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This 44 page Class Notes was uploaded by Renee Lehner on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 180 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/192336/biol-180-university-of-washington in Biology at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Darwin s dilemma how is heritable variation created and preserved What happens to phenotypic variation when directional natural selection is operating What happens to phenotypic variation when inheritance is blending Heritability of height in Homo sapiens 00 O N 01 I Offspring height in N O O 01 I O O 60 6395 7390 7395 80 Mother39s height Father39s height2 in What happens to variation in height if children s heights are always the 3 average of their parents heights and if 39 s gt humans do not mate assortativer by Sir Francis Galton height 1822 1911 Regression towards the mean Wa m I n g The study of genetics may expand your vocabulary beyond its normal capacity If pain persists form a study group Genotype Phenotype Diploid Haploid Homologslhomologous Locusloci Allele Homozygotelhomozygous Heterozygotelheterozygous P F1 F2 generations Dominantrecessive Partial incomplete dominance Codominant Segregation of alleles Independent assortment of loci Linkage Sexlinked RecombinationCrossing over Sisternonsister chromatids Autosome Sex chromosome Gamete Karyotype Mendel s genius in experimental design and analysis Model organism Statistical analysis of large sample sizes Multiple generations observed Test crosses as critical tests of hypotheses Figure 102 upper Trait Truebreeding Phenotypes Round Wn39nkled Seedcolor Yellow Green In ated constricted Green Yellow Figure 101b BROSSPOLLINATIDN 1 Remove anthers from one plant 2 Colleck pollen from a different plant 3 Transfer pollen k a o a ski ofthe removed Figure 104 Truebreedin Truebreedin Roundseeded Wrinkledseeded Father Mother Parental P e eneration What happened to the variation Figure 105 Roundseeded Father Roundseeded Mother F1 generation 9 o F2 generation a 0 g I l Il N 5474 N 1850 Variation reappeared Phenotypes present in P generation were unaltered Inheritance is particulate not blending Alleles R and r segregate between generations round wrinkled phenotype 296 1 Figure 104 R Dominant allele for seed shape round r Recessive allele for seed shape wrinkled Roundseeded Wrinkledseeded Father Mother Parental P eneration F1 eneration Rr Rr Rr Rr All have Rr enotype heterozyous and round seed phenotype Figure 105 A cross between two heterozygotes R Dominant allele for seed shape round r Recessive allele for seed shape wrinkled Roundseeded Roundseeded Father Mo er F1 generation Meiosis Gametes 12 H 1l2 r 1l2 F 1l2 r Fertilization F2 0 o a a 7 RR lrF Fir rr What will be the frequency oteach genotype Fquot X R F X R I x r r x Sperm Egg Sperm Egg Sperm Egg Sperm Egg 1l2x1l2 1l4 1l2x1l2 1l4 1l2x1l2 1l4 1l2x1l2 1l4 l I II I 14 RR 12 Rr 14 rr l I 34 Round seeds 14 Wrinkled seeds dominant phenotype recessive phenotype 07 R Dominant allele for seed shape round Recessive allele for seed shape wrinkled Roundseeded phenotype 0 Wrinkled seeded phenotype Mother Punnett square Monohybrid cross Female gametes Where g R RR R Segregation of r m 2 e alleles Rr rr Resulting genotypes 14 RR 12 Rr 14 H 34 Resulting phenotypes 14 0 Figure 10821 Dihybrid cross R Dominant allele for seed shape round r Recessive allele for seed shape wrinkled Y Dominant allele for seed color yellow y Recessive allele for seed color green P t I Father Mother aren a generation a RRYY rryy Meiosis Gametes RY RY ry ry Fertilization F1 generation RrYy RrYy RrYy RrYy Ifthe RrYy F1 pea plant is selffertilized what proportion of the F2 offspring are expected to be truebreeding for the round green phenotype A 916 B 316 C D 016 116 F O 8 RRYY rryy F1 00 Fer RrYy RrYy RrYy 000 am alleleforseed shape 1r 1 kledj 09 Dihybrid cross eleforseed shape ellowj Pareth generatlon O Recesslve all RRYY ny talleleforseed color 1y Rryx Recesslve alleleforseed colongreem alegametes Domlhah 14Ry 14 H 14ry ltlt4m F1 A L generatlon Rryy 14 RY 14 Ry RRYy RRyy RrYy Rryy Independent assortment of Rrvy g 2 4 39Y C O g RrYY RrYy rrYY rrYy IOC I Resulllng genotypes 916RY 316Ryy 316mr7 116nyy Resultlng phenotypes 916 a 316 0 316 0 116 a Figure 108b Self fertilize F1 peas and count F2 offspring F2 generation phenotype Number 108 32 556 Fraction of progeny 916 316 316 1 116 1 Figure 1010 Homozygous recessive parem rryy Testcross F1 parem RrYy 14 RY 14 Ry 4 IV 114 ry 14 RrYy 14 Rryy 14 nYy 14 rryy a C e r 1 gt 9 cum B allele at BLACKlocus makes black pigment recessive b allele makes no black R allele at RED locus makes red pigment recessive rallele makes no red Chromosome Theory of Inheritance Mendel39s rules of inheritance can be explained by independent assortment of Chromosomes during meiosis Fig 1011b Figure 1011a Principle of segreganion Dominant allele for seed shape d rouh Gam etes gt0 w Recessive allele for seed shape wrinkled it l Chromosomes replicate Meiosis Figure 1011a Prin iple of segreganioh Dominant allele Recessive allele for seed shape 2 l for seed shape round 7 wrinkled Chromosomes replieame 139 8R 7 Kr Melosls l R 3 HR I r Meiosisll f