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Module 8 Notes

by: Krista Notetaker

Module 8 Notes SPED 7007

Krista Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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These notes cover module 8 for our class. I included notes on chapter 8 of our textbook, the school refusal article, and the three screen casts posted by the professor. Here, you can also find info...
Positive Behavior
Dr. Todd Haydon
Class Notes
Antecedent Interventions in the Classroom
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 7007 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Todd Haydon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Positive Behavior in Special Education at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 03/02/16
Module  8  Notes   Antecedent  Interventions  in  the  Classroom   Written  by:  Krista  Anstead   March  2016     Learning  Outcomes   •   Graph  Data   •   Change  Setting  Events  to  Improve  Student  Behavior   •   Change  the  Physical  Layout  of  the  Room   •   Define  and  Teach  Expected  Behavior   •   Structure  Routines     Readings/References   Doobay,  A.  (2008).  School  refusal  behavior  associated  with  separation  anxiety  disorder:  A     cognitive-­‐behavioral  approach  to  treatment.  Psychology  in  the  Schools,  45(4),  pp.261-­‐   271.   Scott,  T.,  &  Anderson,  C.  (2012).  Antecedent  interventions  in  the  classroom.  In  Managing     Classroom  Behavior  Using  Positive  Behavior  Supports.  Boston:  Pearson.     Acronyms   •   Separation  anxiety  disorder  =  SAD     Chapter  8  Notes   Introduction   •   Key  component  of  all  classroom  management  plans  is  altering  antecedents  to  facilitate   appropriate  behavior  and  make  it  less  likely  that  problem  behaviors  will  occur   •   Key  difference  between  effective  and  ineffective  teachers  is  their  use  or  lack  of  use  of   antecedent  interventions     Link  between  classroom  layout  and  student  behavior   •   Wall  space   o   Wall  space  should  be  used  for  displaying  important  information  and  for   individualizing  instruction   o   Have  a  consistent  and  easily  viewed  space  for  classroom  rules,  a  daily  schedule,   and  calendar  of  important  event   o   Everything  on  walls  should  be  relevant!   •   Location  of  teacher  desk   o   Front  of  room  is  typically  high-­‐traffic  area   o   T  desk  should  be  in  low  traffic  area  of  room  so  not  to  hamper  traffic  flow   •   Materials  in  the  classroom   o   Organize  materials  so  that  all  items  facilitate  rather  that  hinder  student  learning   o   Separate  storage  areas  for  items  that  are  frequently  used  and  those  used  less   often   •   Student  desk  arrangements   o   No  correct  ways  for  desks  to  be  located   o   Determine  whether  current  arrangement  facilitates  class  goals  and  why/why  not   o   Rows:  best  for  class  activities  involving  independent  work  and/or  teacher-­‐led   instruction   o   Semicircle:  increases  S  participation;  enables  teacher-­‐led  instruction  and   independent  work  to  occur  easily   o   Groups:  useful  for  classrooms/activities  in  which  S  often  work  collaboratively   •   Traffic  patterns   o   Should  be  sufficient  space  between  desks  to  allow  S  to  move  to  and  from  their   desks  easily  and  without  disrupting  other  S   o   T  should  be  able  to  observe  all  S  in  room  from  any  location   o   Be  sure  that  you  can  supervise  S  in  the  work  area  from  all  locations  in  the  room   and  that  you  can  see  the  entire  room  if  you  are  helping  S  in  the  work  areas     Classroom  rules   •   Focus  should  be  on  general  statements  of  appropriate  behavior   •   Having  3-­‐5  simple  prosocial  expectation  make  it  easier  for  S  and  T  to  remember   •   Use  school-­‐wide  expectations  to  develop  expectations  for  your  classroom   o   Helps  maintain  consistent  and  positive  school  culture   •   Can  also  simply  identify  general  social  behaviors  of  which  you  would  like  to  see  more   •   Classroom  rules  provide  guidelines  for  appropriate  S  behavior   •   They  are  specific  statement  of  expected  behavior  and  should  focus  on  precisely  what   should  occur  rather  than  what  should  not  occur   o   Negatively  stated  rules  do  not  tell  S  what  they  are  actually  supposed  to  do   o   Telling  S  what  NOT  to  do  results  in  more  negative  climate  because  you  are   consistently  looking  for  negative  behavior  instead  of  focusing  on  what  S  are   doing  well   •   Should  include  rules  you  would  like  to  see  all  the  time   •   Wording  of  rules  should  match  developmental  level  of  S   o   Young  S  might  find  rules  easier  to  understand  when  accompanied  with  pictures   •   Rules  should  be  posted  publically   o   S  will  see  them  frequently   o   Serves  as  a  prompt  to  refer  to  frequently  during  instruction   •   All  T  should  post  rules  in  at  least  one  spot     Active  supervision   •   Effective  teachers  spend  little  time  actually  seated  at  their  