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ANT160 week 5 of Notes

by: Aneissa Coulter

ANT160 week 5 of Notes ANT 160

Aneissa Coulter

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Cultural Diversity in the Modern World
Renee Bonzani
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aneissa Coulter on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 160 at University of Kentucky taught by Renee Bonzani in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Cultural Diversity in the Modern World in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Kentucky.

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Date Created: 03/02/16
Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture Outlines February 15, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Language Language is the cognitive boundary between primates and humans. Great apes have communication systems but no syntax. Syntax = The arrangements of words into sentences.  Related to the development of certain areas in the human brain. • Language is produced in the Broca’s area of the brain. • The Wernicke area of the brain controls language comprehension. • Other physical differences include position of the larynx and epiglottis and size of  tongue. • Larynx = sound­making organ in the throat. • Epiglottis = cartilaginous flat over the glottis (the opening between the vocal cords in the  larynx). • Human larynx placed much lower in throat to enhance our ability to speak. • Human tongue is shorter and thicker to allow for a wider range of vowel sounds. Descriptive Linguistics • Phonics = producing sound. • Phonetics = the science that deals with pronunciation and the representation of sounds in  speech. • Phonology = the study of sound patterns of human language (I.e. speech utterances as  sequences of sound, f in food, gh in tough, ph in phone). • Phonemes = the minimal unit of language: example fine, vine, chunk, junk. A sound or  set of sounds that makes a difference in meaning in that language. • Morphology = the study of the words of language. • Morpheme = the minimal unit of meaning or minimal linguistic sign. Example: one  morpheme = desire, two morphemes = desire + able. • Syntax = the arrangement of words in a sentence. • Surface structure = the lineal order that is observed in morphemes and words. 1 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture Outlines February 15, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World • Deep structure = abstract level of structure of syntax. Some important Researchers in the Field of Linguistics • Noam Chomsky: Father of transformational linguistics. All languages have a common  structural basis (I.e people can learn different languages). See YouTube video on Daniel Everett and Piraha of SW Brazil (“Out on a Limb Over  Language”) disputing if all humans have a common structural basis to their languages.  Example of recursion which is the ability to place one phrase inside another. • Kenneth Pike: linguistic concepts of etic and emic. • Emic = categories devised by the native point of view, nonstructural results. • Etic = categories devised by the researcher’s point of view, structural results.  Field of ethnoscience. • Sapir­Whorf hypothesis: language limits or determines culture. Language shapes the way  you think and behave.  • Example: the conceptualization of time in different ways. The Hopi of the  southwest US have no way of saying a “specific stretch of time”. They do not  conceptualize time in the sense of units that can be measured. On the other hand,   English speakers can say “my fifteen minutes of fame” and conceive of time as a  finite source or entity that can be measured. See YouTube Video on the Sapir­Whorf hypothesis.­ 8&hspart=mozilla&hsimp=yhs­002 or this one:­ 8&hspart=mozilla&hsimp=yhs­002 Historical Linguistics • How languages change over time. • Proto­language = a reconstructed language. • Language family = language that derive from the same proto­language.  ­ Language families exist over large areas because they have spread in  different ways from homeland areas. • How might this have happened? • The spread of language families appears to be linked to the spread of  archaeological complexes originating in areas where agriculture or food  production was first initiated.  2 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture Outlines February 15, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World • Archaeological and biological evidence now indicates that the spread of certain  archaeological complexes and languages appears to be due to the increase in  population and migration from areas where agriculture originated.  • See Bellwood, Peter. 2005. First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies.  Blackwell Publishing, Maldin, MA. Diversity of languages • The areas with the highest diversity seem to correlate with the environments with the  richest diversity of plants and animals.  • One belt is west and central Africa; another is south and south­east Asia and the Pacific. Languages today total  approximate 7,102 (2015) The Americas 1,064 15% Africa  2,138 30% Europe 286   4% Asia 2,301 32% The Pacific 1,313 18.5% See Brochure on “How Many Languages Are There?” By Stephen Anderson and the Linguistic  Society of America who lists there are 6,909 languages in the world as of 2009. • The country with the most diversity is Papua New Guinea with 862 languages. Papua  New Guinea only has 0.4% of the world’s land area. • Language transmission seems to be rooted in an economic system of social bonds.  Social bonds help people to manage ecological risk.  3 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture Outlines February 15, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World • The greater the ecological risk in some areas of the world, the broader the social network  and the less diverse the numbers of languages.  • Today, most of the languages of the world are in the process of extinction. Probably 85%  of the languages of the world will disappear in less than 20 years.  4 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture Outlines ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Historical Linguistics and Early Migrations Language is the cognitive boundary between primates and humans. Great apes have communication systems but no syntax. Syntax = The arrangements of words into sentences. Historical or Comparative Linguistics • How languages change over time. • Proto­language = a reconstructed language • Language family = language that derive from the same proto­language • Language families exist over large areas because they have spread in different ways from  homeland areas. • How might this have happened? • The spread of language families appears to be linked to the spread of archaeological  complexes originating in areas where agriculture or food production was first initiated.  • Archaeological and biological evidence now indicates that the spread of certain  archaeological complexes and languages appears to be due to the increase in population  and migration from areas where agriculture originated.  • See Bellwood, Peter. 2005. First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies.  Blackwell Publishing, Maldin, MA. Migration in Prehistoric Times •  Migration has been and is a basic aspect of human adaptations.  • There are three well researched phases of human migration in prehistory and a fourth in  historic times. • Information and maps are from the following unless noted otherwise: Peter Bellwood.  2013. First Migrants: Ancient Migration in Global Perspective. Wiley, Blackwell,  Malden, MA. • 1. Migrations of the extinct members of the genus Homo, such as Homo erectus and  Neanderthals, after about 2.5 million years ago, within and out of Africa. • 2. Migrations of ancestral modern humans (Homo sapiens) throughout most of the world  including Australia and the Americas, between about 120,000 and 25,000 years ago. • 3. Migrations of herders, farmers, and boat builders in a small number of separate waves  in various parts of the world except Antarctica during the last 10,000 years 1 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture Outlines ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World How Do We Know That? • 1. Linguistic Evidence. • 2. Archaeological Evidence. • 3. Genetic/Biological Evidence. • Old World Major Language Family Distributions at ca. A.D. 1500 • Centers of the Origins of Agriculture in the Old World and Movement of Peoples,  Languages, and Archaeological Complexes Four Major Regions of Food Production and Migrations • 1. Fertile Crescent of Western Asia • Origins of wheat, barley, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, peas, broad beans and lentils. • System spread with human migrations between ca. 8500 and 3000 B.C. • Migrations included to the Middle East, northwestern India, the Mediterranean, temperate Europe, central  Asian steppes and semi­deserts, and North Africa. • Western Asia (Middle East) and Europe: Archaeological Evidence • Western Asia (Middle East) and Europe: Linguistic Evidence • Western Asia (Middle East) and Europe: Genetic/Biological Evidence • Did the origins of agriculture and the Neolithic Revolution spread from the Middle East  to Europe through an exchange of technology or through a migration of peoples (gene  flow)? • Using principal components analysis and the gene frequencies for certain traits for  populations in these regions, Cavalli­Sforza was able to show a gradient in genetic  composition which spread from the Middle East to Europe. • This gradient in gene frequencies can: be interpreted as evidence of an actual migration  of peoples with their technology. • Figure illustrates the most important genetic landscape of Europe (first principal  component of the frequencies of 95 genes.) • (From Cavalli­Sforza, L. L. and F. Cavalli­Sforza. 1995. The Great Human Diasporas:  The History of Diversity and Evolution. Perseus Books, Cambridge, MA.) • The Rh Factor • Another example: the Rh factor. Substance found in blood of some humans, named after  the Macacus rhesus monkey that also contains the substance. • Rh+ more common in the Middle East; Rh ­ prevalent in western Europe. • Genetic gradation of gene frequencies for this factor reveal that people with: •  (From Cavalli­Sforza, L. L. and F. Cavalli­Sforza. 1995. The Great Human Diasporas:  The History of Diversity and Evolution. Perseus Books, Cambridge, MA.) 2 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture Outlines ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World • 2. The Yellow and Yangzi Basins of China • Origins of short grain rice, foxtail and common millet, soybeans, pigs, chicken,  indigenous cattle, and the silkworm. • System spread with human migrations between ca. 4000 to 1000 B.C. • Migrations spread to northern India, western China and Tibet and most of Southeast Asia. • East and Southeast Asia (China): Linguistic Evidence • 3.  • Origins of some yam species, West African species of rice and several species of millet  (i.e. pearl millet, finger millet, and sorghum). • System spread between ca. 5000 to 3000 years ago. • Migrations spread through monsoonal regions of sub­Saharan Africa. • Africa: Linguistic Evidence • • 4. Mesoamerica • Origins of maize, some species of beans and squash, tomatoes, and possibly some species of chile pepper, avocado and turkey. • Systems spread with human migrations after ca. 2000 B.C. • Migrations spread into the US Southwest and the Andes (later into eastern US without  evidence of migrations). • New World Major Language Family Distributions at ca. A.D. 1500 • Centers of the Origins of Agriculture in the New World  • Four other regions of the origins of food production had less migratory influence. • 1. West Pacific  • 2. South Asia • 3. The central Andes • 4. The Eastern Woodlands of the United States 3


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