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by: Renee Lehner


Renee Lehner
GPA 3.73

Karen Petersen

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Karen Petersen
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This 38 page Class Notes was uploaded by Renee Lehner on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 118 at University of Washington taught by Karen Petersen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/192311/biol-118-university-of-washington in Biology at University of Washington.




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Date Created: 09/09/15
How are vital substances moved in amp out of cells l or v 54le BIOI Blaod 1 I quot Cells lining cells 39 I f 1 intestinal tract Lecture 7 5m muscle an 39 39 Exam 1 CEquot Bone 5 Rf l e pNeuro in 7quot b aiquot Fat cell quot Ovum Sperm Do you expect these different types of cells to differ in their cell membranes amp cellular organelles Transport 0verviewsquot 39 39 tran nort htm What are the major fluid divisions in the body Sunival depends on maintaining normal conditions in extracellular fluid 4 Environmental fluctuations 4gt Extracellular Outside of Cell It Includes Why does a cell s metabolic rate decrease as its surface areal volume SAV ratio decreases 10cm Volume 1 cm 1 an Surface Area 6 cm1 a SAN ratio 61 Surfarg Area Ianume Volume 1000 cm Surface Area 600 cm1 SAV ratio 600l1000 610 Surface Area Volu me 0 2 4 6 8 10 Length Why do smaller cells grow or divide more quickly Why does the SAN ratio decrease as cells get larger Why are cell membranes described using a fluid mosaic model camohydrate EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Flbers ol extracellular matrix EOM Glycoproteln Fllaments of cyloskelelon integral proteln CVTOPLASM What part of the membrane creates a hydrophobic barrier for many organic molecules that might be in extracellular or intracellular uid Peripheral n How do Phospholipids differ from other fats CHI faquot SJNonllpld group Phos n phate group 7 head 70 O H H quot71 27 A J 6 3920 50 iiiii if Glycerol rlHz cu2 fatty acid chains GEEquot cit cH2 RH CH 0quot cu cg curgu IIHZCHQ c5312 caroli RH 3 Fatty or acids 0quot What types ofsubstances easily cross through the phospholipid bilayer Eases Hudrophobic Small polar Laruepular Charged molecules molecules molecules molecules u 5 o O NaO Eu2 a 2 I Ions Benzene Ethanol Glucose Hmino acids cytoplasm How can large polar or charged molecules get through the cell membrane What are the functions ofthe numerous proteins within the phospholipid bilayer Will the type of proteins vary from cell to cell or in organelles Extracellular Environment httn39lltel far nte rmu 39 39 aucrilluexz html How do passive amp active transport methods differ E transported molecule o lipid bilayer 5 m Ie h channel carrier protein I protein 1 concentration gradient c annel carrier diffusion mediated mediated O teamwaaausemn M Active Can you define Diffusion Is it a type of passive or active transport How does kinetic energy affect the sugar molecules Are molecules still in motion when concentrations reach an equilibrium How does concentration gradient heat amp molecule size affect rate of diffusion 30degc small 20deg c small 20degclarger dehma OOOOOO OOOOOO Relative Rate of Diffusion O 0 25 50 75 100 Size of Concentration Gradient Simplified Osmosis Osmotic pressure Osmolarity Tonicity What types of extracellular uid cause cells to gain vs lose water Why is the movement of water so rapid across a cell membrane Is the net water movement down the water concentration gradient Pure 100 water has 0 solutes 0 mmHg osmotic pres 0 osmoles osmolarity new M lt5 mm in Q 5 Q g A a 39 0 f nmo In blood serum Shorthand Tool to Remember Osmosis Think of osmotic pressure units or tonicity ie solutes as sponges The higher the osmotic pressure the more sponges you have Sponges soak up water so you know which way water moves In examples A amp B which cells will lose water Is the extracellular fluid hypotonic or hypertonic compared to the cell quot 39 39 ti asn90hiDNuR4 M What type of substances need to diffuse through a channel Does the channel aid the movement of the substance other than providing a passageway that is the right sizelshapelcharge H H m quot 1 7 9 391 391 W M gt lfllllllltljlll v a l i l x W A aka57 a rrrrrr r 71 l lilatl l quotwl l lj Why is this type of carriermediated transport called facilitated diffusion Was ATP needed for this carrier to change shape Glucose m EXTRACELLULAR FLUID I Large polar Charger 0 j 3 molecules mnl39efuleli O re n 391 2 J Inns Glucnse mlnn acids 7 c 9 Glucose released CYTOPLASM 0 into cytoplasm How does concentration gradient affect facilitated diffusion 4 facilitated diffusion simple diffusion AANNww momomoul ooooooo Relative Rate of Diffusion o 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Relative Concentration Gradient Why is this type of carriermediated transport called Active Transport Does it use ATP to move molecules up or against gradient from lowerto higher conc SodiumPotassium Pump 0 r quot 2 f quot var K o Move Na out of cell Move K into cell What is vesicular transport Does it require ATP Endocytosis 7 Includes phagocytosis amp pinocytosis Vesicle Foreign obiect Pseudopodium CYTOPLASM cytoplasmic ull39 emensmquot Undissolved EXTRACELLU LAR FLUID 39 Things to Know or Review from Today s Lecture 1 um 1 391 u an L2 I39u L g 39 L the ismu 39 V N39 39 axis Surface area volume SAN ratio amp cell s metabolic rate quot r amp describe