SOC SPHSC 308
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jett Toy on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SPHSC 308 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/192348/sphsc-308-university-of-washington in Speech and Hearing Sciences at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
SPHSC 308 Socio cultural Development Winter 2007 Olswang LeamingDevelopment How do individuals leam How do systems evolve How do cultures changegrow LeamingDevelopment Shared activity Learning occurs at three levels 7 Individual 7 Interpersonal 7 Cultural Individual Learning Learning that allows for the acquisition of new behaviors skills concepts Example Interpersonal Learning Learning that advances a relationship develops social interactions cultivatesre nes a system Example Cultural Learning Learning that passes on cultural practices ACTIONS 7 shared with others in a social group 7 invested with normative expectations 7 identi ed with values about what is right natural mature or aesthetically pleasing 7 sustained or changed 7 Culture shapes development and development shapes culture Example Socio Cultural Learning How does it work Learning that takes place between adult and child or more knowledgeable person serving as tutor for less knowledgeable person through guided participation Teachinglearning for an individual takes place within the zone of proximal development Zpd What is the Zone of Proximal Development Area between actual and potential level of performance Potential Actual Actual Level of Performance Individual s habitual performance current level of functioning 7 Without prompts and cues 7 Without support of more knowledgeable person Potential Level of Performance Individual s skillsbehaviors that need to be learned ALSO Individual s performance with prompts and cues Individual s performance with support of more knowledgeable person Moments of Learning Adult or more knowledgeable person arranges the occurrence of learning activities and facilitates learning by regulating the difficulty of the tasks and by guiding the child or less knowledgeable person from actual level to potential level of performance Guided Participation Adult Brings Opportunities for learning activities Recruiting and Connecting with child Intersubjectivity Knowledge of child s actual and potential levels of performance 7 actualcurrent level 7 potentialhigher levelgoal Guidance prompts and cues to bring the child to higher level of performance Child Brings Prerequisite skills Biological disposition to learn Motivation to learn Active participation Intersubjectivity Moments of Learning Adult or more knowledgeable person arranges the occurrence of learning activities and facilitates learning by regulating the dif culty of the tasks and by guiding the child or less knowledgeable person from actual level to potential level of performance Guided Participation Examples of Moments of Learning Consider the adult child interactionwhat each brings Baking Cookies Driving a car stick shift Socio Cultural Learning During shared activity all three levels of learning take place Individual Learning Interpersonal Learning Cultural Learning Socio Cultural Learning Individual Learning Interpersonal Learning Cultural Learning Socio Cultural Learning An Example Girl Scout Cookie Sales Individual Learning Interpersonal Learning Cultural Learning Girl Scout Cookie Sales Individual Learning Moments of Learning Speci c skills learned Girl Scout Cookie Sales Interpersonal Learning Moments of Learning Speci c interpersonal behaviors learned 7 changes in the system Girl Scout Cookie Sales Cultural Learning Speci c cultural practices learned Research Investigating Universal and Differences across Cultures Rogoff Mistry Concu amp Mosier 1993 Investigated three types of activities with children and caregivers operating novel objects caregiver requested to help operating routine object operating novel objects caregiver not requested to help Cultural Universals Universalsidentifying the zone 7 bridging linking the known and the new for the child recruiting and connecting achieving intersubj ectivity 7 structuring arranging activities for learning orienting child and supporting hisher efforts adjusting involvement Cultural Differences Differences 7 selection of goals what to teach 7 nature of involvement between child and adult means of communication asymmetries in adults and children s responsibility General Differences Amount of verbal instruction and physical contact Role of competition Three Categories of Differences across Cultures General attention Focused attention Active questioning General Attention In some cultures children taught to attend and to observe Child absorbed into community Active observation is the key child takes responsibility for learning Child taught to display knowledge only after he she determines it is ready for display Focused Attention Other cultures children taught to notice and pay attention to a particular situation those that have uncertain outcomes More learning situations created Active Questioning Other cultures children taught to ask questions Child taught to display knowledge while in the process of developing it Adult and child bear responsibility for learning adult guides and gives feedback Speci c Findings Management of teaching by middle class caregivers dropped off in the episodes of routine and novel object without instruction Nonmiddle class caregivers maintained their attentive and sensitive assistance to the children in all three types of activities Sociocultural or Observational Learning Requires active management of attention Socio Cultural Learning Cultural Variation Children taught to attend notice in general Children taught to attend notice speci cs ieguidedfocused observation Children taught to question What gets passed on Cultural Practices including child rearing Goals of 1eamingie the information that is deemed important Means of learning communication style responsibility for learning
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