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by: Renee Lehner


Renee Lehner
GPA 3.73

Karen Petersen

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Karen Petersen
Class Notes
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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Renee Lehner on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 452 at University of Washington taught by Karen Petersen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/192310/biol-452-university-of-washington in Biology at University of Washington.




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Date Created: 09/09/15
Line connecting species in amerem groups with me blue whale T Mammals human 7 Chondrichthyes Biol 452 E S ummer 2008 Lecture 5 5 Dr Karen Petersen Diapsid reptiles and turtles gold sh Ray iinned 9939 shes I Hag shes and lampreys Log body weight Devonian 1St major radiation of the Chondrichthyes How do these differ from modern species csuozolc Hybodus Jurassic Jurlulc Q o N O m m Cladoselache Devonian Devonian Silurian Ol ovlcllll earmun What othertraits tell you if it s a Chondrichthyes Modern Elasmobran chs have ls cartilage denser than bone Sharks are neutrally buoyant in salt water 39clspers pelvic tlns Specific gravity in glml Triglycerides 093 100 water 100 Sea water 102130 Cytoplasm 102110 Cartilage 120 Bone 200 Subclass Elasmobranchii Species Diversity I u L J quotmquot El Cacharhiniformes I Rajiformes I Myliobatiformes ReefSharks Isqualiformes Torpediniformes I Orectolobiformes I Squatiniformes El Lamniformes I Heterodontiformes Traditional Relationships Among Sharks envy nauem quotyum Read WWWZ mum 39L lt Angel Shark swllnllnrmu Such cleaning Mike 39 Saw Shark Prillinnhurilnmlli Snqum mL mum Dogfish Shark SunIllan Squalomgnrfnh m manna A 139 quot Ground Shark cmmumm Mackerel Shark Am nn Galeomorpha Wobbegong mammalm Swell Shark Dorsal tin Snlni Horn Shark Humamlramu Six 91 Seven 9m sluts one dorsal m 39 7 Sixgill Shark Hulnd l rml Orbitost lic Sharks asylum 5quotm5ymw muummgnm c i m ml a rim Squaliformesdogfish mm m m 1 Sm gymm Squantiniformes angel shark 7 E vamnnnquot Pristiophoriformes saw shark WWW g Mal 6gilled shark wean wm 2 i Holem aiilus mom shark 5 W5 Wasimwmsmmy Imam mum in mmmz Lam m nmnimkw E Ha i mm Lamniformesmackerel shark O mmmmmns Ovecl g malaiabus tomale wabhegnng shark g Orectolohiformes wohhegong Carcharaniformes ground shark s mam w an my slingmyl mam Gunman yellow my 3 Does this analySIs reVIse anmmmwm E that traditional phylogeny Rm ihm lEYe skal i Hmmlaouslmlhsh Callumynnlius Southern elEDliamllsh MallallJ ampCJ Winchell 2007 Mol WMMWV iommxnyes ampEVO 43 lemnslcaulumml lm am n I substitutions per site Durophagy evolved several times Pod Jackson Horn Shark embryo showing teeth Shellfish hard prey like clams crab Specialists Stingray jaw Planktivory Filterfeeding evolved several times in sharks Fish or Squid Specialists Mako Shark Great White Shark J uvenile Goblin Shark lm Porbeagle 7L Cranium amp feeding apparatus of bitefeeding vs suctionfeeding specialists Suction A Compressive Phase Expansive Phase Resting Phase a c lt n B Prey Predator Movement Which movement sequence A or B is used during suction feeding Wilga c D at an 2007 Integr Comp Eiol 0icm029v115 Hyamanumuia Ceralahyal When the sharks mouth li er Is fully opened the upp Jaw slowing from the skull thereby extendlng the bite vadlusH M Great White Shark adults feed on marine mammals Teeth