EVOL AND SYSTEMATICS
EVOL AND SYSTEMATICS BIOL 354
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This 41 page Class Notes was uploaded by Renee Lehner on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 354 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/192335/biol-354-university-of-washington in Biology at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Waxd Lecmre 6 Empiauon and Functional morphology Qualifying as an Adaptation ithustoeeehetehehemeoe 1Herltable SWEE natura Sebctmn seohtmsthsmohtee passed oh o ohsohhs 2 Functiunal Thetrait must anuaHv Dem thattask 3AdaptiIe t must heressethehthess otthemeshshsthe have teshee new ohh the theme aftraits that hthess Example of an adaptation Eat Echelomuon through sonar Null Theory The rda ve importance ofdri and seieaion The heutrei Henry Dme EEu ar evmutmh suggests that must thhe gehette venetch W papu atmns S the resuH hf mutatmn aha gehette drift and nut seieetmh The theory suggests that a if a population carries several different versions of a gene odds are that each of those versions is equally good at performing its job in other words that variation is neutral whether you carry gene version A or gene version B does not affect your fitness An exaptation 0 is a character evolved for a different purpose for that which it is currently used or in other words a character which was appropriated for a new use than that which it was originally developed for The neutral theory is easily misinterpreted It does NOT suggest 1 That organisms are not adapted to their environments 2 That all morphological variation is neutral 3 That ALL genetic variation is neutral 4 That natural selection is unimportant in shaping genomes Examples of Exaptation 0 Bird feathers evolved for theimoregulation i 7amp3 x w A i Later co opted for ight First feathers on dinosaurs could not have functioned for ight Wrong engineen39ng But light structure to evolve into a ying component Not Everything is an Adaptation 1 The character is the result of history 0 2 The character is just a by product 3 The character is an out dated adaptation 4 The character is the result of genetic drift Upperdur It is not enough to know that the feature is functional right now We want to know what was happening when it first evolved which often involves reconstructing the phylogeny of the organisms we are interested in and determining the likely ancestral states of the characters Coevolution two or more species reciprocally The evolution of Melanopsis affect each other s evolution I r 0 A case history Co evolutlon most llkely to occur when of evolution spec1es have close ecologlcal 1ntereactlons A case history of ITERATIVE Evolution 0 1 Predator prey 2 Highly competitive species 0 3 Mutualistic species Repeated pattern of evolution x tr 2 shouldermg 17391x39 quot9 u 2 2 2 body mm height Jwtdxh Constructional Morphology Historical Fabn39mional And Functional aspects How to analyze function Engmeenng pnnctples Pamdl m method 7 how could 1t work best7 Funcuonal morphospace Usmg the recent to mtexpret the past Expenments on actual matenal Wmd tunnels and ume tan 3 m quotE w W S u 5 U in F 3 q 3 MI M A l I vertebral column I l bony 3154an 3 I four Hmbs I I lower temporal enema Distribution of I I uppel39 lempoml enema ciurmcusr stun5 a m mlorbital I39mesua I I anmlmc egg I mammary glands I h cndmhcrmv Pattern of relationships harmed am the drsm bmion of character stares 51 Carlson 1999 Figure 7 Table 1 rnrmural predators claspl39nguslrgy Q quot0PMquot WWW mwspmmgm Q Mudum lghllulums m DU 3 m Gliding Gliding arms 5 g i t DWW Emmi lo or mammary Wavy Wm Emmmm Mmmmnxms mm mm umummm mwmm mmrmmw mwum mewmxxuc1wnp m mm Wm m Wmquot mm m mum mum Dismbuu nn of c mailer 5mm warn of relaliamhips inferred hum Dinosaurs rocodrks V Fmgb in Humans Whales j c Dink allnsc mosaurs D O mirhischizm it d4hippedquot pelvis long 112 39 14mg shaped neck mlly UPHEIW roture R39dllCul 4th 54 Srh drglis fram he distribution of Character stares SJ 061150quot W95 Trachca Inwrclavlcular cur sac Cervical air sac Lung Primary bronchus Lung Ternary hmnchu Cmmal lhorucrc anquot sac hecrmdzuy bronchus Rccun39cnl bronchus Caudul uir sac Ahdnminnl air sac 3 i 655 WWV NE fix The Evolution of the first Earth Life A subject of an evolution course one of Darwin s tenets was that all life came from a single source there was some first living cell Outline of lecture 2 What is life Definitions What is Earth life life as we know it Could there be alternatives to Earth life Life as we do not know it When where and how did Earth life form Could we be Martians or from some other planet What were the pathways that led to the three Dominions of life Time each horizontal line represents 1000 generations 10 f10 m10 a9 f9 m9 as f8 k8 I8 m8 a7 f7 k7 I7 m7 a6 f6 k6 m6 as d5 k5 m5 