nuius vs illlldbelluldl 39 examples of extracellular uids 3 Explain why a cell membrane is both a bilayer and a uid mos 39 quot Describe the general functions of cell membranes What is the structure of a phospho molecule Which region uf quot 39 39 39 r quot yum qu flu 39 39 arrange in a move dnmmnuy ii 39 39 quot quot 39 39 saturated vs polyunsaturated fatty acids 4 Compare the enr 39 quot 39 quot quot r 39 nsport 39 methods use ATP which use kinetic energy of the molecule Which goes quotupquot or quotdownquot a concentration gradient Compare the differences between channel amp carrier proteins 5 How does each ufllmse 39 39 quot concentration gra ent molecularlion mass 6 n r cm L n u concentration gradient increases Which may be faster at lower concentrations Which is 39 h faster at higher concentration gradients Explain w y 5 De ne osmosis Know my simple d 39 ion of osmotic pressure amp tonicity of a solution Use u n L I 39 quot 39 relative tn the cell s intracellular r 9 Compare the 2 types of carriermediated transport How do they differ How does facilitated i sion differ 39 39 39 39 uansport 39t quotD What are the differences between endocytosis amp exocytosis Biol 118 Lecture 2 Exam 1 Fall 2008 Science How can you find amp evaluate accurate current information on health issues Today s Interesting Reading Seven Warning Signs of Bogus Science by R L Park at Univ of Maryland at College Park Author of Voodoo Science The road from foolishness to fraud httn39lhivww 39 39 nml lf 39 quot 39 quotquot 39 39 39 hfml Natural world measurable quantifiable Science is limited to observing amp explaining the natural world Establish theories to explain patterns amp predict outcomes in newtrials Science is unified same principles of testing apply to all sciences Scientific Experiments Require Large Sample Size Random Sampling Repeatable Falsifiable The Hierarchy of Explanation Public Scientists 1 Facts 2 Laws 3 Theories 4Hypotheses Which of2 competing scientific theories is more widely accepted than another When is a scientific theory modified or discarded Where does evolution fit in this framework of science Simple explanation for the patterns of change in living species amp fossil record Predictive Tested widely for gt100 years amp not falsified Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution Dobzhansky ABT2539125129 1973 httplmuNCSEWeborg amp htt Ilevolution erkele edul A test of evolutionary theory using the chromosome numbers in the great apes Hominidae Human 46 Chimpanzee 48 Gorilla 48 Orangutan 48 Hypothesis made in the 19805 to explain the difference in chromosome was based on chromosome banding It said that 2 ape chromosomes fused to form 1 chromosome in humans Hypothesis was confirmed by human genome research project Ancestral Chromosomes Fusion Homo sapiens Inactivated gt I Centromere Telamere sequences Telomere Hillier et al 2004 Generation and annotation ofthe DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 amp 4 Nature 434 724 731 Sample data with small sample size Phenotype variability has a genetic basis Wide range of variability in human population I percentage of population Percentage of Population 0 001 01 1 10 100 1000 Drug ConeMetabolite Conc Additive Synergistic Antagonistic a r f I a f I y E E l I E m m 3 I 9 a I a E I a I I t i I A drug I drugz drugs in 1 drug predined drugs drug I drugz drug atone alone I andz alone alone additive I andz alone alone I amtz together effect together together Types of Drug InteractIons Psychological Effects in Human Trials Placebo Mechanism Dopamine activity in response to a placebo is proportional to the amount of benefit that the individual anticipates subjective or chological therapeutic effect ScIehceDaIly July t8 2007 Great ExpectatIohs Why The Placebo Effect VarIes From Person To ersoh I 7 Natural changes in the course of a disease or improved care overall Eccles R 2007 The power otthe placebo Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 72 t007t04 Nocibo Nocebo Harvard Magazine 2005 Mechanism Opioid peptideCCK interaction Ferreres J Bahos JE Farre M 2004 Nocebo effect the other Side otplacebo Med cm Barc 122135117516 Double Blind Experiments Gold Standard for Human Trials Design Bene ts 39 39 39 J quot aplaeeuu FEV was measured 20 minutes after each dose 4 FEVle 2 Sallhutamol FEVisa measure ofthe 3 lun s expiratory air 13 5 s d volume Hm u mum mmmmu an mmmmisw Rapsamnesia 15 so 100 Inc an 11me ml s etlcsol 11 article 7dirarticlesamparticledouble blind trials h How would you interpret these data analyzing smoking as a risk factorfor Type II diabetes Agespeci c risk ratios for diabetes mellitus based on smoking habits ofgt 88000 women in Japan 19932002 i V Nevamolt V or Relative Risk or UCurrm cm luv a ios OddaRt 1 is normal risk gt1 above normal risk lt 1 below normal risk Odds Ratio Forest Plot Diagrams Line is the con dence 41r interval error bar 1 Independent researd1 trials Mean Metaanalysis Pooled Estimate ltgt con dence interval 395 from all trials 955 than 1 1 2 more than 1 Relative risk 1 normal or placebo If the 95 con dence interval error bar does not cross 1 the result is statistically signi cant at p 5 00 Lewis S amp M Clarke 2001 Education and debate Forest plots trying to see the Wood and the trees EMJ322147971480 tt W b comc icontenttullGZZ7XJO1 79 Source Vitamin Vlta Forest Plots showing differences in hip amp nonvertebral fracture risk between vitamin D doses 700 800 amp 400 UIday amp control groups Favours vitamin D Favours control D 7004100 