desk  when  S  are  in  room   •   If  S  have  not  been  taught  expected  behavior,  teaching  only  via  consequences  will  result   in  S  needing  a  long  time  to  learn  what  to  do   •   When  S  knows  exactly  what  is  expected  of  them  and  why  it  is  expected,  they  are  more   likely  to  engage  in  desired  behavior     •   Features  of  active  supervision:   o   Movement  around  the  area   §   Prevents  problem  behaviors   §   Encourages  appropriate  behavior   §   Helps  maintain  S  attention   o   Interactions  with  S   §   Check  their  learning   o   Use  of  acknowledgement  for  prosocial  behavior   o   Frequently  checking  S  learning     Structure  of  routines   •   S  behavior  is  affected  more  by  how  predictable  a  routine  is  and  whether  expectations   for  learning  and  social  behavior  are  clearly  stated   •   Create  and  post  schedule  of  general  topics  to  be  covered  each  day  and  at  what  time   o   S  can  check  where  they  are  in  the  day  and  what  is  coming  next   o   T  can  use  as  part  of  instruction,  helping  S  learn  valuable  skills  in  planning   o   Should  be  reviewed  frequently   •   Large  amounts  of  downtime  should  be  avoided     o   Lost  opportunities  for  instruction   o   Leaves  S  to  their  own  devices   •   T  should  inform  S  at  beginning  of  day  about  any  disruptions  to  schedule     Strategies  for  developing  classroom  rules   •   Many  T  do  not  identify  beforehand  the  prosocial  behaviors  they  would  like  to  see  S   exhibit  in  their  classrooms  nor  do  they  explicitly  teach  S  those  behaviors   •   Ask  yourself  “what  mistakes  could  a  S  make”   •   Rules  matrix:   o   What  will  you  teach?   o   What  does  following  a  rule  look  like?   o   How  will  you  teach  the  rule?   o   How  can  you  ensure  that  S  will  do  the  right  thing?   o   What  can  you  do  to  facilitate  success?   •   Provide  consequences  that  S  will  enjoy  and  those  that  will  decrease  off-­‐task  behavior   •   When  developing  consequences,  be  sure  that  you  will  be  willing  and  able  to  implement   them  consistently   •   Any  time  behavior  occurs,  you  have  to  respond  to  it  and  do  so  similarly  regardless  of   who  violate  the  rule     Steps  involved  in  teaching  classroom  rules  to  students   •   Easy  to  assume  S  “know  how  to  behave”  however  this  is  not  always  true   •   S  are  unlikely  to  know  what  you  expect  compared  to  what  other  T  expect   •   T  expectations  and  rules  in  same  way  that  we  teach  academic  skills   •   Focus  rationale  on  how  following  the  rule  will  improve  the  classroom  and  learning   environment  for  everyone   •   Provide  explicit  positive  feedback  telling  S  what  they  are  doing  correct   •   Teaching  should  occur  not  only  when  school  year  begins  but  also  periodically   throughout  the  year   •   Follow  the  rules  yourself!     Identifying  setting  events  that  occur  outside  the  classroom  and  ways  to  minimize  them   •   Events  occurring  before  class  that  may  affect  their  behavior  in  the  classroom:   o   Recess   o   another  period  in  which  there  was  little  structure  and  lots  of  activity   o   unexpected  events  (fire  drills)   o   anticipated  events  (assembly)   •   Taking  steps  to  minimize  impact   o   Review  rules   o   Modify  activities/instruction   §   Allow  S  to  work  in  groups  instead  of  individually   §   Shorten  tasks   o   Increase  reinforcement  for  appropriate  behavior   o   Neutralizing  routines   §   Implement  specific,  enjoyable  activities  after  setting  event  occurs   §   Consider  increasing  reinforcement  for  your  S     School  Refusal  Article  Notes   •   Prevalence:  1-­‐2%  of  school-­‐aged  S   •   Anxiety  disorders  most  common  mental  health  concern  of  children  and  adolescents   o   Most  common  anxiety  disorder  in  childhood:  separation  anxiety  disorder   •   SAD  symptoms   o   Excessive  worry  about  potential  harm  to  self  or  attachment  figures   o   Nightmares  about  separation   o   Somatic  and  cardiovascular  complaints   o   Panic  during  separation   •   30-­‐38%  of  S  who  refuse  to  attend  school  have  SAD   •   Examples  of  treatment  of  SAD   o   Counterconditioning   o   Extinction   o   Modeling   o   Cognitive  techniques   •   Video  modeling   o   Child  watching  video  of  another  child  participating  in  desired  behavior   •   Reassurances  to  remind  S  with  anxiety   o   My  parents  are  just  in  the  next  room,  and  they  will  be  there  when  I  wake  up   o   I  can  handle  this   •   It  is  often  helpful  to  teach  S  to  identify  triggers  to  anxiety,  as  well  as  their  physiological   and  behavioral  responses,  through  self-­‐monitoring   •   Essential  components  of  CBT  (cognitive  behavioral  therapy)   o   Relaxation  training  (key  coping  activity)   o   Enhancement  of  social  competence   o   Cognitive  therapy   o   Exposure  to  feared  stimuli   •   Parental  involvement   o   As  a  minimum,  P  should  be  trained  in  contingency  