CMPR ANAT VERTS
CMPR ANAT VERTS BIOL 453
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Date Created: 09/09/15
What is the appendicular skeleton How did fins evolve How did limbs evolve Lecture 5 for Exam 2 Biol 453 Comp Vert Anatomy Winter 2009 at 9395 1 Read in Liem et al 2001 Ch 9 pg 294313 Appendicular Skeleton Germ Layer Origins Dermal bones in pectoral girdlefrom derrnatocranium B Migrating neural Sclerotome or Paraxial Three subdivisions MYOlome oi somite Posterior cardinal vein Mesomere or Intermediate Two subdivisions oi intermediate mesoderm Dorsal mesentery Gut lining Splanchnic portion at Hypom ere lateral plate mesoderm Two subdivisions ol lateral plate mesoderm Somatic portion of lateral plate mesoderm Somat layer of Hypomere Pectoral girdle endochondral Pelvic girdle Pectoral finsllim bs Vel A diverticulum Somaiopleure Ventral mesentery Splanchnoplem elongate ns VERTEBRATES paired appendages alp polarity of tin structure 393 2345678910111213 V e Hox genes expressed along body axis Some support for finfold theory from the recently discovered Cambrian vertebrates Shubin Tabin and Carroll 2000 Evolution of fins amp lim i a genes GNATHOSTOMES 2 sets of paired appendages serial omology lin axis posterior Hox genes expressed in both appendages Left latera fin lold Flight lateral Location Ventral median 39 39n told Pelvic finslimbs fin lol f an s A Hypothetical embryo with continuous lateral tin folds What are the benefits of fins Some fossil agnathans had immobile paired pectoral finspines but lacked pelvic paired fins All fins provide more control when turning They act as rudders to reduce roll pitch amp yaw v Most gnathostome fish have aw paired pectoral amp pelvic fins How flexible are the fins of sharks Chondrichthyes Dermal bones absent Relatively wide fin base Numerous rows of radial pterygiophores hll Wvvvv oceanloola ecomslockloola eRainbovv Runner hll Wvvvv oceanloola ecomslockloola eMako Shark Basal pierygiophores Scapulo pterygiophores co racoi d pierygiopnoies lschiopubic Ceraioiiichia Radial pierygiophores Anterior margin Ceratotrichia Ci Pecioral iin oi Squalus u u Ii iquot Eniinlii Pos emporal B Pecioral girdle and 1m oi Polyplerus Postcleiihmm Basal plery Pectoral Girdle Supracieiihmm giophores 7 Pelvic Girdle Fladial Coracoi pierygiophores Lepidoirichla PEIMC If spine 1 Lateral View Actinopterygii Flexible Ray Fins Migration of Pelvic Girdle amp Fins hll Wvvvv oceanloola ecomslockloola eSaidine hllg WWW oulube comAvalchWigAUEVrXDK How do HOX genes regulate fin amp limb development AER Chick Apical Hoxa11 llama FISh O Ectodermal Hoxais Ridge AER apical fold no fold W W N o w ll i 39 17 2 i 0 quot i m it o 24 i i ramais 1 7 39 r 7 l Euslhsnnptamn leisallk Acarilhoslega Ophlacadari H Vquot I I I 39 limb Hox gene expresswn shifted fin Tamura et al 2008 Ahn amp Ho 2008 How do these Sarcopterygian fleshy fins differ Living Lungfish Biserial fins Fossil Rhipidistians Uniserial Fins Symmetric radial pterygiores on both sides Asymmetric design with radials on of a central row of basal pterygiophores only 1 side of fin axis Pectoral girdle Anterior J margin Hadra pteryglophores Rad ple ia rygiophores Cenlral Pterygiophore is Anterior Pterygrophore margin axls on posterior mar In of In Lepidolrichia Q What were girdles like in the fossil Sarcopterygii Rhipidistians Pectoral Girdle Pelvic Girdle Complete set of dermal bones Ischiopubic only simple with large clavicle amp interclavicle Endochondral scapulocoracoid Pubic portion ol Ilia1cponiglrlol pelvrc girdle pe vrc glr e 39 Postminimus Fibula FibulareI Acerabulum Tibia E Pelvic girdle and lin oi TEusthenopreron in lateral view C Pecloral girdle and tin of fEusrhenopreron What were the girdles amp limbs like in early tetrapods Stegacephalianl Labyrinthodont Cleilhrum w Pectoral Girdle Expanded scapulacoracord Clavicle Scapulo coracor Loss of many dermal bones gt frees girdle of skull R d t I th I I Glenoid e uc Ion In c er rum c avrc e ossa 39 Coraooid Inlerclavide lorarnen Uniserial limbs B Pectoral girdle of TEryops l Addition of iium to