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by: Renee Lehner


Renee Lehner
GPA 3.73

Peter Ward

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Peter Ward
Class Notes
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This 63 page Class Notes was uploaded by Renee Lehner on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 115 at University of Washington taught by Peter Ward in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/192314/biol-115-university-of-washington in Biology at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 09/09/15
Cretaceous Tertiary Boundary 0 KT boundary site in Italy 0 25 cm thick clay layer shows high concentration of iridium Log scale 4P7 Linear scaleLog scale CretaceousTertiary boundary al Pelrlcclo Italy Boundary clay Cretaceous llllrl D01 llluml 10 1 Iridium ppb log scale Confirming KT Two parts Earth was hit hit caused extinction First part rapidly confirmed simply sampling this clay layer Second part depended on paleontological analysis took a decade Major new findingSignor Lipps Effect sudden extinctions always look gradual Way out Confidence interval analysis Marshall and Ward Science 1996 Cover LOWER MAASTRICHTIAN UPPER MAASTRICHTIAN DANIAN STAGE Pseudykassmancelas ternsv59 Fach dISCUS epfp ems Anapachym lresw lle sls sous Ammoni e Zone AnapaCNym39scus terminus Planktonic I Member Secuon conhnues Depth 7quot Pseudokossmaliceras ercense Fachydr scus eplplectus Nostoceras 5p Phylaprychoceras sipho Pachydiscus neutergicus E acumes cf 8 vertebrars Iossmaliceras NataHes sp uyproxaceras rugatum Haploscaphiles cansln39olus l39ubaculiles cannalus Fa hw m N Limestone marl Limestone Gaudrycera kayei Zelandites Sp unapachydtscus terminus n sp nocerzmus goldussianus noceramus 3quot En balricus 4 g a E Q a 2 E E 395 noceramus a l Cyclades r 120 ptychoceras sipho 39oxoceras rugatum rphites constrictus aculites carinatus aghainites wrighti sous quot 39quot 39 39Ioceras N surya ubergicus dissitus mophyllites Iaiteti reras forbesianum nagaudryceras sp Zelandites sp reras politissimum 80 Depth m A eras N udophyllites indra aras cylindraceum ahmaites brahma 39discus armenicus hydiscus jacquoti smaticeras dureri 7ydiscus terminus vuipteria argentea T KT clay layer T Of Families Number But really how many of these were impact KTA lvarez 900 A 39 l 600 l l l 300 DeV Impact H m Playford TriassicOlsen Permian Becker v1clelslol CIPLEIJIK IT 660 39 460 00 T 0 Geologic Time 10 yrs Important Permian findings to date 0 Grice et al 2005 S isotope excursion biomarker Isorenieratane from wells in Australia of PT age Indicative of photic zone euXinia and presense of green and purple sulfur bacteria requiring sunlight anoxia abundant disolved H28 0 Summons 2006 Discovery of Isorenieratane from 10 PT sites world Wide 0 No discoveries of crocetane H28 marker The Becker Buckyball PT impact StOI39y should be a Hugo Award winner 0 Becker et al 2001 2003 Impact at PT Buckerminsterfullerenes containing 3He from 3 PT sites Meishan China Japan Eastern Europe Czechoslovakia 0 Later found that the Czech samples had no buckyballs that the Japanese samples were mid Triassic in age and that the Meishan results could not be replicated 0 NSF funded blind sampling at Meishan 2004 Becker went later quit the study TriassicJurassic Mass Extinction by Impact Olson et al 2002 0 Iridium evidence from Newark Basin linked to increase in dinosaur diversity l 0 Iridium concentrations order of magnitude lower than KT 0 Not replicated anywhere else 15 gm mn A o 12439 VK MMMV39 13lan 2 7 cang omerme and basmax me Fvem mcanons Devonian mass extinction 360 million years ago Global GivetianiFrasnian anoxia and C isotope changes are Consistent with a Greenhouse Extinction Loc l 0 Events Hangenherg armyam Enkehevg Cnndruz Nehden Upper Keuwaaser Lower Kenwasser farsiavelrs Upper Humm Lower pumNo Kama Devonian model from George McGhee The FF is set up by a GivetianFrasnian Greenhouse Event How significant was the GF event It caused a major disappearance of Tabulate corals among other fauna Volcanics an Vmpans ill 1 Greenhouse r meml Lag time Mulliple Impam co greenhous collapse mudcl Glaclal lee Caps 0R Lagrtimc Flood Basal co gmcnhoua mllapse model ember Temperature The biomarker record to date Crocetane Methane biomarker from Givetian wells in Alberta Canada and Crocetane from Bliner Well Givetian Canning Kliti Grice unpublished pers Comm Cambrian Ordov39wtian SHWian Devanian Mississ39wpp39wan Pennsywanran Permian Triassk Jurassic Cretaieous Te r ary Mass Extinctions and low oxygen Carbon dioxide levels ppm 1 Near future ammonium c k 1000 l 3900 41300 3001 64104 FalenceneThermaDExtinction 1 CenomanianTuronian gt Black ban d Jurassichretaceous 337 Extinctian Tuarcian Extinction 200 a 5 Triassic Extsinctien 39 Ir h Permian Extinction 5 Late Devonian Eminction L 5 g 40quot K2 Late Otdowcian 1 Extlnminn Late Cambrian um o 6013 Time millians of years Kump et aI hypothesis Buildup of H28 on low oxygen ocean bottoms triggers release into ocean and atmosphere f H28 poisoning as ki mechanism Effects intensified by high T low oxygen f This may have been cause of more than ten mass