management  for  use  with  S   o   Crucial  that  P  stop  reinforcing  S  for  refusing  to  attend  school,  even  if   reinforcement  is  unintentional   •   T  can  be  trained  in  recognition  and  reinforcement  of  desired  behaviors   •   Treatment  approach   o   S  first  becomes  comfortable  attending  last  period  or  hour  of  school  day   o   Amount  of  time  at  school  would  increase  to  2  hours   o   Process  continues  until  S  is  able  to  remain  in  school  throughout  the  day  while   experiencing  only  mild  anxiety   o   P  should  work  with  counselor  to  develop  contingency  management  skills,  anxiety   management  skills  for  S  and  themselves,  and  problem-­‐solving  skills   •   School  counselor  can  be  a  “safe  person”  to  whom  S  may  turn  when  feeling   overwhelmed  or  unable  to  cope  with  situation     Article  Screen  Cast  Notes   •   Chapter  does  not  cover:  What  happens  when  a  student  doesn’t  come  to  school?   •   School  refusal  behaviors  can  be  connected  to  separation  anxiety  disorder   •   Highlighted  parts  are  considered  important  by  professor   •   Way  to  help  school  refusal:  video  modeling  (used  with  students  who  have  autism  and/or   behavior  disorders)   o   Teach  students  how  to  get  prepared  for  school  and  appropriate  behavior  by   showing  videos  of  positive,  expected  behavior   •   Strategies  to  help  combat  anxiety  and  school  refusal     Graphing  Data  Screen  Cast  Notes   •   Directions:   o   Graph  data  from  all  3  weeks   o   Cut  and  paste  on  a  word  document   o   Upload  to  week  8  data  on  Bb   •   Steps   o   Data   §   List  dates  in  column  a   §   Number  of  disruptions  in  column  b  (be  sure  to  include  measurable  term)   §   Highlight  all  data   o   Make  graph   §   Click  on  charts:  line:  mark  line   §   To  get  a  blank  white  background:  highlight  arrow  on  vertical  line,  double   click  twice,  choose  no  line   §   To  get  rid  of  line  around  graph:  double  click  and  select  no  line   §   Double  click  on  line  in  graph  and  choose  black  color  for  all  portions   o   Graphing  information   §   Insert:  text  box     •   Title   •   Name  of  student   •   X  axis   •   Y  axis   o   Post  in  word  doc   §   Select  graph  and  all  textboxes,  group  together,  copy   §   Paste   §   Title  figure:  Capital  letter  for  each  important  word   •   Make  graph  for  off-­‐task  behavior  AND  on-­‐task  behavior  AND  teacher  behavior     Designs  Used  in  Research  Screen  Cast  Notes   •   A-­‐B  Design   o   Simplest  design   o   A:  baseline  –  collecting  data  is  usual  condition   o   B:  intervention   •   Withdrawal  designs   o   A-­‐B-­‐A   §    Conditions,  intervention,  take  away  intervention   o   A-­‐B-­‐A-­‐B   §   Conditions,  intervention,  take  away  intervention,  replicate  again  second   time   •   Multiple  baseline  design   o   Student  observed  at  different  times  in  different  environments   o   Want  to  have  a  minimal  of  three   •   Multiple  treatment  design   •   B-­‐A  Design   o   Teacher  asks  to  not  do  baseline  and  implement  right  away   •   Graph  at  end  of  project  should  look  like  A-­‐B  design     Graphing  Data  Assignment   •   Collect  data  on  one  student  in  your  classroom.  Take  for  example  on-­‐task  behavior   and/or  disruptive  behavior.   •   Take  data  for  at  least  3  sessions,  each  session  is  for  10  minutes.  You  can  choose  a  time   where  you  are  observing  more  than  teaching  perhaps  during  group  work  or   independent  work.     •   Use  the  BOSS  recording  sheet  and  pick  one  of  the  dimensions  on  the  sheet.  Like  off-­‐task   active.   •   The  operational  definitions  are  on  that  sheet.  I  made  this  video  for  my  face  to  face  class   so  you  can  post  the  data  on  Bb  rather  than  “bring  it  to  class.”   •   I  don’t  expect  you  to  have  all  the  data  (3  data  points)  collected  by  the  end  of  the  week   (Sunday  11:59pm)  but  do  the  best  you  can  don’t  worry  about  how  many  data  points  you   have.    Just  learn  to  graph  data  and  by  the  end  of  the  semester  you  will  have  a  nice   graph.     Db  Post   Post  Answers  to  end  of  Chapter  8  Questions  1  and  2  on  the  Discussion  Board  by  Friday  11:59   pm  of  this  week  AND  Please  comment  on  the  Discussion  Board  at  least  one  of  your  classmates'   answers/comments.     Question  1:  Think  about  a  classroom  you  have  been  in  where  students  are  not  as  engaged  as   they  could  be.  What  classroom  expectations  and  rules  could  you  develop  that  might  improve   the  learning  environment?     Question  2:  There  is  an  assembly  after  your  class  to  which  students  have  been  looking  forward   for  several  weeks.  About  halfway  through  class  the  students  are  very  excited  and  hardly  able  to   focus  on  on  instruction.  Identify  at  least  two  strategies  you  could  use  to  respond  to  this  setting   event  that  is  after  your  class.  


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