Gametes gt0 w Figure 1011b Principle of independent assortment R r R r Aleesforseedshape Alleles for seed color R Y4 ky R y gv Meiosisl AMeiosisl by by by by Meiosisll 244 icing I L E u l 14 Ry 14 rY Gametes x 39m Ly Chromosome Theory of Inheritance T H Morgan experiments on Drosophila reveal extensions to Mendel s rules Eye color phenotype linked to seX of the progeny Stevenson discovers X and Y chromosomes Morgan hypothesized that genes are arranged linearly on chromosomes Figure 1012 Figure 1014ab First half of reciprocal cross Second half of reciprocal cross Mother Father Mother Father Parental generation r 1 Pmmal genemion V w w wv ww wv Male gametes Male gametes 3 w Y 3 w Y 3 5 s E 5 F1 generation 3 w 8 F1 generation 3 w t g w w w Y 2 WW Mr 3 a 39 v 39 Females Males Females Males Erwinus 9 WWW awnquot quotHelene Next let the F1 offspring mate Figure 1014a lower Next Ienhe F1 offspring mate Mother Father F1 generation w w w Y Male gametes w v w i F2 generation quotWV WY Female gametes Figure 1013a Sex chromosomes from the beetle Tenebrio molitor X chromosome Y chromosome Figure 1013b Sex chromosomes pair at meiosis I X chromosome F Y chromosome Meiosis l 3 Meiosis ll l l i i 50 of sperm contain Y chromosome Gametes 50 of sperm contain X chromosome Chromosome Theory of Inheritance 0 T H Morgan experiments on Drosophila reveal extensions to Mendel39s rules Eye color body color and cut wing phenotypes are all coded by X chromosome genes Genes linked on the same chromosome do not exhibit independent assortment Chromosomes can be mapped based on recombination frequencies between loci Figure 1015ab Linkage hypothesis Gam etes Red eyes Yellow body White eyes Gray body 1 18quot K x M Meiosis I w y Morgan39s test orthe hypothesis Parental generation F1 generation F2 generation males Figure 10150 Crossing over provides an explanation 7 r Crossing over during melosisl Meiosis Ga m ates Figure 1016 Chromosomes are composed of genes 7 Crosslng over rarely occurs between aolacentlocl so recomblnanons are rare crossing over are frequent The physical distance bekween loci dekermirles the frequency of crossing oven 3 o Yellow body 0 Yellow body 14 Whlte eyes 14 Whlte eyes Map unlu 20 Cutwlngs l Frequency of crossing Linkage map can be used to ma p physical bekween loci Central Dogma of Molecular Biology Evolution by Natural Selection What observations was w v 7 Darwm trying to explain Why are geographically adjacent species generally similar in appearance yet distinct from each other when examined in detail Why are homologous structures found in organs having very different functions Why do extinct species often resemble extant species How do species acquire the traits that adapt them to their environment How do species change through time Adaptive evolution by the process of natural selection has produced all the Earth s biodiversity from a single common ancestor Check the BIOL 180 GoPost newsgroup for information on lecture outlines and practice exam n w differ only slightly in size shape and coloraion Darwin s ornithologist friend John Gould Nesomimus macdonaldi Nesommvus melanotis Nesomimus parvulus Nesomimus trifasciatus Figure 212a Structural homology Humerus a Radius and ulna Carpal Metacarpals m Phalanges Turtle Human Horse Bird Bat Seal Figure 21213 Developmental homology Both the chick and the human have gill pouches and tails Gill pouch chick Human Figure 212c new Mam Genetic homology Gene A m m Aniridia Human syslsss Fmit fry Figure 641 left THE GLYCOLYTIC PATHWAY CHZOH CHIC O H OHA H H H I 0 ll H w gt OH H I A H HO 9 HO OH HOWE FN iOH TP H OH A P ADP GLUCOSE GLUCOSE 6PHOSPHATE c1Izo o o CHaOH H0 H FRUCTOSE PHOSPHATE 0tHl 0CH2 3 0 CHzo O CszOH 0 a H MD lt a H OH H H0 H ADP 00 CHOH FRUCTOSE 16BSPHOSPHATE CHzD O Figure 213 Fossil sloth g V Box 212 Figure 1a Analogy When similarities result from convergent evolution Common dolphin lehthyosaur amp wquot 9 99 of 6 9 o y a 99 66 go 309 039 owe 60 4 ago a a 9 90 xquot v 9 few Y D 6 o w 90 9 90 The members of lineages 39 between the dolphins and 39 e streamlined bodies long jaws filled with teeth ns and flippers The dolphin and ichthyosaur lineages are ar apart on the evolutionary tree suggesting t at they are not closely related Darwin s theory explains both the unity and diversity of life on Earth Adaptive evolution by the process of natural selection 39 has produced all the Earth s biodiversity from a single common ancestor Darwin s postulates Among individuals of a species there is variation in phenotypic traits At least some of this variation is heritable Individuals vary in their ability to survive and reproduce fitness Variation in some phenotypic traits adaptive traits is correlated with variation in fitness ie survival and reproduction are not random but depend on phenotype which is controlled at least in part by genotype 3 If the postulates are satisfied then Darwin predicted that populations will become different phenotypically and genotypically from their ancestors and increasingly well adapted to their environment over time as better adapted individuals reproduce at disproportionately high rates Divergent adaptation 9 new species
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