slice soft tissue Whlte Shark Great White Shark Sogial Domina Repetitive Aenal Gaping y Two quotwe mm m on mean In cum rum on Imam 1 mm mm m mum m mm mm mm u mm min walnutMK Elmplutonium m wemlculnrmlnomerlhkao mm mm m mm mm um my a llwun lh on gum xur n mum mm m mulln dumbum w my quotmy 5 lash F m mam rutw mum 1 mm mm nu umquot um ml an r umm nun mm mm an awnlimp m km the mm mu links ms nu names 13th Mm Im an armmm mum rm Ailnal mm mlv nu lahlh omens errbib mumm arm an Mating Behaviors m 1V xcw o Submitting female Paired Claspers Unique to Chondrichthyes Mating Sperm transferred in bundles Females may store sperm for months Polyandry Lemon Sharks beneficial or just convenient397397 Monogamy Hammerhead Sharks ChapmanDDel al 2004 Mol Ecol 13 196571974 DiBallisla JDJ el al 2008 Mol Ecol 173 7837795 foolaoe hark footaoeN Phylogeny of Viviparity within the Elasmobranchii A Eniuldea l I E Hexanchllormes l Sgilled sharks Pnsiruphonlurmes I Saw sharks Squnivnltmmes Angel sharks Echinammnomes I Swamm s 39 D g sh sharks Ground Shark Families Heiamdanillnnnes F Horn sharks Oreciolnbilormes quotI W0 5 Scyliorhlmdaa l l Lammrurmes Ill Mackerel sharks V Fmscyniuae I Carcharhrnrlormesl I I Fsaudolrlakrdaa I ov39Parous Legmcharlldae I Yolksac viviparous0voviviparity mm a I Histotrophs limited Hams E Histotrophs lipid Carchamrnidae l Ill Oophagous Placental Viviparous Euviviparity Oviparity lay large eggs in keratinized egg case 4345 of all Chondrichthyes Cat Shark in an opened eggcase adlm 5mg WILD Lab alching Ovoviviparity egg sole source of nutrients for pup retained in uterus live birth Aplacental Histotrophic Trophonemata uterine villi Bonnethead Appendiculae on umbilical can be eaten by embryos cord can absorb uterine milk Aplacental Histotrophic Euviviparity Oophagy I3939 r 39 4 s Common in the Lamnidae M ako Great White Salmon Shark Porbeagle Smooth Do fish Mustelus canis 9 Placental Euvwlparlty Yolk Sac Placenta Only within the Cacharhiniformes Short term near end of development Vascularized yolk sac membrane attaches to uterine endometrium Why are many of the Chondrichthyes at such a high risk of extinction a 2 15 A 0 E Which reproductive group 5 would you expect to have the 2 7 Ea 1390 o hlghest rIsk of extlnctlon 3 Oviparous 3 Lg G Ovoviviparous o l g 05 o 39 Histotrophy lg E Placental viviparous E an ll x E O I l l l deep ocean shelf see Fig 57 in habitat Pough pg 114 Garcia R l o lumfnraampRA Myers 2008 Proc RoyalSOClely82751eso 83789 Selected References ammm cmsmwnmc u Jan avg mquot was vmbmuL mm mmm mii mm s W mm mm m smrkainmy osmimmwmmmm WWW mm s w MM mm mus nemnm cinsiansmwmnmhmi WWW zamw mm s w MM mm m i a Dwmma m We zimm ia zmsirheue mm WM m Nam mam swim a ng Den mm m swam iuhhyaivgy WWW Hamid into 1993 waningaw smasnays JmmHDWinsUniver erss J iv um i A m Medidei ekka zmz resginsmmemmwm m autism smmmm 2m Nivaumerwar a aknw swims WWW mmammmimqngmsmmymimmmcmme w mmmcmmaim p t S Review Questions Rank reiative brain size of these vertebrates assuming simiiar body sizes birds mammais Chondrichthyes rayr nned sh Actinopterygii ampiiving agnathans hag sh amp iamprey r Describe the genera anatomy ofa modern member ofthe Eiasmobranchii sharks skates amp rays What features do they aii share What important features changed compared to the rst sharks of the Paieozoic7 What is the advantage ofiosing the dermai bony armor i m t WW i 1 b 1 present in the ear egtltampie of heterochronic evoiution m How do Chondrichthyes