FNDATION MOL CEL BIO
FNDATION MOL CEL BIO BIOL 355
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Renee Lehner on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 355 at University of Washington taught by Rose Cattolico in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see /class/192306/biol-355-university-of-washington in Biology at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
ms m CY TOSKELETAL SYSTEM Eukaryo ric cells llHave a high degree of internal organization lICan reposi139ion in l39ernal organelles Are capable of changing shape IICan of l en move from one place To ano139her These capabili ries are dictated by The cy roskele l39on of The cell Complex network of protein filamen139s Bone and Musclequot equivalen139 Cultured carrot cell Cy l oskele39l39al System Composi139ion 1 Intermediate filamen l39s Tough ropelike fibers 2 Micro139ubules hollow cylindrical structures 3 Microfilamen l39s solid rhin s139ruc139ures MICROTUBULES ACTlN FILAMENTS 3 l K 739 50 pm Composition outer diameter 24 nM wall Thickness 5 nM Structure polymer composed of globular subunits globular subunits composed of tubulin subunits arranged in longitudinal rows protofilaments tubulin u and 3 type MICROTU BULES History Early EM studies osmium tetroxide 9 cold to fix cells Result destroy cellular filaments 1963 Slautterback Gluteraldehyde to fix hydra Room temperature Result Found rods he called microtubules Mictotubule Associated Proteins MAPS Many found in brain tissue others widespread Structure Globular portion quotheadquot attaches to side of microtubule Filamentous portion quottailquot extends outward from microtubule surface imcrumbulu MAF 25 nm Interconnect microtubules to form bundles Molecular Motors Motor machine that converts chemical or electrical energy to mechanical energy Kinesins and dyneins mechanochemical tranducers convert chemical energy ATP to mechanical energy Mechanical energy used to move cellular cargo that is attached to the motor mus um minus and From The AM of M8003 9 I995 Garland Publishing IN Heavy Chains ngm Chain Flexible hinge l i l l i l Heads Neck Stalk all imam mm 80 nm Kinesins Discovered in 1985 in squid gianT axons Large proTein composed of Several domains has pair of globular heads engines fan shaped Tail cargo binding region differenT Tails bind differenT cargos end direcTed microTubuIar moTor microTubuIar end is siTuaTed away from cenTer of The cell can move 900 nM sec each sTep 8 nM engThi if a 1 le di er oves veSIc es 39 39 39 39 endosomes lysomes 39 7 39 i l V I secreTory granules How do These mechanochemical Transducers work A Move along immobile Track microTubuIe B MoTor generaTes force by swinging arm forward on Track binding To siTe on Track This acTivaTes power sTroke moTor moves forward pulling cargo KN arm deTaches n cycle repeaTed Heavy chain Light chains Dynein UbiquiTous in all eukaryoTic ces ProTein responsible for movemenT of ciia and flagella Huge composed of 9 To 10 poypepTide chains Has 2 large globular heads force generaTing moTor a so sTalk and cargo bin ing regions Function causes movemen l of vesicles and organelles Cell body lS minus end Dynac n complex dir39ec l39ed Dynein b KINESINS 995 Gamma PUBLISHING How do microfubules change in length TubulinGDP TubulinGTP r Minus end Plus end High tubulin concentration GTP cap r H Low tubulin concentration SHRINKAGE Cnvyngm zuus Peszn Benyamln cmmmgs All my 75va Direct observation of dynamic instability in lung cell microtubules I I I 669 sec 1 iv Hu 39 time 0 sec 125 sec 307 sec Newt lung epithelial cell micrograph shows edge of cell Microtubules 14 all show alternations of growth and disassembly Where do microtubules originate in a cell munkum mmawmu miiumllugullum cenlrusoma soindln pnln Q cenlvosome MTOC Microtubule organizing center Acts as a nucleation site to initiate microtubule formation Controls Number of microtubules that form Polarity of microtubules Number of protofilaments Time and location of microtubule assembly MTOC all contain a 6 tubulin Critical component in microtubule assembly lacks t ulin can not assemble normal microtubules Perhaps forms a ring templatequot on which and tubulin dimers associate B tubule A tubule C tubule Types of MTOC39s 1 Cen l39r39osome Perlcentriolar In animal cells 39 material PCM Composed of 2 cen l39r39ioles cylindrical sTr uc lur39es 02 um diame l39er39 X 04 um long Con rain 9 evenly spaced fibriles of Three micro l39ubules Found in pairs at righ l angles To one ano Found near The nucleus Cenlrnsome Mlcrmuhule l G 7 m 05 mu mmquot L 2am Peavsnu Eamamm Eummmgs All ugm reserved Mlcmluhnle Cen l39r39osome and mi l39o l39ic baske r Cen l39r39osome ma l39r39ix B mi I I An l39ibody T07 