84 d4 i4 m4 a3 i3 m3 a2 52 m2 a1 m1 A 4 Morphological divergence gt Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall lnc What is life Metabolism Reproduction Evolution Life is a chemical system capable of Darwinian Evolution The arrangement of the atoms in the most Vital parts of an organism and the interplay of these arrangements differ in a fundamental way from all those arrangements of atoms Which physicist and chemists have hitherto made the object of their experimental and theoretical research EdWin Schrodinger From Schrodinger 0 Living matter evades the decay to equilibrium and life feeds on negative entropy Life does this through metabolism overtly by eating drinking breathing or the exchange of material Which forms the root of the word from its original Greek definition Paul Davies Life metabolizes All organisms process chemicals and in so doing bring energy into their bodies Life requires an environment not at What chemists would call thermodynamic equilibrium Life has complexity and organization Life reproduces Life develops Once a copy is made life continues to change this can be called development Life evolves This is one of the most fundamental properties of life and one that is integral to its existence Life is autonomous This one might be the toughest to define yet is central to being alive An organism is autonomous or has self determination What do you need for life A membrane Metabolic machinery A chemistry set An information system A method of reproduction 0 Living Earthlife cells biochemical factories surrounded by porous membranes and including genetic material DNA and ability to translate DNA into protein RNA ribosomes 0 Parts of a living cell 0 A Cell wall lipid has polar structure attracts water on one side repels on other 0 B Genetic material DNA 0 C Protein construction equipment RNA Steps toward life A Synthesizing basic components organic molecules necessary to make cell walls and cell contents B Concentrating building material 1 Evaporation 2 Concentration by freezing 3 Concentration on mineral scum droplets bubbles 4 On mineral grains clays pyrites 1 Assemble simple molecules into lt N H20 bUIldIng blocks for complex polymers N Amino acids 0 N HCN 7 co 0 N2 I V I H3N c 0 H2 NH3 2 A bl I h 0 HO OH I 0 33 m o rst t a st re 6 ep yme a C n o Nucleotides CH3 information and catalyze reactions Nucleic acids 3 Add membranes and 339 an energy source to make a living organism Proteins NH3 Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall lnc How can our kind of life be defined Uses DNA A specific genetic code Only twenty and the same twenty amino acids Always cellular Is a Virus alive or is it even Life as we know it not cellular some without DNA DNA one way or the only way to store information necessary for life DNA is hugely complex How was it first synthesized DNA 0 Is our form of DNA the first out of the gate or the best out of the gate was there survival of the fittest among early DNA molecules 0 How did we arrive at a unified genetic code on Earth John Baross UW suspects that viruses were the agent that unified a diverse zoo Energy sources A Heterotrophy 1 primitive adsorb environmental ATP 2 Fermentation break down sugar anaerobic 3 Methanogenic reactions 4H2 CO2 9 CH4 methane 2H2 energy M ethanogen bacteria Archaeans 4 Predation ingest other cells B Autotrophy Energy comes from inorganic sources light Porphyrins complex ring shaped molecules that capture light energy and store it by raising the energy of electrons Within the molecule Hemoglobin cytochrome chlorophyll H20 C02 light 9 CH20 20 Variable kinds of life DNA life Earth life Non DNA life A Does it exist B What does Chemistry permit Different information system Different solvent Different membrane Varieties of alien life 0 Change nature of information storage molecule 0 Change solvent within cell ammonia instead of water 0 Is there Life as we do not know it presently on Earth and how would we know How different solvents could produce new chemistry of life H 0 H H H N H H H H III 1 0 1 N HC 39 INH 39 2 quot C C C c M CH3 c Hzc CH3 c H2C H3C CH3 H3C CH3 H3C CH3 Earth H3O HO39 Icy moons H4N H2N39 H 0 39 K 9 K 30 Venus H2504 2 pKa 1 pKa 15 gas glants p a p a pKa 1 NH3 H o H H N H H o II M H II C c I CHa I l C CH CH3 cr 2 C CH2 C CH2 3 3 H3C H3C Silanes Silicon life structure From Benner 2005 gn g g 0 I Z 9 30 94 CH3 0 O SIC CH2 CH2 C FL H OH CH2NMe2R I I S SI SI Si Si SH Si Si LG SI SI SI SI SI SI SI SI SI Origin of Life on Earth 0 When 0 Where 0 How 0 How else could this process have occurred on Earth and what else might have resulted Early Earth conditions Archean 3825GA Lithosphere Oceanic lithosphere Virtually no land 5 globe 5060 Precambrian crust formed in Late Archean from 27 25 GA Continents thus late development Atmosphere C02 H20 N2 