maintain neutrai buoyancy Compare the reiative density of these substances or tissues cartiiage bone cytopiasm iipids Wa er p Rank these orders ofEiasmobranchs by their species diversity Raiformes skates Squaiiformes dog sh sharks Myiiobatiformes stingrays Cacharhiniformes ground or reefsharks Lamniformes mackerei sharks inciudes the Great White amp Mako sharks amp Torpediniformes eiectric rays o i List 2 orders or famiiies of Eiasmobranchs that are members of these 3 maor quotsuperorders orciades based on the 2007 genetic anaiysis Gaieomorpha Batoidea and Orbitostyiic formeriy Squaieo morpha More Review Questions 6 Compare tooth shapes amp size in sharks that eat each of these types of With that tooth shape amp diet iarge prey such as seats or Whaies piscivory sh amp squid speciaiists durophagy eat hardrbodied sheii sh pianktivory iter feed on piankton 7 Compare the movements ofthe head ampaws aiong With reiative movements ofthe body of the prey amp predators for biting vs suction feeding sharks in particuiar give the detaiis ofthe kinesis of the skuii for a Great White shark What is unique about the Way a Great White shark might handie its prey quot h h p p howare most sharks segtltuaiiy dimorphic in regards to the thickness oftheir skin7 Describe the ciaspers present in aii maie Chondrichthyes Howare they used to transfer sperm for internai fertiiization ewmcmuei 4 p iipam L W p the skates amprays oviparity ovoviviparity oophagy matrophy amp piacentai euviviparity to Describe ampegtltpiain the effects ofhabitat Water depth amp reproductive mode for extinction risk among Chondrichthyes Actinopterygians Rayfinned Fish Biol 452 Summer 2008 Lecture6forExam1 Karen E Petersen Early Devonian 390 Ma r ulnin39mh39 iii 7 I ny ml a I H 34 KRHEIC oce AN x V Aim AncieniLandmass Subducuan Zane llinngloe mvecbun vi subduclluh r 7 7 31997 C R Scotese Sea Floor Spreading Ri g 7 Early Gnathostomes Jaws 1 forventilation amp paired pectoral amp pelvic fins with internal girdle supports Acanthodii spiny finned fish Actinopterygii rayfinned fish Chondrichthyes sharks skates rays chimera H Placodermi armored fish Pough pg 6465 f aggro V 39 Tom mom amicmniswnm Mummicmmlmglvmmn mam Jurassic cmmm rm x 7 E E nucuosnw i t i Slam Chundrlahlhymm HmoCEPHALI 4quot b o i immfml g i a PIacord scales Wmm a 2 is E 7 7 snummm E a E EAmIDEA sham and my 3 m mmmscm 5 a F0lYPTERIiuRME5 g icLADierA quot 3 v i E Acupsussmromzs 1 cunnnxnsvzn inmannnl and yumIlium 39 521 39 L in a 55 srnm quotmummy if is J LGsosmrumasmwnui quot i 3 5 s a v3 H I z A g a f 395 z o E R 3 47 g q i 39 N 2 m e 5 m n N a E 3 a 10 lt 399 E a E New Evidence on Actinopterygian Divergence Divergence estimates overlap for Neopterygians but disagree forTeleosts w does this phylogeny differ from the one in Pough rumIII E ill lillllllirlillllll ulem nauplerygmlh Mi DNA Imopicry glmw L Icmis nuclcrrr DNA I I Wi kquot 1 wequot Mm lemrrm Lawn Mnme Divrmerm I m 39In Nimrm Hulwlm Jruwrlumr H llrrr riuvrtrrii r1 Teleosts m L39nuvlvgmup mlciclillryun lint rnwnd crichmiu l r llmcllydegmu um mum mm parml Irn Mm wmmm Cr Hurley l A el al 2007 Proc Biol Sci 2741609 4897498 m Bow ns Osteichthyes Clade Actinopterygii amp Sarcopterygii r Lepidotrichia Carboniferous Paleonisciformes 3 Actinopterygiian Radiations Paleozoic Mesozoic amp Cenozoic Neopterygii Gar Bowfin amp Teleosts Hemihomocercal or homocercal tail Teleostii Homocercal Tail last radiation of Actinopterygii List 3 traits these highly