Tubulin An l39ibody l39o fubulin From The Art of mast 1995 Garland Publishing Inc am The Arl of MB Growth of microfubules away from cen l39osome 2 Basal body form microfubules of flagellum and cillium Resides a l39 base of fhe organelle Iden l39ical sfruc l39ure 139o cen l39riole can give rise 139o one ano l39her WW l 100 nm Plus ends Basal body Minus ends l l as m Comquot9m zoos Pearson Ben amm Cummings All quotgm reserves 3 Spindle pole body found in fungi diskshaped body embeded in fhe nuclear envelope Microfubles fha l39 grow Ou l39 from sfruc39l39ure par l39 of fhe cy l39oskele l39al sys l39em Inward part of fhe mitotic spindle From MTOC of a yeas l cell 4 MTOC domains terrestrial plants lack centosomes and centrioles have patches of material on outer surface of the nuclear envelope MTOC of a Haeman rus endosperm cell during interphase INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS Thinner than microtubules Thicker than microfilaments NHZ Monomer Each polypeptide has A central rod shaped helical domain similar length homologous amino acid sequence COOH COOH B globular domain on each side of rod variable in size and sequence Formation Two polypeptides spontaneously interact Aow uhelical rods wrap around each other Form ropelike dimer Dimer has polarity defined by C and N termini NH2 COOH NH NHZ Monomer C00 J Dimer associate 9 in antiparallel staggered NHz COOH arrays to form tetramers NH2 Dimer COOH Highly stable to chemical Every fourth aminu acid is hydrophobic di smp on The resultng stripeshaped hydrophobic domains can assem b 396 interact formingV a cuiludcuil 39 Hghly dynamic assembledisassemble 0 Figure 58 The structure vi a suitedcoil Rodlike prntt39ins are conunnnly formed from coiledmils Two lung tkhelices can wrap armmd me another when each has hydrophobic aminwacid side Chains I at every fourth position Coiledmil associations hold together intcrmcdiatc lament subunits myusin Ll kinesin and many others IF structure Function provide mechanical strength to cells mmammm mm own AssemblyDisassembly l q lwm wgmm Binds with ATP similar to microtubule assembly at cafeteria ipmkaim I3 0 0 W Treadmilling add to end O deplete end 0 pm 0 it treadmill Wiusfg r m l 1 F r sil39llt ammwmo Func on in mm wwla ll lm almost every 5 quot type of cellular Em ml motile process pm a M l a d Myosin The molecular motor for39 Ac l39in Filamen39l39s Only works with Ac l in Moves 139owar39d end of fi lamen139 Found in pr39o l39ozoa plan139s ver39139ebr39a139es S fragment Head Essential light chain Regulatory liglrl chain Myosin II Composed of polypeptides 1 pair39 heavy chains 2 pairs light chains Light chains Heavy chains Long rodshaped rail a r one end media139es The assembly of myosin in ro filamen139s Two bulbous globular39 heads at Bipolarfilament other end media139e mo139or39 ac l39ivi ry Actin filament FOUNDATIONS IN MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY Biology355 If you are not registered for this COUI SCC there are NO overloads NO add codes Will be given out Teaching Staff INSTR UCTOR S Dr Rose Ann Cattolico racat uWashingtonedu Dr Mimi Cheng nlinlic7uwashingtonedu TEACHING ASSISTAN TS Daryl Humes dghumesuwashingtonedu Lindsey Muir lamuiruW3shingtonedu Michael Nishizaki mikenishuW3shingtonedu Course locations Lecture MW 930 10 203m Quiz section AAD Th 1230120pm Quiz section ABL Th 1230120pm Quiz section ACD Th 1302 20pm Quiz section DM Th 130220pm Quiz section AEL Th 230320pm Quiz section ARM Th 230320pm TA of ce hours To be determined Hitchcock R 00m 132 Hitchcock Room 344 Hitchcock Room 346 Hitchcock Room 344 Hitchcock Room 346 Hitchcock Room 344 Hitchcock Room 346 To be determined Texts Cell and Molecular Biology Concepts and Experiments 5TH edition Karp 2 Text Book UW bookstore OR Digital TEXT Book save 40 on price of the book hH39n39IAMAnAI wilnu 39 39 39 39 hmm iitions Course Support on web site httphroti t hinlnm 39 Pd hinR Q wtrnsz Primary research articles Lecture Notes CAUN imk TEST WAS AN ABSOLUTE DISGRAQE W s oB mus bx WENT READ ANT OF THE MATERML OUR FIRST PRESIDENT WAS NOT CHEF BOTAlDEE AND OU OUGHT I JUST DONT TEST NEIL I Course requirements Participation in discussion 40 pts II Quizes 3 40 pts 120 pts III Exams 4 150 pts 600 pts IV Paper reviews 6 4pts 240 pts TOTAL POINTS 10000 Speci csrequirements for each are detailed in your syllabus Regrade policy Any graded material that a student feels has been mis graded can be submitted for review within one week of the student receiving the quiz paper review etc In addition to the item to be reviewed you must submit a typed cover letter detailing the reason for the regrade and Why the answerinforrnation provided initially should be accepted as correct