History of Crusade and Jihad Week 3 Notes
History of Crusade and Jihad Week 3 Notes History 402
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by James Creighton on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 402 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Sarah Davis-Secord in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see Medieval Crusade and Jihad in History at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
DAY 9: February 15, 2016 A. Crusader States 1100-1101: Godfrey of Bouillon is not king but advocatus of Jerusalem and Arnulf is the protector of the Holy Sepulcher. Daimbert, Archbishop of Pisa, arrives with Pisan crusaders. Daimbert is the papal replacement for Adamar of le Puy. Challenges Arnulf for position of religious leader. Named himself Patriarch of Jerusalem. Forces Crusaders leaders to submit to his authority. Jaffa (Joppa), is attached as the port city of Jerusalem. Pisan’s help Crusaders take Jaffa. Controlled by Pisan and Daimbert the Patriarch. Pisa profits heavily from control of Jerusalem and Jaffa. Slight expansion by crusaders continues but Ascalon will always be a problem. Crusading armies, late for the first crusade or followed in success of first crusade, enter the holy land. Three waves in the Crusades of 1101. They all get massively slaughtered. Raymond is picked up from Constantinople in the waves and is the head of these armies. Fare badly. Why? First Crusade went slowly and was familiar with fighting tactics of Muslims along the way. Taken by Surprise as most Asia Minor still in enemy hands. Sins of men! Raymond of Toulouse gets captured on a ship: accused of betraying crusaders and arrested. Made prisoner of Tancred of Antioch. Under house arrest but is released on the condition that he stop asking Normans to hand over lands to Alexius and he has to hand over lands he has taken in Antioch. Out of luck again. Goes to city of Tortosa and besieges it and calls himself count of Tripoli. DAY 10: February 17, 2016 A. Crusader States (Continued) Side Notes: Analytical paper up on learn. Quiz Friday on readings! B. Subject Muslims and Jews of the Crusader States County of Edessa-1144(falls). Rulers: Baldwin I, Baldwin II, Joscelin of Courtney I&II. Principality of Antioch-1268. Rulers: Bohemond, Tancred, Roger of Salerno. Kingdom of Jerusalem 109-1100 Godfrey of Bouillon, 1100-1118 Baldwin I, 1118-1131 Baldwin II. (Same as rulers of Edessa). County of Tripoli-Raymond-1289 (Future). Baldwin really established Jerusalem as an actual kingdom. Gives out land etc. Always lack of manpower though as they are in the middle of enemy territory. Only source of military was Military Orders (Talk on later). Raymond dies before he even takes Tripoli. Purely honorary taken title. Muslims around Crusaders States Aleppo: biggest Muslim city that is a threat as it is next to Principality of Antioch and County of Edessa. Christians have ports and Muslims wants ports so conflict causes struggles. Damascus: Outside Kingdom of Jerusalem. Emirates of Damascus fight Crusader states. Mosul: Far too the East by County of Edessa. Many Crusaders go home after the first Crusade upon completing it which leads to lack of Manpower. Many other Crusaders settled there and started completely new lives. Fulcher of Chartres (1059-1127) writes a wonderful piece on the changes of those who settled there. (On Learn). Opportunity for Social mobility for many Crusaders. Also an opportunity to live in Cities, trade in coin, and live in centralized government (Somewhat). Place for enrichment. Two ranks/classes of Crusaders. Nobles: Old nobility from first Crusade, socially mobile, upward moving knights. Had to have land (Farmed by Peasantry, almost never visited though). Burgesses: town dwellers, those not nobles with no title or land. Engaged in local trade. Why don’t indigenous people revolt against new rulers who care little for them? The same system existed under Muslim rule! No forced conversions. Lords building or inhabiting Castles and dominating countryside in militarized way. Could lead to the passivity of the people. Castle based society. Ring territory. Military strongholds and sight of battlegrounds. Indigenous people watched over as castles were built on high grounds for defense and view. Monetary system. Minting of coins like Muslim coins begins. Gold coins Bezant. Imitate local Muslim coinage. Fake Arabic on coins often. (Squiggle squiggle…good enough). Captivity relationships going both ways between Muslims and Christians. Difference of experience in captivity did not depend on religion but status and gender. Captives become buddies with captors often which will lead to alliances between Muslims and Christians. Poor and woman treated rather poorly though as there is no ransom and often put to slavery. If woman looked pretty, they more likely become wives or concubines rather than slaves. Exemptions: Latin Italian Mercantile states secure for themselves tax exemptions and control portions of the cities and trade in the Crusader States and control the enrichment of their coffers. Franks and Muslims couldn’t understand one another’s ways. Lord and peasant relationship does exist between Christians and Muslims. How the Town was captured depends on how the peoples are treated. For the most part, most towns and estates just get taken over with little massacring. Religion and cultural practices left alone for the most part by Christian Crusaders. Some conversions that can allow people to rise in the ranks. Christians seek to keep Muslim converts out of battle with Muslims in case of battle line crossing. Some Christian Franks become Muslims also. Some social mobility but very little; on the margins of society, (slaves, women, battle line crossing). Height of the Kingdom of Jerusalem: 1000-1200 Christian Franks. (Urban). Combined population of 300,000-360,000 Muslims. Christians always outnumbered. DAY 11: February 22, 2016 A. Logistics Preparation for Crusade: Crucesignatus= being signed by the Cross and wearing it on the shield or clothes. Believed they were following Christ. Communal decision. Had to get consent from local lords, clergy, wives, etc. and then take the public ritual of taking the cross and promising to fulfill the Crusade. Had to cover the cost somehow, (A lot! Usually donated/sold land or borrowed money from rich monasteries in exchange for giving them land). Traditional outfit changed but had a general following: Mail, Hauberk, Coif, Belt, Long Sword, Surcoat, Pot helmet. Knights and horses did not wear full Plate armor at this time. Crusaders had difficulty dealing with horseback warriors of the Muslim forces that rode different type of horses (Small, fast, and light). Muslim could encircle Crusader knight (On heavy horses) and could shot arrows from horseback. (Goggle Mongol horseback warriors archery for video on what it might have been like) Crusaders bring the holy cross into battle. Sometimes, even the True Cross would be carried into battle. Also banners, flags, relics, icons, etc. might have been brought to keep track of leaders and moral boost. Seljuk Turks had armor also. Crusaders swords long, thick, and strength was required to use one. Muslim swords are usually more curved (Scimitar), and thinner and easier to wield. Scimitars were for swift strikes on horseback while European swords are for hand to hand combat (dueling). Other crusade fighters were infantry. They had: Lance, polearm or poleaxe, halberd, spear. Most infantry were attached to lords and didn’t always have mail, just hardened leather. Crossbows used by infantry with little training. Compound bow used by Muslims. Siege warfare: method/technology for attacking a city. Techniques: Use siege engines. Some engines: Siege tower, Mangonel, Ballista, Trebuchet, Catapult, Ram, Ladder. Another way to attack is mining and sapping. Under the wall and dig out underneath the wall to make it collapse.
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