VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY BIOL 452
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Renee Lehner on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 452 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/192330/biol-452-university-of-washington in Biology at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Jeff Mitchell Cal l it Ka Li Hsla Bets Wa m Alicia Ross Sanclee Mendrysa Leg locations are further back on the bod streamlining without interruption best control for steering Webbed feet or lobate feet Pougl i 2005 i Pa39mate Totipalmate Lobate Modifications American Coot Wider body for stability on water Dense plumage that provide buoyancy and insulation Preen glands Pougl39i 2005 PodicipedidaeGrebes PiedBilled Grebe Chicks leave he nest after hatching Stays on mothers back most ofthe time including sleeping Dive underwater when they sense danger PlEDrGPEBE 2000 36 is I Happens mostly to waterfowls Mallards Tu ed Ducks Shovelers etc If nesting is limited or if population density is high Grebes also be brood parasites 90554 2008 Waterfowl Reproductive Organs Females have clockwise coil genitalia while males have a counterclockwise SPII39al PhallUS Brennan and others 2007 This is to avoid any unwanted mating on the female partll Pouches are used for sperm storage but can also be used as an anatomical barrier which prevents males from deposi ing sperm any further This also allows for he female to eject the sperm easier B 9 a 3 7 g 6 Some males can manipulate 2 5 his which causes females to g 4 evolve even more to keep E 3 ahead ofthe male 2 z t o o N c Phallus length cm Relationships between male phallus length and female vagina A Phallus langm vs iurnbis of vaglnal uoueliss rm Phallus length vs number of vaginal spirals Points are the averages for eaih species studied Brennan and others 2007i lf genital morphologies are advantageous to one sex but at the expense of he other sex this leads to coevolution between the sexes Cormorant Breath hold divers To minimize time in water they descend and ascend almost vertically 103m 433m usually not deeper ascent passively at lt40m showing positive buoyancy swim with their feet Body angle degrees Depm m Descent Ascent L r ll leremlletandomemum r s a is as o a is s a a an is s it Depttllml Dcplhum Fr m Air to Aquatics Feather Adaptations in Water can be much colder and birds of flight don t put on very much weight like mamma s Wet feathers are no good for flying What have marine birds done to overcome these obstacles Feathers Two general types of feathers Down and Contour Down small closest to skin trap warm air prevent bo y heat from escaping soft fluffy feathers found in pillowsp I Contour large found on wings and body repel watertg L protect underlying down How do contour feathers repel watel Oil sheath and morphology offeathers prevent a marine bird from gettlng wet O L Almost all birds have a preening gland which secretes oils fats and waxes which the bird will spread over its feathers while it grooms or preens itself By having waterproof contour feathers dovrm feathers are able to kee dry and retain a layer of air close to the skin of the bird This layer of air provides a thermal layermuch like a blanket as well as a means of buoyancy Feathers are made langelynaf a brmr era in evatlnrs capable of absorbing Water Is the oil layer the only thing preventing a bird s feathers from soaking up water Yang et al created an experiment to test this They found that the removal of oil did not result in immediate soakagequot of the feather Why Morphological properties still largely not understood Morphologically each barb on the rachis of a feather carries hooked dorsal barbules on one side and touching points which are mainly contributed arbs and barbules As proposed by Rijke 1968 space between