Follow these rules or no regrade will be done THERE ARE NO EXCEPTIONS TO THIS POLICY Course schedule A tentative course calendar is provided in your syllabus LECTURES and PAPERS WILL BE PLACED ON LINE DOWNLOAD OR BRING YOUR COMPUTER TO CLASS I Reading assignments from Karp will be assigned as the class proceeds approximately 1 week in advance This week read chapters 1 2 and 3 mostly review QUIZ SECTION TIHS WEEK WILL BE HELD MEET YOUR TA DISCUSS DETAILS OF THE COURSE LECTURE I Overview University of Washington Code of Conduct The last portion of your syllabus outlines the University s code of conduct for students please read and follow The discovery of cells Robert Hooke discovery of cork cells 17th Century Cellular basis of life Matthias Schleiden 1830 s all plant tissues composed of cells and embryos arose from a single cell Cell theory Theodor Schwann 1830 s Cell theory 1 all organisms composed of one or more cells and 4 2 cells are the structural unit of life Cell theory Rudolf Virchow 1850 s The third tenet of cell theory New cells can only arise from division of preexisting cells Cell theory an important corollary August Weissman 1880 s all cells living today trace their origin P l back to common ancestral cell nmordlal L rsowww ccrcoxoa Imuauuywm 61quotquot m 32quot 1W sr 39i 3911 a fquotquot may 4quot Baldauf 2003 Science 300 170371706 The basic properties of cells Cells are highly complex and organized atoms to small molecules large polymers complexes into organelles lots of different ones organelles into cells with Widely varying organelle complements tquot II Cells possess and use a genetic program cells are built according to information encoded in genes changes in this genetic information are the basis of biological evolution Cells rePmduce by diViSion ie alterations in cell morphology and function III Cells are capable of reproducing themselves Hueruhase ear y39 muphase one mother cell splits to become two daughter cells has prnphrsr promelzphase l39rgure w a 031112 Moremar u mogy ol the Cell 4m Ldmon IV Cells acquire and use energy V Cells carry out compleX chemical cellular function and reproduction require a constant reactions Input 0f energy many chemical reactions are ongoing simultaneously 11ght energy to starch011s 1n autotrophlc organlsms the sum total of which we refer to as metabolism glucose disassembled and stored as ATP in animal 39 cells Llpld bilayer Modified chloroplast omyloplasf of whife clover VI Cells engage in mechanical activities gtkcells are highly active transportation of materials Within the cell to large scale movement of the cell from one physical location to another 5 spec r Avpl mamem dvnem Hn Figure 15 63 Molecular Eialagy Mme Cell 4m Edman VIII Cells are capable of selfregulation to function properly in complex external and internal environments cells must regulate themselves correcting for problematic mutations generating proper organelle complements etc VII Cells are able to respond Ftyivn to stlmuh f receptors onin cells allow them to Q l v m sense numerous cues and respond by altering their metabolic activity TWO classes of cells E u karyote Nucleolis Mitochondria m g Eukaryotic eu true karyon nucleus Endu lasmic Rel ulum Prokaryote Molecules PrOkaryOteS surrounded by a cell wall and plasma membrane Lack subcellular Hummus 39 membrane enclosed Y Y organelles 17 m mumbuum quot E 7quot ten 1 Genetic material maintained in a nucleoid Eukaryotes NHrlPaI wilnm Enduplamv vulnulum ism POSSCSS a true I IUClCUS Surrounded by plasma membrane and in some cases cell wall Complex collection of subcellular organelles many membrane enclosed Think question How does a cell differ from a computer Model systems for cell biology V an quotAir 439 Escherichia coli Extremely simple cells prokaryote mechanisms of signal transduction transcription translation cell specialization Anabaena Model systems for cell biology Saccharomyces cerevisiae Simple eukaryote that shares many common proteins With us protein function through 7 genetic manipulation Model systems for cell biology Chlamydomonas reinhardlii Photosynthetic mechanisms Flagellar movement Maternal inheritance Cell cycle controls Chloroplast biogenesis iv Heterosigma akashiwo 1041111 Model systems for cell biology Caenorhabditis elegans Only 1000 cellsworm patterns of cell division and determination chromosome loss Model systems for cell biology DrOSOphila melanogaster development and neurological basis of behavior Model systems for cell biology Mus musculus mammalian model of human di sease Model systems for cell biology Arabidopsis thaliana Tiny genome and large seed production plant morphogenesis Lecture 2 Cell coverings and extracellular matrix