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Chapter 15 Notes

by: Erica Notetaker

Chapter 15 Notes CHEM 120B

Erica Notetaker
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About this Document

This is the most important stuff, the rest is straight memorization.
General, Organic and Biological Chemistry
Dr. Lawrence P. Norcio
Class Notes




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Notetaker on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 120B at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville taught by Dr. Lawrence P. Norcio in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see General, Organic and Biological Chemistry in Chemistry at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.

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Date Created: 03/02/16
Chapter 15: Carbohydrates  o    Terms to Know   Biomolecules­ exist in living organisms  Carbohydrates­ occurring OH groups with a ketone or aldehyde o Monosaccharides= simple sugar= 3­7 carbons  o Disaccharides= 2 monosaccharides= 6­14 carbons o Polysaccharides= complex­ many monosaccharides combined  Chiral­ 4 different atoms attached to the same carbon  Achiral­ at least one atom bonded to the same carbon MORE THAN ONCE  Enantiomers­ mirror images   Fisher Projections­ 2 dimensional that has bonds that goes back and forward   Haworth structures­ formed by a reaction between a carbonyl and hydroxyl group   Anomers­ cyclic sugar that differs at the carbon atom where an OH and OR group is  attached   Hyperglycemia­ blood glucose concentration higher than 90 mg  Hypoglycemia­ blood glucose concentration lower than 70mg\ Naming Carbohydrates 1. Find highest functional group   ­Ketone or Aldehyde 2. Count # of carbons 3. Add –ose ending  Drawing Haworth structures 1. Draw Fisher Projection 2. Turn 90 degrees clockwise 3. Curve carbons into hexagon shape 4. Figure if the molecule is a D or L by looking at the OH group on the last chiral carbon  - If it points to the right its D, if it points to the left its L  5. Rotate carbon 6 either up for D molecule or down for L molecule 6. Make hemiacetal by closing the loop  Reactions     Oxidation of Monosaccharides - Just add an O to the H  - Replace –ose ending with –onic acid      Oxidation of Fructose ­> Glucose - Benedicts solution - Ketose ­> Aldose     Reduction of Monosaccharides - Only aldehydes - Produce sugar alcohols st - Aldehydes ­> 1  degree alcohol - Replace –ose ending with –itol  Forming Disaccharides   Glucose + Glucose = Maltose   Glucose + Galactose = Lactose   Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose 


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