History of Crusade and Jihad
History of Crusade and Jihad History 402
Popular in Medieval Crusade and Jihad
Popular in History
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by James Creighton on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 402 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Sarah Davis-Secord in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Medieval Crusade and Jihad in History at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
DAY 6: February 5, 2016 A. Council of Clermont, November 1095: Appeal and Audience for Crusade Clermont, mid-France, Pope Urban II calls a church council to deal with issues of anti-pope, king of Franks, discuss reforms, and hear a request from Byzantine ambassador asking for help against the Turks. After this council, Urban goes out into a field and preaches to a group of local ecclesiastical and powerful people. Counts, Vi-counts, no king (excommunicated). Five different versions of Urban’s speech. All written after 1 crusade. 1. Anonymous person not there for Urban’s speech but did accompany crusade. 2. Fulcher of Chartres; may have been present and did go on crusade and record it. 3. Robert of Rheims; Monk, may have been present, didn’t go on crusade. 4. Baldric of Dol: maybe present; did not crusade. 5. Guibert of Nogent: did not attend council, did not crusade. Major points focused on in speech is the privilege given to crusaders by pope Urban. Whoever goes on journey to free the church of God in Jerusalem out of devotion alone, not for glory or money, can substitute the journey for all penance of sin. This is the classic definition of Crusade. What Urban did not say: Muslims all bad and should be killed OR converted. No mention of uniting forcefully or otherwise with Greek Church. No mention of establishing colonies in the holy lands. No plan once Jerusalem was conquered. People did respond and did different things but Pope Urban did not mention these things. Appeal for crusade took off! Urban traveled around southern France and began preaching this message of Crusade. Wanted this to be an international ideal though. Traveled throughout the whole year. Wrote letters to others to appeal to them. Authorized and not authorized preachers gave the same message to varying degrees. Popular preachers: Peter the Hermit: lead the people’s crusade. Got Authorization to preach crusade but mandate came to him from heaven (says he). Gathered to him a crowd of “rabble”. Unfit to take up arms or even travel to face hardships. Charismatic though, people want to be a part of this big shift/deal. (Apocalyptic?). Target to appeal to crusade was made to the knights and those who could fight and brave hardships. Not a social class. Knights, infantry, archers. Numbers always exaggerated to influence a certain thing but estimated fifty to sixty thousand people went on crusade, including non-combatants. Around seven thousand knights and nobles, not including servants. At least half the people who went were non-combatants. Merchants and Artisans went along, women, Clerics, many peasantry (potential infantry or simply rabble or support/grunt work), the young adults (leads to lack of discipline), criminals (get away from home or sentenced to journey as penance), and families (children, elders, woman, prostitutes, workers) even though they were asked not to. Raymond of Toulouse (received letter from Urban asking him to be the leader) (true?). Adhemar of Monteil, the bishop of Le Puy. Given position of papal legate on the journey (stands in for the Pope) Starts in Raymond’s party which give Raymond’s claim credence. People who didn’t want to go: Spanish Knights: had to stay and fight the Muslim’s in Spain. Kings and Emperors (some excommunicated anyways). Had to stay home and keep order or might overshadow leadership. Families asked not to go as well as old, feeble, disabled, untrained, women. Most did not listen. Leaders: Godfrey of Bouillon (from lower Rhine, came with brothers Eustace and Baldwin), Hugh of Vermandois (brother to king of France), Bohemond of Taranto (Norman from lower Italy, came with Tancred), Raymond of Saint-Gilles (Toulouse, thinks he leads all, from southern France), Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy (papal legate, followed with Raymond), Count Robert of Flanders (Cousin of Robert, Duke of Normandy, comes from Northern France, comes with Stephen of Blois). Crusaders all signed by the cross. (Cruce Signatus). Ritual practice and is a vow, bound on pain of excommunication. Need money and permission of priest. Men sell land for money to take on journey. Need to settle debts. People do pool resources or fall under pay of greater lords and knights. DAY 7: February 8, 2016 A. The March to Constantinople and the capture of Antioch. Horses, Weaponry, and food absolutely essential. No departure time or place was agreed upon in 1096. People just start traveling in large bands at their own time. Constantinople was a stop all had to make though to cross the sea to Asia Minor and onto the holy land. All prearrangements broke down when they reached Byzantine territory. Clashes with Imperial troops and raiding