adjacent barbs and barbules are variables determinin density of touching points Yang 2006 eaanius nnrur umhll Members ofthe Pelecan da do not have such water resistant feathers Do they become completely soaked in mter Why and how are their feathers different from other marine birds 3 canidae peiios omiorts arters gannets boobies tropic birds frigate birds Baundmy humour Clnual m mm pans ul 1 mum Critical penetration pressure OFF the amount of fresh Water pressure needed to penetrate through a contour fea er The CPP of the inner section ofa Pelecanidae feather is 3x more than that of some diving ducks Big comparison between Water resistant inner section and Waterpermeable outer section n finMull t 1 Dippers Family Cinclidae contains 5 species of dipper a g 7 7 T one found in WA is the American Dipper Song bird not closely related to other marine irds Traits adapted for its habitat 39 Oversized preening gland 39 Flap of skin overnostrils Translucent eyelids 2 Week molting period uses legs with long toes and strong wings to y s in fast moving stream babies go straight into stream When leaving nest Videos D n Mann 2 1 QDAAIEP D 3x m I ya w 3 V s hnr kr 39Olltl Il39 Mammalian Adaptations to Marine Life W ebbed feet Streamlined Bodies Sealing Nostrils amp Pinna Flattened Tail Fish 2999 Larger Lungs Thermore ulation Blubber Waterproof Fur Counter Current Heat Exchange Low SAVolume Ratio Low SAVoume Ratio 39 Increased Metabolic Rate AirTrapping Fur 23 27 body weight consumed Yeates and others 2997 Locomotion in Pinnipeds Otariids Pectoral Oscillation Allows for better land locomotion Forelimb Swimmingquot gem and Sumich 1999 Locomotion in Pinnipeds Phocids Earless Seals Pelvic Osciallation 39 4 Better Adapted to Marine Life Berta and Sumich 1999 Locomotion in Sea Otter Berta and Sumich 1999 Better adapted to aquatic life than Terrestrial terrestrial Walkin amp Boundin larger hmd hmbs g g hind limbs provide propulsion Foraging primarily 011 zooplankton some on fish Capture prey by engul ng blue whale gray whale or skimming bowhead whale right whale Locomotion in Polar Bears Baa and Sumich 1999 Nostrils close F Webbed feet 5 v Blubber Strong Swimmers but still very terrestrial Irf 39y l l y ront pawsPropulsi ack paws Steering l l Postscapular fossa Energy Expenditure Fish 2000 1O I caudal Oscillalion O A Fore FlipperOsmllazIon o I Hind Flipper Oscillation O O O Paddling A O 8 El Flowing 1 A A Undulaiion D Fish Cost of Transport JNm I I I I l 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Mass kg Winter fasting migrating to breeding ground Large body size has a correlation to feeding habits Blue whale Smaller whales likely forage yearround ump ack whales sh eaters Different styles of baleen for different preyfeeding styles u Ventral throat grooves and specialized tongue in gulpers a Long plates of ne baleen 39 qkirnmers Dolphins Foraging behavior a Intentional beaching a Fish whacking u Sponge carrying Foraging preference Hoelzel and others 2002 Distance coveiea psi 5quot saliiary Echelon Swimming savagon Infant carrying behavior a Echelon Swimming U Solitary Swimming lNoren 2008 amaze Blood ow decrease and oxygen storage Studied using MRIMRS with simulated diving Ease cl aanm bulb maximum dwl limo maximum leE Iimu 395 8 uia 31 mm mm m nae m u 39 EIDBDm am am am spieen mass maximum diva lime 539 e z s 39 I l 15 Traits to help seals and sea lions stay underwater longer a is m nun am am blood volume as 40 475 00 D39s ID I th No correlation between body mass and dive time Mollishaw and others iggsii Mechano amp Elect oreception in Aquatic Birds amp Mammals Birds Sandpipers I y Mammals Vibrissa Structure Red Knot Sandpiper 39ontal half of the upper sensory pits amp er mandibles Herhst corpuscles Rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors that can measure the acceleration