extinctions in the past 1 Winni ath rnlnans urbmdinn dnand martini igi Rapid nhilwrrning x y Ha gunman II39III39I39IIII and Flam l w 5 B GmnnlndpurpIIIuIFur 39n hlElll39il llh i39l39lllhill IHlln hrll lhll lll l l H 393 Hgdrn maul dl 5 upwdlsng v 39 a quotw it Can this happen again Yes In fact it is happening now the world is warming How soon Current rise of CO2 is 2 ppm year now at 380 ppm How soon to 1000 ppm Three hundred years Or faster This rate is accelerating About 500 ppm is this the Tipping Point Loss of ice caps will this trigger new Greenhouse Mass Extinction What kind world is this to leave to our kids Carbon Dioxide Concentrations Ice Core Data Mauna Loa Hawam a U U I I I I l39 1360 1330 1900 1 920 1 940 1 960 1 980 2000 WILL THE OCEANIC CARBON AND HEAT SINK BE S US TAINED THERMDHALJINE CIR39CULATIDH Ocean circulation N Warmvr than 15 C 1333 mler than 15 C Einhing D Upwalllng N55 mnmmmc nmsm S lJQ l MINULII L GUHIXJN IAHI39HI mmrulr I Aif i ll nn r VMnnv mt umnm nmvrnurv m H mm 3V is g c GE PA unianquot AF lde l EmuInn I and ud m mnmi ninn H quot T A new view of mass extinctions 0 Majority caused by RAPID global warming brought about by volcanic greenhouse gas emissions Were there really any ME s caused by cold What ABOUT that Ordovician event 0 Stagnant oceans go anoxic 0 Allow buildup of toxic sulfur bacteria 0 Emission of Hydrogen sulfide to atmosphere 0 Loss of ozone direct poisoning 0 What would the movie be Outline of lecture Major evolutionary advances Rise of eukaryotes then multi cellularity Cambrian Explosion Burgess Shale Disparity vs Diversity Gould vs Conway Morris Maj or evolutionary advances 1 Evolution of life 2 Rise of atmospheric atmosphere 3 Rise of Eukaryotic cell 4 Rise of seX 5 Multicellular life 0 Rise of animals and Cambrian Explosion Is there difference in evolutionary tempo or rates between microbes and metzoans 0 Animals seemingly show faster evolutionary rates 0 Is this real or artifact of the fact that there is some much more morphology to observe change in complex life 0 If real What might it be related to Why does sex matter duh 0 Sex is the main source of genetic variation in higher organisms 0 Increases rates of evolutionary change pre sex world relatively static Maj or change rare 0 Sexual reproduction rapidly increases genetic variation leads to increased competition and ultimately leads to greater specialization and higher rates of speciation Breaking up the history of life 0 Precambrian age microbial world of long lived ecological generalists no mass extinctions 0 Phanerozoic Visible life age eukaryotic short lived specialist species With frequent turnover and mass extinctions The dilemma posed by Cambrian Precambrian boundary 0 Base of Cambrian recognized by early geologists as place Where fossils first occur older rocks seemed devoid of life 0 First appearing fossils were trilobites very complex to be first 0 How could this apparently sudden appearance of complex life be explained 0 Erosional removal of earlier fossils below Cambrian Cambrian and Darwin Supposedly sudden appearance of trilobite fossils posed great Challenge to Darwin s Theory of Evolution There were no evolutionary intermediates in strata below trilobites Used as major evidence against Darwin and Evolutionary Theory Still Cited today by Creationists Darwin complaints the whiner about the Fossil Record Collections imperfect Many species known from few broken specimens Small portion of earth explored geologically N0 soft parts preserved Shell and bones decay in absence of sediment Sedimentation neither constant nor continuous Later dissolution of fossils Many environments never preserve Many thick deposits have no fossils 10 Hiatus nondeposition major problem How can we ever observe insensiny graded series Paraswnhwzve What was Earth like prior to evolution of animals 1 Moon Closer higher tides 2 Sun less bright 3 More UV radiation 4 Much less oxygen in atmosphere about 12 15 5 Snowball Earth episodes world wide glaciation The Cambrian Explosion A profound change in the tempo of evolution then prevailing on Earth Sequence of fossil appearances in evolution of animals 0 Ediacaran fauna 580 550 million years old What Where they Fossils of existing animal phyla cnidarians Fossils of extinct phyla Not even animals Not even fossils Consensus fossils of existing animals Trace fossils Not body fossils but preserved record of activity such as locomotion or feeding Indication of appearance of animals First appear in rocks of 560 million years in age Most seem to be from small annelids or arthropods a 3913 d Calcareous fossils of 545 million years and younger Appear to be either remains of tiny shells or elements of skeletons made up of many small spines or plates 0 May have come mainly from mollusks Trilobite fauna First appears 530 million years ago Originally used as marker for base of Cambrian Thought to have been a low diversity fauna mainly of trilobites with a few brachiopods and mollusks Burgess Shale and Chenjiang exceptional faunas show how rich this fauna really was Summary of animal appearances Ediacarans 580 mya Trace fossils 56O mya Small shelly fossils 