for supplies took place. Massacres of Jews took place for some reason over the period of 1096- 1102. Little information is known though. What did crusaders or Christians want? How did Jews react? No clarity about who targets are in first crusade. Apocalyptic element involved? All theories though; what is known though is that letters written after the fact, Jews wrote about what had happened, especially in the Rhine river valley. Not well received by leaders of Crusades or Popes and was not the intent. Pope specifies, kill only Muslims not Jews! All forces arrive in Constantinople in waves. Byzantine Emperor (Alexius I Comnenus) had asked for help but not for waves of forces marching though his lands and causing chaos. Hugh of Vermandois comes first (house arrest). Then Godfrey of Bouillon, then Bohemond of Taranto, then Raymond of Saint-Gilles with Adhemar (bishop of Le Puy), then Count Robert of Flanders with Stephen of Blois. From April to mid-May these forces arrive. They perceived Crusaders as threat to power and throne and didn’t want Crusaders in their lands. Atmosphere of hostility between Byzantine and Crusaders who believe themselves there to help Byzantine. Increasing distrust between Byzantine Imperial powers will continue through crusades. Emperor doesn’t want Crusaders inside the City. Wealthier than anything the crusaders have ever seen and they don’t want to miss seeing it. It’s splendid and filled with ancient treasures of the church: icons, relics, etc. and Crusaders want to see and get spiritual benefits. Emperor lets them in in drips and drabs and finally decides that oaths of vassalage to him is the only way to keep control of these wild forces. Get them to simmer down and get them to promise that any lands that they take in Asia Minor that had previously been part of the Roman Empire, will be given to the Byzantine Empire. Implies to Crusaders that Alexius will lead the army. Godfrey of Bouillon refuses at first but after fighting he agrees to oath. Bohemond gets a position in Byzantine forces as leader. Tancred; no oath. Raymond refuses but he gives a different oath. Robert of Flanders and company swear the oath. Emperor does not join forces but allows forces to cross to Asia Minor into the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. Not first forces. Peter the Hermit already entered region with peoples crusade, got massacred. Crusaders find their bodies, mourn, and find themselves attacked by Turks. Battle of Nicaea: May-June 1097, controlled by Kilij Arslan, Seljuk ruler of Rum. Turkish forces try to aid Nicaea but Crusaders drive them off and besiege Nicaea. Meanwhile, the emperor negotiates in secret with Kilij Arslan and his family. Kilij want to surrender, but not to crusaders. On June 19, Crusaders wake to see Imperial Battle standard on the ramparts and know they have been betrayed by emperor. Turks flee and Crusaders mad but are paid off by Emperor and promises Latin Monastery in Nicaea. Crusaders understand though that the year before, Peter the Hermit and his crusaders had been betrayed also by Byzantine. Already distrust Byzantine. Battle of Dorylaeum (July), full battle on the field. Crusaders were fenced in. Evident that they had fallen because of their sins. When begging mercy from God, sang and wept, and rout the Turks. Turks flee. Sin=failure. Prayer, penance, right intentions=Victory. God does not screw up… crusaders do. Konya completely empty and Tarsus, Adana (Armenian Territories) taken. Tancred believes (since he didn’t take oath) that he can keep cities. Godfrey says no. Baldwin, his brother, tells Tancred, nope, hand it over to Byzantine. Edessa (first Crusader State). Controlled by Toros. Toros adopts Baldwin and when Toros dies Baldwin gets control of Edessa without military force and takes the first Crusader state. Baldwin claims that not part of Empire for a long time. th Siege of Antioch begins. 20 of October, 1097. Well defended city, controlled by Yaghi Siyan. Turks get killed outside Antioch and Yaghi retaliates by killing Christians in Antioch and throw bodies out at Crusaders. Siege lasts Oct. 20, 1097-June 2-3 1098. Winter conditions cause famine, not fires, ate everything in sight, including seeds in animal poop. Cold winter with Rain causes sickness. Tents rot away. No supply lines coming in. Stephen of Blois runs away but gets dragged back. Corruption and sin causes this faults. Women driven from camp and vision seen, a cross heading to east, and believe now is the time to strike in June. Antioch falls in June. Firouz (Pirus), becomes friends with Bohemond and makes deal. Bohemond says give me this tower and I give you riches. Bohemond says whoever gets city first gets to rule. Leaders agree and Bohemond takes city making himself the ruler. However, no food in city and Turkish leader Kerboga of Mosul is coming with an army. Peter of Bartholomew has a vision from Andrew the Apostle on where to find holy lance that struck Christs side. Peter finds it and authenticity is disputed but it motivates Crusaders. God on their side. They march out and face Kerboga and his forces and defeat him. June 28, 1098. Antioch is kept