due to changes in pressure Pattern of pressure disturbance when a solid object is encountered Piersma and others 1998 al rus 7 400 to 700 vibrissae up to 11 inches long in 13 to 15 rows around the nose Hunt with their noses to the sea floor squirting water out of their nostrils to stir up burrowing prey When prey is detected the walrus will stop and swish its ead back and forth to dig it out It uses its vibrissae like chop sticks to manipulate its food When a walrus locates shelled prey it uses its mouth as a vacuum to suck the animal right out of the shell A grown walrus can consume 30006000 clams in one sitting l r a in Seals se vibrissae to nd food especially in dark deep waters or at nig t A substantial nerve system transmits tactile information from the vibrissae to the brain Eaeh vibrissa can move independently Underwater a seal thrusts its vibrissae to and fro in a sweeping movement by pushing its mobile upper 1ip in and out Prey moving underwater creates vibrations Lhatthe sea1 may detect with its vibrissae Manatee Marshall and others1998 V b n ssae Most mammals have at least some form of whiskers or vibrissae Typically found on the face muzzle and lower legs these long stiff modi ed hairs serve to nd a mammal39s touch capabilities beyond its epidermis Nocturnal mammals use vibrissae to help them navigate in the dark Aquatic mammals can detect subtle changes in water currents as well as the presence of anything moving such as sh in dark waters Vibrissal hair shaft transfers mechanical information into the vibrissal follicle sinus rundown Each large hair sits in a vascular sinus which detects slight movements of the hair APC100 2008 The skin areas ofthe head where the mystacial and supraorbital vibrissae are located show a substantially higher degree of thermal emission than do adjacent skin areas Cooling ofthe vibrissal pads increases tissue stiffness which in turn would have a negative effect on the mobility ofthe vibrissae and thus on the transduction of mechanical stimulation via the hair shaft to the receptors Infrared therrnogram showing he typical distribution of temperatures measured on the surface of a seal s face immediately after the animal had left water of approximately 1 C Dehnhardt and others1998 Manatee feeding involves rhythmic movements of the lips pefioral bristles andjaWs B The U2 bristles evert forward then move medially to bring the plant material toward the rnidline of the body in a sweeping motion The lower jaw begins to open at this time A The snout contracts in the rostrocaudal direction pulling the oral disk dorsocaudally and exposing the U2 bristles to the vegetation t 2 he U2 bristles diverge later i i use 4 and the lower Jaw r E As the lower jaw closes the L1 bristles sweep C The right and Ian 1T2 pliSh Vege39m f mm me vegetation farther into the mouth U2 bristles oral cavtty the lower Jaw 15 now maximally open amve at their onginal amp lateral position The L1 bristles evert from their eshy pad Other Manatee Adaptations Manatees have very unique lips that help mem gamer grasp d manipulam food Sinoe manames on39t have hands their ITeeth They have just one kind of mathquot hind molars quothind molar progression also know as quotmarching molarsquot This means matmeir teeth are constantly moving m o a 39t39s a constant resorption and moving of the roots up the jaw with new teeth being emerged from me ack P Proske U Gregory E 2003 Comparativei Biochemistry and Physiology Eiectroiocatiori in the Electroreceptiori a large mf w g ss DW ESEE aums pan A W Qmm 82 quot82 MangerariiJPetllgrevv i995 Beferenc f 7 F39C inn Comparative Drganology lnternet AFvcmu Available atquot Accessed Aug 2uu3 Berta A Sumich J i333 Marine Mammals Evolutionary Biology Orlando Fl Academic Press P1737214 Brennan F39 L R Rrum R o McCracken K 3 Sorenson M D Wlsuri R E 2uu7 