PSCI Notes 2/22-2/26
PSCI Notes 2/22-2/26 PSCI 1030
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Tate on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSCI 1030 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Irina Perevalova in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
PSCI 1030 2/22/16 Chapter 13 continued 2 types of transmutation: During natural transmutation there is an alpha emission from the nucleus. When this happens: 1) Mass number increases by 4 2) Atomic number decreases by 2 The atom that remains after this process is found 2 places backward in the periodic table. For example: after an Oxygen atom goes through natural transmutation, it becomes Carbon. *when the element ejects an alpha particle, the resulting element’s mass number would decrease by 4. Elements that have gone through artificial transmutation are found in numbers 93-115 on the Periodic table. These elements have shorter half-lives. *If an isotope has a half-life of 1 day, after three days its half-life would be 1/8. Radiometric Dating Is carbon dating used for plants and animals (e.g. measuring one’s “carbon footprint”). Is based upon the ratio of C-12 to C-14. The half-life of Carbon is roughly 5760 years. Uranium and lead isotopes are used for the dating of nonliving things. Uranium-238 decays to lead-206 Uranium 235 decays to lead-207 _____________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 14 – Elements of Chemistry Vocabulary: Physical Change: change in physical properties of a substance. Chemical Change: transformation of 1 or more substances into others. Elemental Formula: show proportion by which atoms compound to form an element. Compound: substance consisting of atoms of different elements. Chemical Formula: used to show proportion by which elements combine to form compound. During a physical change, the material doesn’t change at all, the element just either becomes denser or more spread out. Example: Water can change from a solid to a liquid to a gas without changing the actual element. During a chemical change, the substance changes completely into something else. When there is a chemical change, the elements connect to each other differently. Example: Sodium (NA), and Chlorine Gas (Cl), are very harmful to humans separately; but, when put together, they create a very safe, very widely used substance-table salt. (NaCl). Example #2: Iron changing to rust Example #3: Copper to greenish color: Statue of Liberty. Elemental formula: Compound: Oxygen, ozone, and sulfur. Element: O 2 O 3 and S 8. Chemical Formula: NaCl, NH , 3nd H O. 2 Chapter 15 Electron-dot structures: -Show how electrons behave in atoms. -Valence electrons: in outermost shell of atom. -Electron-dot structure: shows the number of electrons surrounding an atomic symbol. Examples: Carbon, since it is in group 4A in the periodic table, has 4 electrons surrounding it, Nitrogen has 5, Fluorine has 8, and so on. Ion: shown as – Na , Mg , Cl , etc. + - Na (on its own): 11 p - 11 e = 0 net charge. Na : 11 p - 10 e = +1 net charge. F (on its own): 9 p+ and 9 e- = 0 net charge. - F : 9 p+ - 10 e- = +1 net charge. *Note: Elements found on left side of table have positive charges; elements on the right side have negative charges. Molecular Ion: usually made because of loss or gain of a Hydrogen Ion, H + Ionic Bond: electric force of attraction between a positively charged ion and a negatively charged ion. Ex: Na +2has a +2 charge and F has a -1 charge. +2-1=+1 Metallic Bond: -outer electrons in metal atoms with a weak attraction in the nucleus. Alloy: mixture of metallic elements. Covalent Bonds: 2 electrons within 1 single covalent bond. Looks like F – F *The number of covalent bonds that can be formed = the number of unpaired electrons.
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