derived teleosts share that other teleosts lack Y Osteichthyes Agmltha Chnndrichthyes Actinopterygians Sarco pterygians urgcnm thll ks Im ll Pmldlr 39uelu 1m Bm Lung 7 Lumpl kn hlmnerus Rays Bicllirs lislux Cars ns leaom mmh shes WWWIS Basic Fish Phylogeny Nonprotrsie jaws oome Actinopterygian fishes Drop lowerjaw maxilla drops Hyoid amp opercular bones move back amp laterally to expand oral cavity Derived Actinopterygians have a unique cranial kinesis with protrusible jaws WWW Pz39e maXilla v39 mgmlm Jaw hinge below or anterior to eye The throats of teleosts can be specialized to collect or process foods from a variety of diets 1 Pharyngeal quotthroatquot teeth are on the last gill arch at the posterior region of a fish39s head The arrangement and number of these teeth are specific for certain families and species of fish 39 mew 03 39 Parrotfish crush coral Grasscarp herbivore Herbivorous Bony Fish Herbivorous is rare perhaps only 2 ofspecies Herbivorous species are present in higher in tropical latitudes E 395 v 8 E S r ICic idae Eldhs labiqu I I n 351 n 1 5 l I II 05 1 15 2 25 3 16 Herb nmruus species Moray Eels have amazingly specialized pharyngeal jaws 7 1 r Meme R S ampP C Wainwright 2007 Nature 449 7982 ampllehla R S P 0 am right 7m lM rnh l 69H 6147619 Yellowfin Tuna Life Cycle Larval tuna 1903 hr after hatching Larval tuna 115 hr after hatching Pelagic eggs have oil droplets to oat 1 U Reproductiver mature by age Reproduce yearround primarily in In the tropical waters of Mexico and Central America they can spawn Each female lays several eggs per year Ynlluw n m larvae A simleJ GDMMSLC BEmmSLJ AeommsL pm we mmrwts ssicqlm Brursh Columbra hm Spmmed herring eggs on Zosxera manna Pmuo WDFW baa 710 month larva Altricial Larvae Mouths just formed at yolk depletion leads to a longer larval period rate to o What are the costs amp benefits of semelparity Breed 1X amp die Salmon eggs have much higher yolk content than herring eggs Semelparous 39 aw weigh lteroparous c e a lteroparous lt2 l Semelparous 39 yecunauy a m n a Body length Crespi Ed ampR Ten 00 F niuimn 565100871020 500 to a few thousand in Hatchling remains in redd 11 Ad ults Precocial Good predators once yolk depleted Short Larval stage i Silvercolored migrate downstream into estuary Swim amp feed outside of redd Feed for 13 years Why migrate to or from fresh water to breed Graph shows proportion of fish at any latitude in each category Few sh do any type of reproductive migration lt 1 What are the costs 00 A ADROMY Eg salmon Anadromy so Spawn in fresh water amp gt o cean to grow E100 CATADROMV 339 Tu 5o 2 o Transports nutrients from mo AMFWDROMV ocean back into streams can migrate in 50 either direction 90 oo 30 o 30 a o 90 N Ialilude s Eastern Pacific Salmon quotmm mm m ulnva unm mm Avm itE l l l l l l l l l l l l l 4 20 of oviparous Actinopterygii have parental care of eggs Parental Caregivers 50 males only 25 both 25 females only u Why are male bony fish commonly involved in parental care PO EUL male 7 4 m may mole ker salelllle 41quot temqle Bluegill Reproduction Female Bluegills will lay up to 50000 eggs Type Males guard the nest and fry 7 Bryan Nequot Midshipman Reproduction Toadfish migrate from deeper waters to spawn in intertidal zone along Paci c coast Swim bladder amp sonic muscles D 9quot 39 und him Ovoviviparity via Paternal Broodng of Egs in Syngnathiformes Pipefish brood pouch embryos visible Black circles are eyes Seahorse brood