by Crusaders. DAY 8: February 10, 2016 A. March from Antioch to Jerusalem Antioch was a testing ground for the Crusaders that tested them. Hunger, collapse, desertions, war. st Adhemar of le Puy dies August 1 1098 in Antioch shortly after victory against Kerboga, leaving a power vacuum in clerical leadership. Lance that struck Christ was a rallying point for the Crusaders and allowed them to beat the invaders. They take Muslim supplies. Diminished in number. Desertions, epidemics, war, killed many. Around 900 official knights left. Leaders write a letter to the pope asking him what to do. They fulfilled part of their duty: freed Anatolia but not sure what do to next. They wanted him to lead them to the sepulcher in Jerusalem. Vocalization of Imperial treachery only grows with time. Taking Nicaea, the emperor refusing to lead armies, and didn’t help them take Antioch. This leads to Crusading leaders expressing want for power and authority; lead by Bohemond. Bohemond tries to hold Antioch as his own lands and city and not give it to Byzantine Empire. Raymond of Toulouse argues with him for the city. Break of Byzantine Empire, towns held as though owned by crusaders, and infighting between leaders. The march to Jerusalem was marked by a much diminished and split army. Raymond employs many of the other leaders under his charge as he pays for them. He becomes physically in command of others armies as others are broke. Crusaders traveled along the coast: More cities, hug the coast for supplies and water. All the castles and cities under differing leaderships. Many hand over to the crusaders everything they ask for in exchange for not being attacked. Help Crusaders along on their way to Jerusalem. Muslims approached this problem in territorial terms, not in religious war terms. Krak des Chevaliers, castle abandoned by Muslims, becomes huge Crusading castle. Tancred takes Bethlehem closely outside Jerusalem and Siege of Jerusalem begins. 7 of June, 1099. Muslims (Shiite Fatimid’s) had poisoned wells outside the walls and kicked out all Christians. Wood is found and siege engines built to storm city as original attack fails. Siege Tower sent to the walls and in the tower were Godfrey and Eustace and lead assault on July 15, 1099. Begin to battle within the city of Jerusalem. Described by all sides as an extremely fierce battle. People in Mosques and Tower of David massacred even though Raymond promised them protection (Which bugs him!). Synagogue with people in it burned down and blood flowed through streets. Governor held citadel for a little while but then gave it up to Raymond in exchange for safety. Once fighting dies down, people go to the Holy Sepulchre and venerate and set up liturgical feast to be remembered…….Now what? Pope didn’t specify what to do. Raymond wanted Jerusalem but doesn’t believe he would have support so refuses and many wanted to go home. All the bishops and clerics agree it shouldn’t be a kingdom but an ecclesiastical lordship. But no high ranking and well respected clerics left. So they choose Arnulf of Choques- archdeacon of the Holy Sepulchre. Very low rank, bastard, not well respected, crass jokester and womanizer, and had opposed the authenticity of the holy lance at Antioch so not respected by Crusaders. Made protector of the relics but not an outright ruler. He finds “discovers” the relic of the true cross to support himself but is skeptical at best. Would be carried into battle but will be lost eventually. Need for secular leader in Jerusalem. Godfrey was chosen but wouldn’t take name of king but rather advocatus=defender of the Sepulcher. Now established in Jerusalem, Fatimid vizier attempts to retake Jerusalem and Crusaders face him at Ascalon. Godfrey decides to face them outside city. Raymond and Godfrey have a fierce rivalry going on as Raymond’s plan for power and leadership constantly thwarted. But both Godfrey (leaves August 9 ) and Raymond (August 10 ) unite forces to face them. th August 12 , 1099, the crusaders attack the camp while they sleep and push them back toward Egyptian territory. Negotiate for release of Muslim citizens of Ascalon. Muslims claim though that they will only negotiate with Raymond as he is the only one who has kept his promises with Muslims. Negotiations begin but Godfrey say, No! If Raymond sets up powerbase in Ascalon (Jerusalem’s port city) so close to Jerusalem he could take Jerusalem from Godfrey! Infighting increasing. Always need for port and road. Negotiations fall through and it remains in Muslim hands though Muslim armies pushed back. Raymond, in frustration, takes small town and Godfrey demands it back. Failure to take Ascalon causes the territorial insecurities for the rest of the crusaders rule. st 1 crusade over. Godfrey stays with his knights. Raymond stays at Tower of David until forced to hand it over. He then leaves to Constantinople. Bohemond and Baldwin stay in Antioch and Edessa. Pope Urban died shortly after Jerusalem was taken, July 29, 1099. We don’t know if he found out whether the Crusade succeeded or not. Countries: County of Edessa, Principality of Antioch, County of Tripoli, and Kingdom of Jerusalem.