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PSYCH 101 2/24

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by: Katie Delaney

PSYCH 101 2/24 PSYC 101-006

Katie Delaney
GPA 3.56

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About this Document

From a while ago, about vision and hearing.
Introduction to Psychology
Sandra Llera
Class Notes
Psych 101, Llera, psych, hearing, Vision
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Delaney on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101-006 at Towson University taught by Sandra Llera in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.

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So much better than office hours. Needed something I could understand, and I got it. Will be turning back to StudySoup in the future

-Miss Georgianna Kessler


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Date Created: 03/02/16
REMINDER:​  Exam 1 is Monday Feb 29th, bring scantron and #2 pencil    Objectives:  Will finish visual system  Begin auditory sensation    Review: What is the role of the…  Cornea​­ protection  Pupil­ adjustable opening that lets in light  Iris Muscle around pupil that contracts and expands to change pupil size  Lense­​ Clear disk pulled by muscles to focus light­ thin=far fat and squished=close  Retina­ sensory rods and cones (cones=light, color, detail, rods=dark, b&w, lack detail)  Fovea­​ collection of cones  Optic Nerve­ axons that lead to brain (hits thalamus first)    Vision and the Brain  Optic nerve  ● connect the thalamus and from thalamus to visual cortex in occipital lobe  FIG 4.6 PG 113  ● we have two eyes for depth perception  ● happens because the info is just a little bit diff. because of the distance between  eyes   EX. 3D movies shot from two cameras allows for depth  ** Ask Chris if he can see a 3D movie**    Feat. Detection  ● Indie. cells in the visual cortex in the occipital lobe respond to different features  like edges, angles, and movements.  ● These cells working together allow for the whole pic. to be visualized.  Movement aftereffects (MAEs)  ● For the swirling pictures, the cells looking in a counterclockwise image  rest so the cells that see movement of clockwise direction begin. This is  why Llera’s face was moving when looked away from the swirling image.    Hearing  ● We have a range of stuff we can hear an this range matches really well with the  range of pitch in the human voice.   ○ Can recognize people from sound of voice BC we are a social species  who depend on that  ● Animals can hear differently than us, they can hear outside of our range.   EX. dog whistle, cats hearing electricity  ● Stimulus input = sound wave    Sound wave   ● different from light BC it is composed of compressed and expanded air  molecules (it is compressing the air around it).   ● Certain movements create sustained sound: vibrating, hitting compresses  air  ○ EX. bell vibration sends expanded and compressed waves out  from the source of the sound.  ○ Can hear and feel sound waves: at concerts, brass, bass,    ● BONE CONDUCTION­ ​ hear things by feeling them­ when you hear your  own voice when ears are closed  ○ emphasizes the fact that this air literally MOVES us    Sound Characteristics  Frequency of waves (pitch)  ●  has to do with the wavelength (hertz­Hz)  ● short wavelengths=high frequency= high pitch   ● long wavelengths=low frequency=low pitch  ● We can hear between twenty and twenty thousand Hz  ○ as get older, lose ability to hear higher pitches   Intensity (loudness)  ● determined by amplitude of a wave (decibels­dB)  ● high amp=loud; low amp=quiet  ● 30­40 dB is substantially louder.    ● >120 dB causes hearing loss.   ○ ­either damage to eardrums, bones, or hair.  Anatomy of Hearing  FIG 4.30 PG 129  ● taking sound waves and transducing it into neural signals  OUTER EAR­  vibes in air  ● Catches the sound waves down into ear  ○ extending the ear catches more sound    MIDDLE EAR​ ­ vibes in bones  ● eardrum­ skin that’s pulled very taut  ● three tiny bones called ossicles­ hammer anvil and stirrup  ● concentrates vibes onto the inner ear    INNER EAR​ ­vibes in fluid  ● contains the cochlea­ a snail shell looking tube filled with fluid  ● vibrations of the three little bones vibrates the fluid…      Cochlea  ● fluid filled snail shaped tube transduces sound vibes into auditory signals  ● vibrations disturb fluid that causes a ripple in…  Basilar membrane:  ● basically what sends the neural signal to the brain  ● lined with hair cells that detect/send signal through adjacent nerve fibers  ○ people can lose hearing if these hair cells are damaged, and if  bones are damaged.    ● We have to ears to locate the source of the sound­ the amount of time to hit either ear.  ● the shadow effec makes it so that the sound is not as easily registered     Pick up with perception on Friday 2/26 


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