IUday Cnapuy er al 2002 Cnapuy elal iQQA Trlvedi eta 2003 In each comparison how many research trials were included Footed 0 2 as i o 5 0 mm D mom5 we lelec What are their conclusions ts sample size for eacn trial about Vitamin D Meyer o ai 2002 Boonen S Vanderscnueren D Ups 9W ms l laentiens P ampLips P 2006 Calcium and vitamin D in the Famed prevention and treatment of i i i r w 0 2 0395 0 5 0 Journal of lnternal Medicine Relative risk 95 1 596 539 552 Herbal supplements aren t always safe jresult of chem al s properties Extrinsic Problems human errorl Intrinsic Problems GanC 2007 Study Find 05 nttg WWW neeltnrinsignt narvard edu nttg WWW consumerlab com Hurley D 2007 Diet Supplements and Safety Some Disquieting Data NYTimes Jan l6 2007 MWWWWM s Hign Arsenic Levels in l lerbal Kelp Supplements UC Newsroom 2007704 nttp WWW universit ofcalifornia edunewsarticler9056 hwwe msquot no Things to know or review from today s lecture What does science study What are the design features of good experiments Why is evolution so important in biology What are the differences between an additive synergistic amp antagonistic interactions What is a placebo amp how might it work What is a nocibo effect What is a doubleblind controlled experiment Why are they used in human clinical trials How are con dence interval or error bars used to show signi cant differences Can you interpret forest plots with metaanalyses amp their relative risk or odds ratios What are some ofthe warning signs of Bogus science Describe examples of intrinsic ie within the plant problems with herbal medications Compare these with examples of extrinsic outside ofthe plant problems with herbal medications BIOLOGY 118 Survey of Physiology Lecture 1 for Exam 1 Fall 2008 Check out all of the resources you ll find at the class homepage tt llfacult washi ton edulke ete l1 8lhm b39o 18html Today s interesting read Cooper E 2005 Health Environment amp Poverty World Resources feature nhn d57ampth eme4 Special Announcement quotDisability Resources for Students DRS is looking for a volunteer notetaker to assist astudent quotquot 39 quot 39 39 quot 39 39 a who primaryw o 39Jquot quot39 r 39 notes onceawnnk J would be on standby as a backup notetaker you has already volunteered However they have asked that make this announcement in the event at no one has yet volun eered as time is ofthe essence e time commitment is minimal but the difference it makes for the student is signi cant DRS will pay for the photocopying and will provide a letter of recommendation for your volunteer hours Mayor quot1 t y t mn If 39 39 for more information The DRS office is located in Schmitz Hall room 448 You may call DRS at 5438924 or email them at uwg uwash39ngton du Thank you for your consideration Karen Petersen I m a Lecturer who has been teaching this class since 1991 My graduate work involved mammalian anatomy amp ecology So how amp why did I end up teaching physiology Expect this behavior It may not be Dancing with the Stars but we ll be interactive with as mu 39ble c fun as possI Start on time end on time Powerpoint presentation on web the day before usually Treat students with respect Answer your questions to the best of my ability Help you learn how to think like a scientist Obesity Trends of Population of US Adults 19852006 BRFSS 2006 term 230 or so lhs overweight for 539 4quot person l 1 No Data 393 any 107447 15197 zenrm I 251497 I zany l hlln39llwmnAr dr 39 quot quot quot 39A n u r mm What does this suggest Does this give you a good reason to take this class I quota of disease risk that is avoidable colon stroke heart type 2 cancer disease diabetes 39 n 39 e 26 April 2002 Vol 296 Your Classroom Behavior 1 Be quiet when we begin lecturing or as students ask questions 2 Have your cell phones turned off Do not take calls or make calls 3 lfyou are late enter quietly amp sit in the back Keep in mind there are 240 of you No ipods in ears during lectures or exams Hats off please Avera a Learning Reien nn Rates How can you maximize your learning in order to do well in this course What does this leaming pyramid tell you g i E g E z e g g a 1 3 a 0 102 103 m4 I 105 106 107 We 39 w d H m 5 7 R How does memory work M How can I remember Pam things for a test Inlegmll Ippocampai ndepnndence Does sleep enhance performance amp memory presieep paslslaep N gt3 A E 28 E E 26 a a 24 g E e o 22 E 20 10am loam 10 am 10pm day 1 dam dayz day 1 dam dayz a Who are your Peer TAs Emilia is a Biolo ma39or Anisa amp Mehak are former Biol 118 students who 9y d whojust graduated ampis WIquot run CLUE sessions this fall for the 339 time 39 helping me for the 2quotd time Peer TA s Study Sessions These weekly study sessions will help you review a few key topics help you develop concept maps amp review before the exams I Concept Maps What is a concept map quotKm Qumio s v Organized mm In 39 Knowledge answer are d inundu F Affect 3 is M mmpnia uf Comm Linking inseam quotquot o Effective Jaw m m g L m x m T M ial are Perceived uhquot V Regularities Sa nr Patterns Labeled quotgirx lv quotTmquot Cquot39Ssquotquotquots l V y mmmm l esv f39lv Cognitive 5t miquot l m l Hannznings Things Fnlenelatiunships Cr mfalits 4 with mam L tosee Di eren Help you summarize amp organize information We ll have 5 IE assignments during the quarter due every other Wednesday L in ALL amp Lu u 39L m I Lu u 39L Sample Grade Calculations TOTAL 500 POINTS Exams Drop 1 of1St four Exam 5 is always included in final grade Concept maps 10 pt each for 5 assignments