Coevoiution of Male and Female Genital Morphology in vvaterrowi FLoS ONE 25 e4i3 i y r e EEEF39 ii h ru d m aliahinFDm 39 39 l illllui WHil iilllii Davidson L imnn F Hl39ll39l MannR Bird Dehnhardt 3 Mauck B Hyvannen H 7333 The Journal or experimental Biology Ambient temperature does not arrect the tactile sensitivity or mystaciai vibrissae in harbourseais 2m 3u23e3u23 R W ru uu iu 15 er pp shF nnn p Depanmentuf Biology WestchesterUniversityvvest BESFEBE Greene T Hm I i Flan rre Rd W millet D Chauvin C VWsuri R MahuY vvaniess S 2uu5 Unusual reather structure allows partial plumage wettabiiityin diving great cormorants Phaacrocorax carbo JournaiorAvian Bio09y vol 36 no 7 pg 57763 Available from Blosls British Libraries Serials 090878857 Accessed AUgUsf 4 2008 emillet D Waniess S Carss D Linton D Harris M Speakman J Maho Y 2mm Ecology Letter Foraging energetics or arctic cormorants and the evolution or diving birds Jan i3 4 LEEHEA HFiRi Pi F1 HH MaidRri in Manger F R Rettigrevv JD i335 Philosophical Transactions orthe Royal Society or London Series ErEluluglcal Sciences Eiectroreception and the reeding behavior or piatypus vol 347 iss i322 pg 3537 33i rshaii c D Huth 3 D Edmonds v M Haiin D L i333 Marine Mammal Science Rrehensiie use or perioral bristiies during reeding Manat US Latirostns i42 2747233 Mottishavv F39 D Thornton 5 J Huchachka F39 W i999 The Diving Respons in Seals and Sea Lions Arner Zooi Apri 3B 2 434MB Hl39l echanism arid ltssuiprrsirrg Evalutiuriary Path NrirRri p Functional Ecology 22 2347233 Riersma T van Aelst R Kurk K Eerkhuudt H Maas L i333 Pruceedlngsfrum the Royal Society or London A new Rressure sensory mechanism fur prey detection in birds the use or principles or seabed dynamics7 v 265137771383 Rough F H Janis CM HeiserJ B 2uu5 vertebrate Lire HevvJersey Prentice Hall 634R PruskeU GregoryE 2 u i3b2uu3 8217825 Ritchison 3 Maung System Ornithology internet Biosszu Eastern Kentucky University 2uu3 Available frum Sarku D K Reep R L Mzaurklewlcz J E Rice F 2uu7 The Journal quumparatlve Neurology Adaptations in the Structure and innervation or The F mi 14237 ScienceDaily Apr i nn i GAiHESv LLE Fla StrodTAradz izhakii Katzer 2mm internet Current Biology Cormorants keep their power visual resolution in a pursuit diving bird under amphibious and turbid conditions 2mm i4 R37Er77 Available L iii a ii r ccessed ZEIEIEAU D7 i m i Turbak ZEIEIEI The Bird That FiiesThroughWater Nationaideiife vol 38mg 4 Avallablefrum Watanukl Y Takahashi A Daunt F vvaniess S Harris M Sata K Naltu v was The Journal or Experimental Biology Regulation or stroke and glide in a fuutrprupeiied avian diver Aprii i2 2u3 ZZEIIZZW E Yang S Yanrchuri gtlt Darvvel z ZEIEIE Morphological basis furthe water pruuf characteristic or bird plumage Journal or i7iss 2 pg ib3ihh rre Rd iiniisr42riri3 Yeates L VWilams T FlrikT 2uu7 Diving and furaglrig energetics or the smallest marine mammal the sea otter Enhydra iUUis ntai Biology internet cited 2uu3 August 7 2m iBBEIFiWEI Available rrom http ieb biologists orgcgicontentruii2iui iiabu e R S 3 Lizards Evolution Design amp Foraging Behavior Black legless Sk39 kAustral39 r 39 Baja worm lizard Bipes hiporus amphishaenian Lactur s lorExam 2 ummerO Biol 452 Vlrtlhratl Zool K Clade Lepidosauria tuatara lizards amp snakes Califomia Mountain Kingsnake Oldest lizard fossils are from upper Jurassic Other taxa from same geological site identi ed so far insects salamanders anuran tadpole feathered theropods pterosaurs amp an early mammal SE Evans ampYWang 2006 l JurassiclowerCrelaceous ofDaonugou inner Mongolia China Naiurvmssenscna en 946 4317439 pp39 Early Diapsid Tearduct mimeer 1 7 Jacobson s vomeronasal Lizard Tail Autotomy Why do it Vertebral Boundaries Muscle bundles 1 I Spnenodon Plaumdonll Agamldae Chamaeleurlldus Gekkola Autnmhugloul r I I present crotaphy