church concerned about violence. Popes look to Jerusalem as the Patrimony of Christ because Christ lived, died, performed miracles, taught, etc. Jerusalem was the navel of the world for Christians. The earth sprouted from Jerusalem, that Christ was the center. Center of Jerusalem is church of the Holy Sepulchre. This church is the focal point for the journey of Crusaders and pilgrims. 4. Economy Mediterranean trade with Byzantine Empire and Muslim states. Economic and population growth flourished along with the re-emergence of cities. Cross Mediterranean trade grows once again in this period. Europe wants gold, spices, and other luxury goods from the East. Interest in the East. 5. Europe know little of Muslims for the most part during this time. Borders of Muslim and Catholic kingdoms; Cyprus, Spain, Sicily. Only Mediterranean people had contact with Muslims. Europe hardly thought of them at all. Battle of Manzikurt, 1071, far eastern Anatolia, Byzantine Emperor captured and ransomed. Byzantine emperor writes to the pope for help after stunning defeat. Gregory VII plans to form militia (militia sancti petri) Reward is prayers of St. Peter, in 1074 to send over but falls off quickly. Notional idea in papacy exists though to help the east and fight Muslims. DAY 3: January 25, 2016 A. Muhammad and the Early Islamic Conquest I. Arabian Peninsula; Nomadic people: Badu (Bedouin) family based groups organized under elders (Sheikhs). Graze flocks mostly, not settled for the most part, few cities. Two important cities: Mecca and Medina. Time before Islam Al-jahiliyya Mecca most important as it is a trade outpost. Shrine (Ka’aba where Allah and 3 goddesses were worshiped. Banu Quraysh clan controlled Mecca and profits, sight of pilgrimage and trade. Need to control these religious and trade sights. Ghazzia: raids of clans against one another to settle debts, getting stuff, and getting wives. Long feuds will take place and sometimes nomads would attack cities as well. Muhammad born in 570, into Banu Quraysh, orphaned young, raised by his uncle, and learned to trade. Met many Jews and Christians so learned about religion. Married his boss who was his first wife. In 610 he had religious crisis and he would go to cave outside Mecca to meditate. In cave retreat he hears voice which tells him to “recite”. Archangel Gabriel spoke to him? Wrote down prophecies from God and learned he must bring Arabs back to Polytheism and call them back to one true God. Last Prophet. Began to preach to people and convert people. Preaching publicly brings about wrath of Banu Quraysh for money from Religion is threatened. In 620, Medina offers him sanctuary in exchange for mediating decisions. Hijra (Emigration), year 1 of the Islamic calendar, travel of Muhammad and followers to Medina. Umma established: social, political, and religious community. First Jihad against Mecca. 624 raids vs Banu Quraysh. Banu Quraysh eventually surrender but Ka’aba must remain as religious sights. Hajj: first pilgrimage back to Mecca, 630. Ka’aba purified and Allah is the only one to remain. Allah=Arabic word for God. Muhammad comes to control tribes and expected to convert to Islam=submit. Monotheists, people of the book (Jews Christians) are protected and don’t have to convert but have to pay annual tax. Muhammad dies in June 8, 632 at his wife Aisha’s house. How to follow him up? Choose early convert Abu Bakr. Many think it should be the closest relative who should take over…this being Ali. Tenants of Religion, Look up online on Learn. First 4 caliphs: Rashidun (rightly guided) caliphs. Abu Bakr, Umar, ‘Uthman, Ali ibn Abu Talib, cousin of Muhammed, and husband to Muhammad’s daughter Fatimid. Ali’s sons Hasan and Husain should be Imam, being relatives. On death of Ali, outright civil war occurs and Sunni (family line) vs Shi’ite (blood shows leader) begins. Shi’ites lose and go underground but in 909, they decide to come out and from their own Caliphate, Isma’ili’s=Fatimid’s, establish capital in Cairo and spread across North Africa, Egypt, some of Arabia, and holy lands. Sunni’s dynasty is under Umayyad’s, 660-750, and take much from the Greek background of their capital, Damascus. Do the most conquering for Islam 750, Abbasids lead a coup and take over and move capital to Baghdad. 750-1258. they lose much of their territory as they become figureheads over a patchwork of semi-independent governors called Emirs who paid allegiance to Caliph but acted independently. Second rival Sunni Caliphate exists in Spain in Umayyad Caliphate at Cordova, 929-1032. Already was an Emirate since 756. Two Sunni Caliphates and one Shi’ite Caliphate. Along come the Seljuk Turks to conquer. Seljuk Sultanate of Rum (Rome). Adopt Islam but keep Turkish language. Abbasid Caliphate gives them title of Sultan to avoid destruction. Fights Byzantine in battle of Manzikurt (1071) and defeat Emperor. Kilij Arslan Sultan during Crusade. Great Seljuk Sultanate of Syria, another Sultanate that invades and demands title. Sultan Malik Shah’s nephews control Damascus and Aleppo. Other important cities are also controlled independently including Antioch and Edessa. Almost all of the Turkish peninsula is controlled by Islamic peoples by the time Crusades come. Islamic caliphates are extremely divided under independent governors who pay tribute to empire. Very complex and divided sectarian, regional, and power terms. Abbasid had lip service and put on coins but has little power anywhere else. Islamic society deeply Urban, focused on trade, art, craftsmen, and wealthy and entirely different from European kingdoms. Trade and travel is not disrupted across Islamic world so intellectual world is large and Interconnected but separate politically. Jerusalem for Muslims: Third holiest city for Muslims. Taken from Constantinople in 638. Site of the mi ’raj (night Journey) where Muhammad is lifted up into heaven at night and seeing the several levels of heaven. Took place where Dome of the Rock was built and rock is in center where Muhammad rose. Biggest place of importance, early mosque with great architectural design with Calligraphy all around it. Towers over its surrounding. Al-Aqsa mosque, 609-715 built nearby. In 1071, Turks take Jerusalem from Fatimid’s, lots of destruction. 1098, Fatimid, vizier al-Afdal recaptured Jerusalem with more destruction. Jerusalem unstable by the time Crusaders will arrive.
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