Arrangement 1 attach hind limbs to sacral vertebra 2 Obturalor Ace39abulum many lschium Pubis C Pelvic girdle of TArcheria B Pectoral limb of TAcanrhoslega Earlv tetrapod limbs were an adaptation to life in shallow water Elbows Knees amp Polydacfyly MM ankles 39 wnsfi lcmnyarlega A quotquotz 39 quot A 4 Acanlhasregaquoti t 2 ANSP23150 H s Panderimlnys W Euslhenaplemn Rhizodonr Humerus Radi us Ulna Internal gills present Lateral line amptail fin Webbed polydactylous feet How is the timing of HOX expression unique in teleosts Are Sarcopterygian pterygiophores homologous with limbs aclrnonlery rigging Zehmll h Polyudon Trktdalk Terraces l mica 9 Irrnporyor V Lalemhase I quot HoxD expression 39 I l l l l 39 I I j l r H 39 r r 39 l s 39 l w v U W e Ilon drums C EXDFL S E L Hm ril ionly Figure 4 l Conservation of latephase HoxD expression in bony fish osteichthyes Armrim m rln lclr disul in turn lln L xlrn niun in I nlrrrrlmr suppurl rim rmlinn Ilml Lrlrrplmw Huxlr cxpn ssinn i prinriliw r il l I 1 39JL 39 I II I rurirlinrt mephm llul expression b lxm ul rmnmpurgm mink t ion ul um lrn r n rIa I I ollrllk39rp39 39lluxl w a m HI 7 uons dupiil consen39rd Inlnphmu 11ml seen in J han z a n luzggrurls lurc ruprk sculul Ir nu hind lim MN m dmrm lull How was the pectoral girdle modified within the Synapsida Cleirhrum Scapula Amniotes Grenoid Reduced size of the dermal 390553 bones compared to tetrapods Coracold loramen Anterior Lose interclavicle coracoid I Ant Coracord lost I l r r 39 r C am e In em am 9 Post Coracord reduced C Pe toral 39rdle olaquotsem re rllequot c g39 p to a process on scapula Cleilhrum I Clerthrum Added 36mm lost Swu39a scapular clavicle scapu39a spine Acromion Scapular Posterior New post coracoid sprne coracord Clavlcle Clavicle Glenoid E fossa IntemlaViCle Anterior coracoid Interclavicle Anterior coracoid Acromion Synapsida Mammalia Prototheria Mammalia Theria What is the homology of the mammalian coracoid process Ventral Left Lateral 39 B C L spn lsw p l l l J lr gin l l crp l an gln an UP C mldes D pro a lab cla a C39 Q ap r F icn 7 e I i K V 5L P U Q43ka l L J Embryo Adult 9 5m 3 C 3 quot ln sffii39 12 Embryo Adull 595 Monotreme peaoralap rat Anadglt M s Sm ommmyll mmtremu mfmheslayemr A Pmquot 9 and left lateral 5 views Among skeletally mature quot 9 mp reaff39a f mnosed of s x Pro procoracoid anterior coracoid Met metacoracoid posterior coracoid How was the pelvic girdle modified within the Synapsida What other vertebrates evolved 7 Ace ab 39 analogous pelvis designs for upright posture or improved IOCO otion Pubis lschium p his Synapsida 39 Therapsida 4 llium Obluralor I Acelabulum 39 39 Obturalor foramen It Elovgate mum A hum Alabu39um Acetabulum anteriorly for new Obmrator leg muscles foramen Deeper smaller acetabulum Epipubic bone holds head of femurtightly Publs lschiurn Pubis lschlum Mammalia Prototheria amp Metatheria Mammalia Eutheria Are there benefits to the postural change in the Synapsida Head of femur broad C39Eilhrum in line with shaft Head of femur angled amp small to fit tightly into deep pelvic acetabulum How did the girdles amp limbs change as synapsids acquired upright posture Straddle Semierect Rotate elbow posteriorly rotate knees anteriorly longer limbs Rad Fl Thoracic amp Lumbar Vert Hold up neck amp head Mewmmal5 Phalanges on What improvements occurred in the ankle of Synapsids quotK Mm Astragal us sits on calcaneus Early Amniote What are the benefits of a Mammalian tibiotarsal ankle joint V l From the front the joint resembles a monkey wrench holding onto a hemisphere Anterior view quotml planlar llcxlun What are the other benefits of a tibiotarsal ankle Tight joint tibia amp fibula surround astragalus Fibula Tb39 Cdcaneu m Kim 39 astragal us talus Calcaneus Navlcular 05m Medlal b clmam Dne cunelturm O L Lateral intermediate cuneiform mm W EL Metatarsals l l lll W V p 039 Late Synapsrds amp Mammals phalanx Middle phalanx Dlstal phalanx 139 quot 39 1 Hallux Calcaneus forms heel behind joint increases Lin to increase power Selected References Ahn D amp R K Ho 2008 T39 