for a total of 50 pt Quizzes I ll try to give at least 30 sets of clicker questions amp use data from 25 There can be no makeup of quizzes Extra Credit Minute Writes 56 during quarter Exam Exam Exam Exam BeslB Exam5 concepi Q sizs 5 Tom Required Maps Chokers 10 i nG d mm mm i00pi 50m 50m WE quot 39a e m 9 p o E 100 pl mm 100 450 60 80 90 90 260 90 50 50 10 90 325 0 70 60 80 210 70 40 0 5 65 What does this graph tell you a Hertznan 1001 Health 8 Hanan Society Ameriun Scientist 59533515 deviation horn pyediaed me expectancy years 5 4 6 2 10123456 deviation mm predicted percentage o GDP spent on health Graphs summarize data physiological processes Can you explain these lines 39 39 7 greater amp quickly explain Y axis Which of these relationships is exponential VX2 YX3 Y4X Io smaller lewerlluwer X axis mulehigher P9N n 6 ls39 quotquote to common diseases 5 Things to know or review from today s lecture Can you explain how grades are calculated Do you know how to earn extra credit Who are the peer TAs and how can they help you What is a concept ma amp how can it enhance my learning What are other useful strategies for learning mu r r am added hours of study or review is u u llmmusl Do you understand how to read and interpret differences linear amp exponential lines What is the Xaxis vs the Yaxis What is in our blood What are the functions of red blood cells Biol 118 Lecture 1 Exam 3 Fall 2008 Blood has numerous functions Transport amp Exchange off Thermoregulation by Immunity Fluid amp pH Balance p same Albumins Maior sontrltnnurs lo osmolil 60 pressure of plasma39 What substances are in plasma newquotquotpesseieimummes amp what do gist23mm 39rrsnspenionshermeneslipies immune 39UDD IOquot Fibrinagen Essential component oi clotting 4 system can be summed te insoluble lihrin Regulatory Enzymespmenzymes proteins nennnnss 1 consists P I as m a of 92 H20 Other Solutes 1 of plasma Electrolytes Numul extracellular uid Ion composition essential lor vllal ellullr 39 39 Example Nat Kt CRquot or Hco lt Sample Organic Used ler ATP preduetien growth 01 whole nulriellts and maintenance al cells xnmples blood Fany acids glucese eminu acids Plasma 55 Organic Ca ied to sites at breakdown or wastes excretion Examples Ural hiliruhin Which plasma protein is most abundant albumin What do these plasma proteins transport glohlll ins Amman Mproldn Immune serum Ag adsorbed serum Mobility Fatty acids amp waterinsoluble molecules Albumin opens upto gain or release molecules amp closes during transport What is Hematocrit of RBCs in whole blood 5 i of the cells in blood are Erythrocytes RBCs i What is the Male RBC 4252 function of this Female RBC 3747 biconcave ape Why do males have slightly more RBCs than females on average 7H 4 mm Why do we use hemoglobin to transport oxygen Hemoglobin makes up 33 ofthe mass of a RBC a chain 1 1 hemoglobin has 4 hemes each heme may carry 1 hemoglobin has 4 globin Proteins We call Ita pigment because It has color When does the color change each globIn may carry How doe RBCs develop within red bone marrow v 1 Us R 7 21M I Bone marrow How Is the oxygen Release 0 carrying capacity of the Wigwam blood regulated 33255 I Tissue oxygen cgelermed Erythroblasts maturation Low blood 01 levels decline 2 Kidney releases if I I I f EPO e hro oietin ryt p A A 3 EP0 bone w J 39J Vquot marrow to speed RBC Retieulocytes mitosis amp development 4 numbers of New RBCs live RBCs in blood restores rise 34 months 01 to norma Improved Is this negative or positive oxygen 6 feedback homeostasis mmen39 E Q What happens to your blood if your Increased numbers of circulating RBCs suffer from kidney failure Are all of these foods good sources of Iron Fe Heme Iron Nonheme iron Vit C Oysters 25 Forti ed Cereal 25100 Beef tenderloin 15 Soybeans 50 Turkey 810 Lentils 35 Tuna 6 Black Beans 20 Shrimp 4 Spinach 1020 of daily required value Why is it most common among women 2049 years old 3 v Iron de ciency Lack of iron in diet high rate of of iron 33 Iron absorption increases when body iron stores are low When iron stores are high absorption decreases to help protect against V toxic effects of iron overload Is this an 3 r example of negative feedback 39 39 quotmm ans1min and uanspoll What causes Pernicious Anemia mm mm 9 9390 o39 9 E 0 99 a on 090 to 300 9 e b 0 o9a 8amp0 390 00 93009 09033049 9 a v9 Vitamin B11 is bound to the in sh meat poultry eggs dairy products also found in forti ed cereals amp some soy milks Acid in the stomach releases B11 from protein Then vitamin B11 combines with so it can be absorbed 39 testines production declines in older adults Does your hematocrit RBCs increase with elevation Will your hematocrit increase with aerobic exercise alone IYaxis Male Yaxis Female I quota of Red Blood Cells 0 10 20 30 Days at Pikes Peak Can you describe 2 methods of blood doping Why isn t the change in RBC numbers permanent l l as 84 5 1 A E T 83 c 5 g g 52 g 2 5 a 81 3 E E so 5 to E 79 E 2 l I 78 I J l I Control Sham 24h 7days 16 wk 0 Cnntml Sham 24h 7days 16Wk l Postreinlueion ii If Postreinfusion ii Does blood doping improve aerobic performance Does it delay the onset of fatigue 8 Measured in scometer When does blood blood Relative 4 blood viscosity increase Viscosity plasma Viscosity 2 as of RBCs increases 0 20 40 of RBCs Hematocrit 00 RBCs clump together Viscosity dangerously high when hematocrit values are gt 6065 because of the decreased blood ow rate amp potential for cell clumping RBCs dispersed in p asm Blood Visually aa Wm cm Flow I39llh Describe