dae Chameleonldae Gekkonidae Hemdermat39dae F An uidae Phyrnoomatldae m m 9 1 l I map was Varamdae Iguanldae Eammmgug Nor namy Ame raging Prenarmlu lall Scincidae Nasal mm Vnmantlaclwn Mid I 120 mya quot9quot Acrodnntn Prehenswn I fr 7 V I 5quot 160 mya quot 7 ISSMVE i hin39i I I I smw mm Jaw prehensmn Gondwana Laurasia swamquot zoo mya 39 Rigid Skull Visual Vlll LJ el al 2003 Hlsloryamplhe global ecology of Lingual Prehension squamalerepllles Amer Naturalist 162 4460 I Arnbush Foraging Diverse in SW Deserts Insectivores 4 Visual hunter Sit amp Wait Short sprints for prey Predation risk 31 3 l in Western Fence Lizard Iguania Phrynosomatidae Horned Lizards Specialized diet ants Widened body Depend on armor amp cryptic coloring Large body size Blood chernical detoxi es ant venom Horned lizard can squirt entire blood volume 1 other uids from 39ts tissues as a last defense Blood has an unknown substance that repels predators Reduced Teeth Iguania Clade Crotaphytidae Locomohon Iguania Chameleonida Tongue pad uses suction to grip prey 02 WW retract Chameleon s Projectile Tongue Accelerator protractor ms Retractor complex glossohyal neuan comment I Accelerator rm s Oullnuun mm my sieiemn Hammg Lingual falo isf nyzl plums mummy mu5clel quotmquot 7 lawma Acwlumlm lnm mm mmme mmmwmw Lp lingual or entoglossal process is 3 very long in chameleons Hyobranchial Apparatus LP typical m e Cross section of lower jaw entoglossal process ep accelerator muscle a amp collagenous fibers Meyers M 8M0 Nishikawa 2000 de Grool amp van Leeuwen 2004 When the hinged quadrate rotates posteriorly the rostrum drops amp the upperjaw is parallel with the lowerjaw m Scleroglossa Clade Cranial Kinesis magma m quot18 leroglos G39eckonidae Ger Under what conditions do the setae on gecko feet detach from a surface m can H mm w 3 50 a Q 1 0 small force big angle big force big angle i E I 5 n 39 n A E 30 r o g A A I o A 390 o n o A a 9 A 2 8 20 m 73 5 10 small force small ange big force small angle T T i l 2 5 10 1 perpendicular lolce al delachmanl micronewlons Autarchoglossa Helodermatidae Gila Monster kmd nl Clade Autarchoglossa Scincidae Skinks lnsectivores Active forager Searches constantly Ch emosensory hunter Predation risk Clutch mass relative to body size May guard eggs or have live birth May urinate on eggs 0 add morsture Review Questions ed derived traits that unite the Tuatara amp snakes amp lizards into the Lepidosauria Describe rurJll lLrlK 1 Listtheshar t es ared aquarrrara r tr r n 4 r7 I 39 II A m I r r I I I quotqquot n 39L 39 quot 4 quot J 39 J autotomy Whatarethe m costs amp bene its associated with tail autotomy 2 Compare the Iguania amp Scleroglossa clades as de ned by Pianka amp of lizards for each ofthese topics 39 39339 J 39 quot 39 39 39 inuuuing 39 quot J activity or movement relative endurance tracking prey primarily by visual or chemical stimuli relative predation risk and method for nding or 39 39 quot 39 nal 39 quot that are members of each clade See Pough pg 328329 amp 358 ignore intermediate group in Pough on pg 358 r r 39IJ IJnn mu 3n 39H quot 39 r39 39 39 L 39 Vaauwrrar ulc design 39 quot 7 quot quot 39 39 39 39 39 capturing prey 4 Describe two ofquot Iur repruuuuiun defense or J39 39 ure horned lizards in the family Phrynosomatidae Review Questions part 2 5 Describe the specialized projectile catapult tongue ofa Chameleon 39 quotL J urn Arru ml J it act likea catapult 39 r39 quot 39 39 J J quot What other r 39 quot 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 of capturing prey7 6 r quotJ quot quot quot39 J 39 39 ar39uureaiily quot quot 39 39 39 39 39 H J L r I I r In IP39GY H r I I quotx H r 39 39 ur rlrelguania 39 J 7 39 r39 quot active at their 39 39 39 quot 39 night amp they are members of the Scleroglossa clade
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