545mya Trilobite fauna 530 mya Neoproterozoic Cambrian Major changes in ocean chemistry Animals proliferate 513C PDB epepguo mBWGPOUNOEI EIBPJOHO epodogqomg epueuuv eosnuow epodmuuv 39U 0 a in m 10 Classes D Orders D 60 80 1 AAA glaCIal intervals AAA 20 adapted from Knoll et al 1999 Science v 284 mn afnmmm Mn 99 m mm 5er PM nowmam shew man s sum mm mama 39Mmm mum mm mm mm mm mm al mm 7me m mum r DIV WISIS r cwwms rindymms rmnmmmm r lewoslms v mm as m mm M Was Cambrian explosion real Cambrian Explosion simply marks the time When animal fossils begin to preserve Cambrian Explosion marks time When animals evolved hard parts Cambrian Explosion is When animals became large enough to be noticeable as fossils Cambrian Explosion is good marker of When animals first evolved Causes of Cambrian Explosion 0 1 Physical Oxygen reached some crucial threshold level Nutrient availability 2 Biological Large size achieved Skeletons evolved Predation evolved Nervous systems evolved Phyla are categories of animals and plants just beneath that of the Kingdom and they themselves a re composed of as series of Classes The animal phyla are each defined as being composed of species With quite different basic body plans How are phyla evolved They start out as a single species Each phylum has a distinctive body plan made up of one or more characteristics There are about 36 phyla today None have gone extinct or have they The fight between Gould and Conway Morris diversity and disparity through time Olenoides What is significance of Cambrian Explosion 0 All phyla appear here Why no later appearing phyla 0 Why did it take so long from origin of life to Cambrian Explosion 0 Did Cambrian Explosion occur as soon as it could have 0 What are implications for evolution of animals on other planets Adaptation Exaptation and Functional morphology Ward Lecture 6 Topics 1 Adapations and Exaptations 2 Neutral Theory 3 Co evolution 4 Iterative evolution 5 Functional morphology as a way to study adaptation 6 Case histories Example of an adaptation 0 Bat Echolocation through sonar Qualifying as an Adaptation it must be genetically encoded 1Heritable since natural selection cannot act on traits that don t get 2 Functional passed on to offspring the trait must actually perform that task 3Adaptive it must increase the fitness of the organisms that have it since natural selection only increases the frequency of traits that increase fitness Neutral Theory The relative importance of drift and selection The neutral theory of molecular evolution suggests that most of the genetic variation in populations is the result of mutation and genetic drift and not selection The theory suggests that o if a population carries several different versions of a gene odds are that each of those versions is equally good at performing its job in other words that variation is neutral whether you carry gene version A or gene version B does not affect your fitness The neutral theory is easily misinterpreted It does NOT suggest 0 That organisms are not adapted to their environments 0 That all morphological variation is neutral 0 That ALL genetic variation is neutral That natural selection is unimportant in shaping genomes An exaptation 0 is a character evolved for a different purpose for that which it is currently used or in other words a character which was appropriated for a new use than that which it was originally developed for Examples of Exaptation 0 Bird feathers evolved for thermoregulation Later co opted for ight First feathers on dinosaurs could not have functioned for ight Wrong engineering But right structure to evolve into a ying component Not Everything is an Adaptation 1 The Character is the result of history 2 The Character is just a by product 3 The Character is an out dated adaptation 4 The Character is the result of genetic drift Coevolution two or more species reciprocally affect each other39s evolution Co evolution most likely to occur when species have close ecological intereactions 1 Predator prey 2 Highly competitive species 3 Mutualistic species Adaptive Radiation A excellent example evolution of animals rise in oxygen Use of skeletons Iterative Evolution 0 Repeated evolution of similar species 0 Presumably the result of formation of new species under similar conditions Constructional Morphology Historical Fabricational And Functional aspects Historical factors 0 Some traits cannot be evolved because of past history For example cephalopods have a limited ability for large brains because they use hemocyanin instead of hemoglobin Construction factors 0 Some traits or structures cannot be evolved because there are no materials that biology can make or acquire 0 No animals With Wheels no fire breathing dragons How to analyze function Engineering principles Paradigm method how could it work best Functional morphospace Using the recent to interpret the past Experiments on actual material Wind tunnels and flume tanks How to study designs of nature 0 Direct experimentation see Where failure of a material occurs 0 Measure strength properties 0 Measure other physical properties


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