the life amp death cycle of a typical RBC 7 Can you explain MACHOleAGE Fem iranspmed Fe in circulation Why a bru39se t by transierrin changes color overtime Bluish RBCs phagocytized RBCs leak out of blood vessel i quot mail Amino acids E AKV EElllvemlEn v z 120day r39alliruhin L I Greenish quotIquot 3 eaJy removal 7 mm in b yer into bile runon by liver or r r Ci El39 39 r a lilan ammmmrlrm mm K Bilirubin is hydrophobic smALLg lllmhlri pm 39 J 12 k4 LARGE INTESTINE t be transported by INTESTINE V albumins In plasma E23333quot What is jaundice Whenliiiihy does it occur Jaundice 7 in blood causes 7 of eyes amp skin UV light exposure is the treatment used in infants UV converts in blood vessels in skin into water soluble lumirubin Causes Include Liver damage or bile duct blockage Premature birth immature liver breakdown of fetal hemoglobin Sicklecell anemia causes an excessive RBC destruction N P 9 9 5 Things to know or review from today s lecture What are 4 general functions of blood Know general averagesquot for the of plasma vs cells formed elements In the blood What are some ofthe solutes that are present In plasma Describe the structural desi n amp transport functions of albumins amp some of the globulin plasma proteins Where are many 0 these plasma proteins made in the body9 F It Il nn V 1at physiolo ical differences ex lain why males have a higher of RBCs than females compare in ivrdua s of similar size ow do estrogen amp testos erone affect RBC production Describe the shape of a RBC Does this cell have a hi her surface to volume ratio than a typical round cell How could a high SAV ratio be useful hy should a RBC be exible quot 39L quot hemoglobin quot 39 quot quot fthe 39 quot the lobin proteins Why is iron a necessary nutrient for hemoglobin formation Where dbes O2 attac How mo ecule transport many Oxygen O2 molecules can 1 hemoglobin n ii a blood cells quot r are RP J t t r t steps in RBC maturation Why do these cells lose the nucleus amp their mitochondria Describe the ne ative feedback loo that re ulates the oxy en content of blood What organ produces EPO erythro oietin W at woul ha pen if the idneys fail or die What would happen if your blood oxygen con ent is above normal Vl rch ofthese erI increase the of RBCs in your load aerobic exercise anaerobic exercise livrng at high elevation Comgare pernicious lack of Vit B148 irondeficiency anemias What foods are ood sources of each What factors cause these de iciencies What role does intrinsic factor pla Who is at highest risk for each type of anemia What are 2 methods to bood do equot Diaggram the relationship between of RBCs amp blood viscosity How does blood Viscosity affect b ood ow your risk of a heart attack Describe the breakdown of old RBCs Where What happensto iron to heme How is bilirubin normally removed What happens in a bruise What isiaundice ampwhat causes it How does our nervous system sendreceive electrical signals Biol 118 AX 7 branches high speed Lecture 5 Exam 2 electrical transmission Fall 2008 quot Synaptic terminal knohlhulh releases branchedreceptionne g What are parts of a neuron What electrical signals occur on them Generator Potential quot Synaptic Potential Graded potentials dendrites axon hillock Resting Neural Membrane K diffusion through leakage channels creates resting membrane potential fluid mostly Na amp Cl39 ions Na NI K cr cr NI K K N Cl Cquot m or Cl39 Nquot c39 t o g Nquot Lquot 339 xx N39 5 K LAM LLLL L 39 39 Resting N uron VolteLgde Fi 39 u inside charge outside charge 1 I K 39 i i i i l 70 mV on average l V ll l wswuxuktswcwuu y tuxLu LLLtctuu Mr A a 39I Hiquot 5 K K4 K Kv K K K A A A K K or A 7 fluid K amp protein A39 ions L quotL L gwf What is the role of active transport by the sodium potassium pump in neuron amp muscle cell function W a a 0 Q 0 Active transport via carrier proteins m will in lial moves sodium ions Na out ofthe cells amp r W potassium ions K intothe cell 3 a quotquot d g 4 Exterior Mama m uch t mu s New CKLLLU L can LL Lttt LLC L 7 LLCLULL labile OJ quot3932 9 39 rh ash hlml What is the function of voltage gated channels on axons n are closed 5 quot quot quot quot depolarized oonformatlonal changes open the voltage gated channel Lunuuuuuuuu LM ttLLLttLLLtt e 4 LecctktccuLLuLLe kakkkhkLkatkkkLLt can v LLMAMALLLLL k tb CLLQLQLLKLQA What signal opens these gates Diffusion of ions via gated channels causes a rapid voltage change i ll Inactivation gate j if 6 Channel closed Channel open 9 Voltage changes during an action potential 1st Depolarization voltage becomes 777 2quotd Repolarization voltage returns to 1 Na voltagegated channels open allowing Na ions to diffuse into neuron 2 K voltagegated channels open allowing K ions to diffuse out of neuron 40 9 Na gate K gut E closes apcns i 0 a 1st Depolarization 2quotd Repolarization g 2 E 40 No you 3 ns g 60 j ope E Resting potential Tlme html What is the sequence of events that produce action potentials 439 quot Why are action potentials said to 39 be nondecremental a y K Action potentlal 4 Na K g K Action potential Na quot m feedback Na diffusion W l excites the next part of an axon Schwann Cells Glia Neuroglia ofthe Peripheral Nervous System What are the functions of Schwann cells Miriamquot of r a nelipheral axon 391 Myelination Myelin Schwann cells grow amp wrap axon with layers of ecial 7 membrane acts as an electrical insulator Myelinated axons Non transmit electrical myelinated signals rapidly axons Compare these axons Why aren t all axons myelinated Compare the