pouch m m in W m tinmm a Modern Bony Fish Percent of Species Distributed by Habitat Prima freshwater sh restricted to freshwater Secondarin freshwater sh anadromous or catadromous Oceans cover 70 of the world s surface while lakes amp rivers cover only 12 so why do freshwater habitats have high sh diversity 114 13 33391 I Primary Freshwater Secondary Freshwater I Marine shallow I Marine deep I Marine epipelagic 455 in Why are most marine species found in shallow water habitats Hypothesize why the diversity of freshwater fish within the US is highest in the East and why there are more species endemic to the US in the eastern region N uml xzr 0139 SP0 39Irss 395 II can I Ian m f I s 339 m Species rich families The 2 endemic families of shes in the US are hew gehettc ahatyses atter sctehttsts tdeas about the ttmthg of the ortgth o teteosts retattye to th ormattoh om the osstt record ared dertyed tratts th the 3 Compare the taw movemehts o prtmtttye Actthopterygtahs and more dertyed teteosts that have cohstderabte crahtat kthests Descrtbe the changes th the skutt amp the behe s Compare these movements wtth the spectattzed eedthg method o moray eets 4 Descrtbe the tocattoh amp acttoh o the pharyhgeat quotteethquot o teteosts How are these teeth modt ed or dt ereht dtets7 Dtagram the dtstrtbuttoh o herbtyory amohgst rayr hhed sh Exptath why herbtyory ts so rare amohgst shes 5 Descrtbe and compare petagtc vs demersat eggs the an egtltampte o ahActthopterygtah sh that has each type o egg What are the advantages th eachcase Do oytparous etr the p 4 does totat ntk r nhteht affect the tar a eg How precoctat or attrtctat ts tn More review questions 6 Compare h n 4 h atto the stages th the satmoh s tt e Exptath howsatmoh can use ocean currents to mtgrate tohg dtstahces 7 Graph the dtstrtbuttoh o ahadro my amp catadromy amohgst Actthopterygtah sh t the gtltragtltts ts tatttude Exptath why the patterns are so dt ereht What are the advantages and dtsadyahtages o ahadromy th the satmoh tt e cycte 8 Compare the tt e htstory strategtes o sh wtth parehtat type t mates vs sheaker type it mates as descrtbed or btuegttt as wett as the mtdshtpmah toad sh What are the advantages o each type o mate strategy 9 Descrtbe the uhtque patterh o oyoytytparttyo h h to Compare bohy sh dtyerstty th dt ereht eshwater amp marthe habttats Why are there so many spectes o eshwater sh even though eshwater doesn t have the htghest prtmary producttytty Where ts eshwater sh dtyerstty htghest wtthth the U S 7 Exptath why Name 2 o the most dtyerse amtttes o eshwater sh th the U S amp name the 2 amtttes o eshwater sh ehdemtc to the U S Selected References hestrtgrtgrrttr htprrtirt sh yam Resminetmigtrtg m t Kat Rs rc Vtmm 2m Fumamtmawmmp mngattm mpmstrtrrtarayeets mm 2mman mu m mm m mm m Mum mm 91sz mwts stm rmth WWW Introd uctlon Biology 452 Vertebrate Zoology Lect 1 Summer 2008 Course will emphasize Washington species or groups found in US lAclinopterygii IAves I Lepidosauria IAnura Urodela II Mammalia I Chondrichthyes Pough et al 2005 Natural History Includes Ecology Behavior Environmental Change Can you explain what these vertebrates are doing Why should you enjoy learning about the natural history ofvertebrates Durrell 1988 indulge your hobby in any place at any time for a naturalist will be fascinated to watch nature struggling to exist in the midst of a great city as well as observe its riotous splendor in a tropical forest 7 r 177 Mass Extinctions