100 to 1000 times CO2 levels Greenhouse effect No glacial deposits till 2422 GA Very low level of free 02 in Archean However some availability of O2 in surface waters suggested by abundance of sulfate minerals Oceans strongly and permanently stratified deep anoxic bottom and thin wind mixed upper layer Biosphere 3533GA Barberton Greenstone South Africa and Warrawoona Group Pilbara Greenstone microfossils and stromatolites Earth quot8 History 0 Origin of planet 46 Ga 0 Origin ofl ife 350 Ga 0 Evidence that life is easy to form on an Earth like planet So Where did life begin on Earth if it began on Earth Some warm little p0nd Darwin Hydrothermal vents Bubbles in tide poolsintertidal In clouds Brine ponds Coupled impact craters Why impact craters 0 Making RNA the hardest step Ribose sugars unstable at high temperatures 0 Ribose can be made by serial evaporations and decanting 0f berate mineral reactions With water 0 Need a desert to do this and much chemical glassware or impact craters in a desert Intense and large meteoritic bombardment Kinetic energy of impact vaporizes meteorite and ejects excess heat into atmosphere Object gt 440 km diameter would heat atmosphere to 15000C for 1000 years Signi cant evaporation of oceans These impacts would cauterize the Earth s surface impact frustration of life Deep ocean vents may have been refugium Time Gvr BP Impact energy L L 39 O O O Z 27 I I I O 0 0 0 p O O 03 Water evaporated m 3000 J 3 a I 139 L 0 C10 L I C Primordial soup or primordial zoo 0 Much nonsense about low diversity of early life 0 Probably there was a zoo of different membrane types and different genetic systems Within them RNA life 0 Self catalyzing RNA serves as information system and enzyme to catalyze self reproduction 0 Does it also need a membrane or could there have been naked RNA 0 How did DNA take over Extant organisms Ex nct Hneages X X Most recent common ancestor of all extant organisms aka the cenancestor X Primordial form the first living thing Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Eucarya G E b 8r Animals reen ntamoe ae Ime non sulfur Amhaea molds Bacterla bacterla Euryarchaeota Fung39 Methanosarcina Gram Crenarchaeota Haoarchaea Plants b39ZL EFe lrapOS39t es Methanobacterium Ciliates Methano Thermoproteus COCCUS Cyanobacteria I Toeer Flavobacteria Pyroo lctlum Flagellates Trichomonads Thermotogaes Most recent common ancestor of all IIVIng organisms Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall lnc Diplomonads Microsporidia The Last Universal Common Ancestor Today scientists believe all current life forms could have evolved from a single simple progenitor an organism now referred to as life s Last Universal Common Ancestor LUCA Facts that support this view All living things consist of similar organic carbonrich compounds Proteins found in all presentday organisms are fashioned from one set of 20 standard amino acids The proteins include enzymes biological catalysts that are essential to development survival and reproduction All contemporary organisms carry their genetic information in nucleic acids RNA and DNA and use the same genetic code The genetic code specifies the amino acid sequences of all the proteins each organism needs ail ltgt Q Proteobacteria A U A V U v Cyanobacteria a Ammd Euryarchaeotzu 7 Crenarchaeot Dominion Ribosa i omain Ribosa RNA 39fe Earth Arborea Domain Vlorea RNA viruses Loss of ribozymes Dominion Terroa Eucarya Archaea Bacteria translation transcription nome replication sysle Phospholipid bilayer cell wall Triplelt code 20 amino acids used DNA Replicating large cell with lipid wall RNA replicates Ribozymes FlNA enclosed in capsule Abiotic RNA synthesis Earth s earliest life Rocks older than 35 billion years very rare Oldest known rock formations Isua in Greenland 3800 million years old Isua lithologies volcanic and sedimentary rocks shallow marine Isua carbon graphite Carbon isotope analyses C12 preferentially uptaken in presence of photosynthesis carbon from Isua enriched in ClzC13 Warrawoona Australia 3550 ma contain stromatolites layered bacterial mats formed today by blue green algae cyanobacteria Fig Tree South Africa 3400 ma more compleX and varied than at Warrawoona Variable Histories of Life 1 Life does not evolve 2 Life evolves has a history dies out as life systems age Life evolves is exterminated by intrinsic or extrinsic mass extinction never re evolves 3 Life evolves is exterminated independently re evolves 4 Life evolves is exterminated and is later re seeded from a planetary companion Variable Histories of Life 2 0 One type of life evolves has a history 0 Multiple lines of life evolve one out competes others and is unique line on planet 0 Multiple lines of life evolve and more than one line co eXists
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