diameter of the sensory neurons amp their conduction speed Which information travels most slowly y l l l l 4 I C 1 y 14 l R l l I l l I K v f 13720 i 6712 175 0245 307120 35 75 530 05 2 Propriomptals Mechanorecepturs Pain Temperamre of skelnxal muscle o skin temperature pam yum Somatic motor alpha eurons diameters range from 3570 micrometers Are these motor neurons fasterlslower at sending signals than these sensory neurons What is saltatory conduction of an action potential Voltagegated channels along axon regenerate signal strength Schwann cell Myum stream d Action pnlenlizl menial is vagenaiaind ran ucrlan miner at no cial Ram crwmwmwrz n Are action potentials faster amp more efficient on myelinated axons LII What is a graded membrane potential Depolarized Hyperpolarized Manbrane voltage is negative Membrane voltage is negative Chemical stimulus V Chemical removed Chemical Chemical stimulus stimulus stimulus ED 7 applied applied mmcveu Repalarizatlon a G em Return u 780 7 Dev lzvlza lor Hyperpolanzannn G resting patentlal hit Ursa uwe ac uks na ses neuroAboulcaurse him ADDIIECI a O 0 9 9 pressure a e 0 o G raded Pote n ti al 5 n cl H de Ge n erato r Binding Potentials 9 o39 sue a 0 7 7 7 39 Mechanical chemical light or Ga ed other sensory st mu i channel 9 i I on a Closed Open 6 sensory receptor Chemically Gated Channel l mar Graded Potentials Include Synaptic Potentials Neurotransmitters excite OR in it depending on the type of receptor Innlblto Neurotransmmer What happens when electrical signals are summed up both in space amptime on a receptor or synapse 30 30 A 10 10 E o o 7 10 10 E 30 potential E 30 g 50 50 E Threshold Threshold E 70 70 E W A A o lnhibitory Excitatory sig al EExcitatory 2nd excitatory signal arrives adds to signal signal arrives arrives 1st signal arrives summed potentials pass threshold Can you explain this summary of graded potentials Excltalory Potentials Synaptic potential WTJHJMIE FEIT Acllnn Potential Region potentials than potential i Why Only A n a Trigger Amnn Pox 39nnunom 4 m I39 Rnsung Mnmhmnv Putvntial Pulanzad charged 7 v Propagation D Signal declines with 399quot 5 distance because lnhibnmy Poltmlall voltage leaks quotyamalaria mmnnne across membrane Sensory RucaptnrnrDlndrita ul Neuron Axon nr Nnnron with distance Distance How does stimulus strength translate into action potentials if action potentials look alike amp travel at same rate on an axon Stronger stimulus Weaker stimulus I Action Potentms I iAction Potentials I A eSSmVr A gt E E E 9 E vs a g g Res 7 r e a E an m time ms 39 u 39 unit time llnsIde membrane charge Outside membrane charge quotVoltsquot NORMAL NEURON 1o1o 2a quotvoltsquot Normal Membrane Polarity membrane resting potential How do changes I xt I NEURON SUFFERING ACIDOSIS excess H or lack of OH39 quot 9 raceuar H39 H39 H H39 plasma pH affect 39 the electrical activity 0f 1a o 1n o 4 24 quotvansquot n e ur on 5 MORE nega vu voltage hypnrpalariud membrane NEURON SUFFERING ALKALOSIS reduced H or excess OH 39039 1n 7 17 quotvansquot LESS neganve voltage depolarized membrane 4 5 Things to know or review from today s lecture Explain why in general neurons are designed to send signals 1 direction only n H I ofI 5 a J 4 mm r39 39 quotquotL g quot 39 IegiIIIIIII a neuron Where on a neuron might action potentials occur Where do graded potentials occur Describe the cond39 ions along a resting neuron s mernbran Cl39 amp proteins inside amp outside of the neuron charge distrib o across e membrane Why do we say the resting membrane is quotpolarizedquot What is a typical resting membrane potential 39stribution of Na K What is the role of the Na K pump in the cell membrane of a neuron or skeletal muscle ce What type of gated quot x J I n Inquot I I I r channels Describe the timing of the opening amp closing of Na amp K channels in an IL r r p ases Compare an action potential s speed travel method amp e iciency on a nonmyelinated vs myelinated axon Where can Schwann cells be found Describe how they myelinate and support xons Why aren t all neurons myelinated What types of neurons are not myelinated What is the bene t of myelination 2 3 4 5 More to review from today s lecture Why do we say that action potentials are nondecrernentalquot with distance Why are synaptic potentials and generator sensory potentials called graded potentials Describe the sequence of events at a synaptic junction ie from 1 synaptic terminal across the synaptic cleft amp onto the dendritic region of another neuron How are neurotransmitters broken down or removed from their receptor sites on a dendrite ie how does the signal stop F 39 39 39 nnpnlariyingx 39 39 I r39 r 39 I Give an L I I I I I J I II I I r example of an ion r hyperpolarizing Why are synaptic amp generator potentials decremental I 4 4 I A Is I I 4 I I bigger I n Explain how quot hnw alkalosis 39 r 39 I x I II I I II II I I r I What are some of the common features of some infectious diseases Archaea Schistosoma fasciola 6a q a Bac t e rla ruteohactena 3 I W a n V a 9 Mg 999 a 2 glad Biol 1 18 Lecture 4 Exam 3 Fall 2008 What are the leading causes of infectious deaths worldwide httpwwwglobalhealthorglview tog9h93id228 Medical Ecology htthwwwmedicalecologyorgldiseasesld intro htm 9 0 5 5 yrs old gt 5 yrs old Millions of Deaths N 5quot u u u Alan P on a Acute Respir AlDS Diarrhea TB Malaria Measles Leading Infectious Causes of Death Worldwide WHO Data 2004 What is the Arms Race Red Queen Hypothesis The Red Queen tells Alice quotNow here you see it takes