Through Geological Time 09 x e x quot e5 e v x a x x e c w at x 5quot qk o 96 06 9 5x8 vs 03 3 9 63 9V 6 l ND FFRMIAN l unnrmrmrrous Normmss t mm nimen l lhzlmniunalqenmgningexl I i tl 150 200 Millicms at years ago mm 4 Luquot n 39 IL Species extinctions have occurred periodically Why are modern extinctions of scientific amp public concern A htt Ilwwwuws edul eollacul Ihe oodIGeo 358Iendan HExtCausehtm Most extinctions of mammals so far occurred on islands Table 254 pg 667 in text or details on bird amp mammal causes olextinction u MAMMALS Inst suit m an 1500 cm any smill mm in see debris mm relerence click hereto idvqnce Bird Extinctions Fig 253 pg 665 in your text shows bird extinctions also primarily on islands E u U I O m m rn m Click Here in Bird very UNEP Global Environment Outlook Numbers of threatened vertebrates Asia and the Pacific 566 critically endangered i 3 endangel vulnerable 3 153 SE 7 48 46 13 27 ls 22 30 mammals birds rentlies 7 amphibians llsnes i waw we or GEO eoBen ilsh 131mm UNEP Global Environment Outlook Numbers of threatened vertebrates North America critically endangered 97 a endal l ered so vulnerable 7 n g Mum gm GEOgagglng 3512mm so 40 35 31 lo 20 3 73m 4viwi 7 I l w 5 2 I o mammals birds reptiles amphibians shes Major Threats to Vertebrates More Extinctions on Continents l Mammais Amphlblans l Elms Habnat lesseemaeanun Ovelrexniultatlurl imaslve Speclesexc dlseasE I Puiiutlun Natulai dlsastels cnaneeam natlve 5p dynamlcs incldentai munailty D3aeaae lnvaslve a3 natlvE 3 3 3 3 ngwmedlumlmpac Pelsecutlun 3 3 3 3 LDWlmpact 3 1 3 ll Unknwnlmpact 3 3 3 3 3 3 I 3 n on an on an n on an n Pemenlaee er Specles alleclee What are the traits of species that have a high risk of extinction Isolated mountains have been used as analogs to real islands to study diversity amp extinction patterns 3 55 Great Basin n 2 E Why are generalists more 57 5 3quot Generalist Herbivore I frequently found on E Isolated mountain ranges 33 0 Sky islands than 3 o specialist carnivores 3 10 E E S ecialist o P I g Carnivore CI 2 Seetext pg 680 Table 253 1 quot3 00 3 1000 Body Mass g Consenation spending is often disproportionate when compared to the diversity or relative risk of a taxonomic group Which 2 groups get most ofthose in the US Data from IUCN 2004 I of Species Threatened shes amphibians reptiles birds mammals Review Questions Rank the relative abundance ofthese groups ofvertebrates Aves Mammalia Anura Urodela Caudata Chondrichthyes amp Actinopterygii amp the living Agnathans 2 lfconservation spending was proportionate to the relative of species at risk rank the order of these groups relative to that potential funding shes amphibians reptiles birds amp mammals 3 Compare the taxonomic groups at risk in Asia vs North America Why are the patterns so different 4 Graph the change in number of species extinctions in birds or mammals from 1700s to present Why are these modern extinctions of scienti c amp public concern 5 Explain why historically these recent extinctions have occurred primarily on islands but increasingly extinctions are expected to occur on continental regions For birds amphibians amp mammals rank the top 5 major causes of species extinctions 6 Describe several characteristic traits diet body size etc of species that have a higher risk of extinction Why are generalists more frequently found on isolated mountain ranges than specialist carnivores


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