quot 39 pu leliul nu 39 the evolution ofvertebrate paired appendages Dev Biol 3221 220233 Boisvert C A E MarkKun39k PE Ahlberg 2008 L 39 39 digits Nature CalaisGermain B 1991 Anatomy of Movement revised edition Eastland Press Seattle Daeschler E 3 NH Shubin amp FA Jenkins Jr 7006 A 39 quot39 39 39 4 39 Nature 440757 763 Johansonn Z et al 2007 Fish Fingers Digit Homologues in Sarcopterygian Fish Fins J Exp Zoolog B Mol Dev Evol 3086757768 Qiang J L Zhexi amp J Shua 1999 A 39 39 39 39 39 Nature 398326 330 Shubin N C Tabin and S Carroll 2000 Fossils Genes and the Evolution ofAnimal Limbs In Gee H ed 2000 Shaking the Tree Readings from Nature in the History of Life Tamura K S YoneiTamura T Yano H lde 2008 Tquot 39 39 39 J 39 r 4 Development Growth amp Differentiation 5051 81778187 Vickalyous MK amp BK Hall 2006 Homology ofquot quot 39 39 39 quot J pectoral apparatus J Anat 208263 285 Wisenden B 2003 Chapter 7 The Skeletal System AppendicularDivision Evolution Atlas Pearson Education httn39llrvllx 39 39 39 t b 39 Review Questions 1 Define appendicular skeleton What are the general functions of the pectoral amp pelvic girdles List the germ layer origins ofthe appendicular skeleton List the replacement endochondral bones amp membranous dermal bones that we studied in the pectoral amp pelvic limbs or girdles 2 Describe the finfold theory of the evolution of vertebrate finslimbs Describe the pattern of Hox gene expression within the fins amp limbs What other evidence supports this idea Describe the functional benefits of paired and median fins with regard to controlling or stabilizing these types of movement roll pitch ampyaw Draw arrows to show the direction of movement produced by roll pitch amp yaw for a fish 3 Compare the position amp arrangement of pterygiophores in Chondrichthyes Actinopterygians amp fossil vs living Sarcopterygians What are the advantages of the derived Actinopterygian design Describe the primitive ampthe derived position of pelvic fins within the Actinopterygii What benefits or improvements were gained in the derived position What change in Hox genes resulted in teleost fin pterygiophore reduction vs what occurs in other vertebrates 4 What evidence supports the homology of the pterygiophores in fossil Sarcopterygians with limb bones in tetrapods What was unusual about the digit number of many early labyrinthodonts We know these early tetrapods weren t on land so how could digits help their locomotion Describe the gradual changes in their front amp hind limb orientation ampjoints to adapt them for life on land More review questions 5 Draw lateral views of a stylized left pectoral girdles in a shark Chondrichthyes b fossil Sarcopterygian rhipidistian basal amniote cynodont amp therian mammal marsupial amp placental Label the location of the glenoid fossa where the humerus articulates with the pectoral girdle When ampwhy does the pectoral girdle become free of the skull How does the pectoral girdle associate with the skeleton then 6 Which vertebrates have reduced coracoid ampIor clavicles What is the benefit of this change How amp why have therian mammals modified the scapula Is the therian coracoid process homologous with the anterior or posterior amniote coracoid 7 Diagram amp label the bony elements that comprise the pelvic girdle of a fossil sarcopterygian rhipidistian amp of an early fossil tetrapod In the tetrapod label the acetabulum socket for the femur What new connection is made in the tetrapod pelvic girdle To which bone of the pelvis is this attachment made 8 Compare the changes in the orientation amp relative sizes of ilium ischium amp pubic bones in the pelvic girdles of an early amniote therapsid amp a mammal What are the benefits ofthe design changes in relation to upright posture 9 Describe the change in position amp design of the long bones from a straddleposture to an upright posture in a mammal What othertaxa have analogous changes in pelvis amp limbs Describe the unique design amp specialized actions of the tibiotarsal ankle
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