all the running you can do to keep in the same placequot What does Alice in Wonderland have to say about coevolution Pathogen Selection Host Selection Frequency g g g g 39 39 htt WlMN be or w bhevolutlonsunIvalclock mm 4025 L L 39 016 06htm I 4050 4075 4100 Generation Do directly transmitted pathogens have higher virulence than indirect transmission lvia insect vectors or waterl mu Ewald P 1993 The evolution ofvirulence Scienti c American 268 A ril 5662 m a I o r m a r l lt01 01 10 10 1on y 2 PATHOGENS TRANSMITTED DIRECTLY PERCENT OF TOTAL u nu u u I l Pathogen Virulence Harm varies with coevolutionary time amp transmission Pathogens don t need healthy hosts to transmit PATHOGENS TRANSMI39TTED EV VECTOR PERCENT OF TOTAL lt 01 01 10 10 103 gt101 VIRULENCE OF PATHOGENS PERCENT OF DEATHS PER lNFECTlON How small are viruses Are they cellular organisms lln P 4 u l N DNA viruses RNA viruses 8 3 2 5 Influenza Flu Virus A m a g a E WW I WWW murmismwnm u Nahum How do viruses reproduce Why are all viruses called intracellular pathogens hllg darWin bio uci edu facull Wagnermovieindegtlthlml Aral reassorlmenl blip WWW hhmi orgbioinleracliveclick Virus binds to releases fragment into cell enters nucleusto control 39 39 HEWGGWHNIN cellulartranscription 39y Mzmcnsm mmwms 2 39 NucLEoPRDmN D AND POLYMENASES Viral made translation Assembly of quotUs Exit cell by INFECTED CELL How do bacteria differ from our own cells Chlamydia 39 a j How do intracellular bacteria 39 39 escape out ofa cell Are all bacteria intracellular Exit cell by 777 or 7 ococcus u x l plasmid 1 z rIbosome plasma membrane cell wall capsule Prokaryollc chromosome Plasma How do bacteria with membrane only a haploid genome CeIIwaII Du llcatlon N rerduce l olghromosomo l Contlnued growth n Asexual Reproduction 039 me 6 Gene Exchange Daughter cells are 352 m identical to parent cell What is horizontal gene exchange How can it occur 1 Bacterial transformation Release cl A f 5 IJN x H r k 9 H 4 A b Donmcell b Bacterial lransduclion Ymnspusnn Donurcell Recipienlcell mea F FD l 006 A in 1 7 conluaalion mov We have 5001000 species of nonpathogenic bacteria in amp on our bodies What can these nonpathogenic bacteria do for you with a new hut othenuise little in common between individuals Friendly Bacteria Unfriendly Bacteria L acidopliilus L salivan39 us Pathogenic bacteriasuch as L casei S lherrnophilus Candida aibicansjtc B bi dum B longumetc mmi How do protists differ from bacteria Single celled eukaryote has as us o Only some are pathogenic Are they intracellular or extracellular parasites39 Flagellum Rihoso es A Mitochondria Nucleus Golgi Apparatus mm mm 77 sumquot Vanda Centrioles Complex life cycle in 2 quotHM39 Wishes species of hosts um a u f5 my Mug Mend null wa mw liva whimi1 I 0 39 9 Suntan 6 Vector transmission 00mm 39 5 7 7 Reproduction SWNC cyciu Wmimm 4 o Reproduction mum 39 M My iwmmmi Mummelamth fl iiiemulating 3 H mm 36ametocytes 90d 901 0 Malaria M 303 m Why is the Sickle cell gene most common in areas with high infection rates of malaria Normal Hemoglobin Homozygote HbHb susceptible to Sickle Trait Heterozygote HbsHb resists Sickle Trait Homozygote HbSHbs has Inheritance a Sickle Eell Disease from Parents with Sickle Trait I Parents 39 I Pragen Norm Sickle Sickle Cell TN Disease Nnrmul Gene sickle Gene Sickle trait is present in 8 of the US black population at birth 39 39 39 39 39 tlIIICZaCasestud shlrnl How does the sickle cell mutation damage RBCs Hemoglobin S differs at only from normal hemoglobin Substitute amino acid Is DiSIO Ed ShaPe When icauses triggering clumping of the molecules RBCs to be brittle amp rupture easily Hemoglobin strands form 7 attaching to plasma membrane HbS HbS 39quoti39l fg ri i39 ifillgi eus Describe the symptoms amp organ damage caused by Sicklecell abnormal hemoglobin srckle cell anemIa normal hemoglobin crystallizes causing red blood cells In become sickle shaped Ave survivorship in US with this disease I Sickle cells Male 42 years Female 48 years 2 hllp WWW oml govscilechresourCeSHuman Genomeposterschmmosomesca shlml Breakdown of Clumpmg 39 quot5 Accumulation of red blood cells and Dagny a slokled cells in spleen 1 1 I l l Heart lailure Brain damage Pain and lever Physical weakness Damage to other organs Spleen Anemia damage Why is the major symptom ofthis disease Lymphatic Filariasis called Elephantiasis How is the roundworm a nematode parasite Wucheria transmitted 1ng quotL How can edema damage the skin or other organs DxHTMLIFramesAFFilariasislbodv Filariasis w bancroftihtm 1 2 3 4 5 Things to know or review from today s lecture quot worldwide terms of the coevolution of a pathogen amp its host What l J Describe the arms race hypothesl J L n L ability I Why do vector I L 39 mes of virulence than J L vector transmission amp supply clean water e viruses bacteria protist amp worm pathogens with regard to these factors relative sizes relative genome size eg both DNA amp RNA A diploid or haploid genome what u LI a r a w Ic p have intracellular life stages r V L a u I each 139 39 r 39 39 quot 39 y tu he viral DNA or PM 39 translation of viral proteins assemb virus budding out or lysis of cell 39 39 I I39K I I I I n r I in the life cycle of this pathogen mosquito in39ect it into human liver cells infected asexual repr liver cells RBCs infected asexual repro in RBCs gametocytes release into plasma mosq picks up gametocytes sexual repro In mosquito asexual repro In mosquito salivary glands Explain 39 L39 39 xists Are sickle y 39 e cell 5 heterozygotes or homozygotes resistant to malaria How does HbsHbs affect RBC survival Describe the consequences of sickle cell anemia quot by 39 lariasis Where is this n L L 4 disease prevalent How are the major organic molecules designed A d y a uncaralyzed reaction waves not large enough to surmount barfler Biol 118 Lecture 5 flowing Sream Exam 1 39 Fall 2008 3 catalyzed reactiowaves en surmount barrier 9 enzyme catalysis of reaction hll va accessexcellence or RCLGGecbenz me calah is hlml Sugars are simple carbohydrates Carbohydrate CH20 1 Carbon 2 Hydrogen 1 Oxygen ratio Glu 3058 an Emma sugar Monosaccharides Wisugar molecule glucose fructose galactose Disaccharides 7 sugar molecules Sucrose glucose fructose Lactose galactose glucose was snow 7 wow Mnnoaaccharidc Honosaccharide Diseccharide Polysaccharides gt 2 glucose molecules monocooow Starch grams in chlornplast inllverceil in celiwsli Plant fiber Glycogen Starch Cellulose Glycogen Starch Comparison i 123132 4 n i I 3 I i Catabollc quot3 o 7 iv c an of 39 Enzymes 4 1 3 4 P quot r n r 5440 5 quot 4 o EH12 i gunman s g g 39 39 gt 3 ev cm e ran quot 1M quot g M LLquot 0 0 A a v39 we 3920 3 Starch quot Use the shape of these molecules tell you something about function Which 1 supplies energy free glucose onomers most rapidly Glycogen I Fatty Acids Long chains mostly C amp H nonpolar quot T 397 quot T Saturated fatty acids 39 H H H 1 H H use c c c c c o H atoms CC bonds llt l l c x c l c H 1 H I H l H H i H DH n H Monounsaturated fatty acids a Laurie acid cm zaoz H at ms CC bond Polyunsaturated fatty acids H at CC bond c c c 2 00 U nsatu rated Neutral Fat or Lipid Triglyceride 1 glycerol 3 fatty acid chains o I I 39i 2 391 391 H F Glycem39 F c c c cc c c c cc H HCo I I I I I I I I H H H H H H H H H o H 1 39 H 1 391 H 391 C C C CC C C C C C H H o I I I I I I I I H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H 0 I I I I I I 19 C sCo39 7 H 3 O H H H H H C 7 H 9 O 6 9 Which triglyceride is liquid at room temperature Which one is made with saturated fatty acids Take a look at more fatty acid chains Irivnnz 39 39 htm Trans Fatty Acids are naturally found in small amounts in beef fat Vegetable oil margarine may have trans fatty acids Trans Fatty Acid Molecule Elaidr z Acid O H H H H H H I I l l l H H Pamal hydrogenatIon of a CCC C C Cquot C o l vegetable oil converts cis O 3911 III A I I I C39 lc H to trans double bonds I H H H How doesthis modify the H H H H H H H shape of the chain 0 I I I I I I 4 C C C C C C C o 0 III A 1 I A 39 Complete hydrogenation of I H o 339 an unsaturated oil breaks the H cls 639 0 double bond amp saturates the 3 fat with hydrogen atoms H um I Central carbon Amino Acid Monomer approx 20 types Protein or polypeptide polymer Long chain of amino acids Amino R Carhoxylic group group acid group Do the remainder R groups vary is size amp structure Methione Glycine I l Phenylalanine How else do amino acids differ from each other 700 00 00 00 39 300 rim 41 mum u Hall 11 HaNic i HJN737H lm IJH2 H III cm 112 EH2 c 10130 EH2 tli z 00039 EH 3 S I Can C a Aspartatu Glutamate Leucine Methionine Isoleucr ne 20039 000 000 0 C OO 00 e l v N 7 7V 7 HHN77H HSN Jf IIGNH lln EHH 1m L H HN EH CH 0 CH2 ICE 5 l l 0011 39 1Hquot NEH Em JHa CHz W In 0H NH cairm Phenylalanine 39l ymslne Tryptuphan Lysine msrldme La J L L Protein Folding Factors Size of remainder groups limits folding Oppositely charged regions attract each other similarly charged regions repel Nonpolar regions hide from surrounding hydrophilic body uids Deanne Donia g o repulsion ii Hydrophobic R group Hydrophlllc R group Tertiary le M 5 A6 W a Polypeptide Chain l b Myoglobin Hierarchical Design Quaternary Primary c Hemoglobin Protein Denaturation Loss of normal shape but 1 structure retained I 44 NIH n ywr l 3 o f t f i J Unlolding Q W gt irmicootnttliaiiol Denaturation agents Some proteins recover from denaturation in other cases damage may be too severe lt2 Rimming How does temperature affect the actions of these enzymes 0001 2 001 2 Activity mam um Of 0 UEIEIE 0005 Enzyme lt 5 a nouns onus a e s m gt 3 00004 0004 00002 0002 0 0 o 20 so an 100 T Celsius L J L and hm 99quot P quot 9 5 P can Things to Know or Review from Today s Lecture um L L J r t n Which ofthese r l l r um hydrophilic um L m lparhnquot u n n m l u a I n Compare the quot quot 39 39 39 starch amp cellulose Why is cellulose called plant berquot Which of msn quot 39 39 39 39 39 r39 quot cambulized Explain why Describe the molecular amp 3dimensional structural differences betiiiieen saturated monounsaturated amp polyunsaturated fatty acids Compare the number of double CC bonds What are the subunits of a triglyceride When is a triglyceride liquid at room temp What is the molecular amp 3dimensional structural shape of a trans fatty acid What foods 39 uhiu39 naturall quotquot39 39 39 r fhydrog 39 Whenlwhy does the arti cial hydrogenationquot of triglycerides occur What is an amino acid Describe the amino group of an amino acid Approximately how many unique types of amino acids are found naturally in our bodie Whatis the quotremainderquot groupon an amino acid How does this region describe some of the chemical properties of that amino acid Describe primary secondary tertiary amp quaternary structure of the polymer called a protein Which level of structure in 11 is NOT readily disrupted during denaturation processes Hi quot39 J quot affect enzyme 39 39 quot us return to normal functions Cari eri


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