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Psychology 1410 - Memory (pt. 2)

by: Carley Olejniczak

Psychology 1410 - Memory (pt. 2) Psy-1410-007

Carley Olejniczak
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Dr. Marshall's lecture notes from Tuesday, March 1st. Covers topics from Chapter 6 Memory such as memory best practices and encoding and retrieving memories.
General Psychology
Dr. Seth Marshall
Class Notes
General Psychology 1410 Marshall Memory pt. 2
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carley Olejniczak on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy-1410-007 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Seth Marshall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 209 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 03/02/16
Ch. 6 Memory (pt. 2) Memory Best Practices  Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) o One of the first to study this  Forgetting Curve o Ebbinghaus exposes himself to a list of words, and records how fast he forgets them o Focuses on percentage of retention o According to research, “cramming” works if it’s tested immediately, but after over 20 minutes, the info isn’t as easily recalled  Cramming does not retain info in long-term memory  Distribution of Practice Effects o It’s more effective to spread learning over a period of time rather than cram o Study “little and often” o Consider sleep and learning research (consolidation of memory)  Total Time Hypothesis o The amount learned depends on times spent learning o If you double the learning time, you double the amount of info stored o You get what you pay for  Serial Position Curve o Primary effect (beginning) o Recency effect (end) o We tend to remember items at the beginning and at the end of a list but forget items in the middle o Real world implications:  Giving a speech, teaching a class: people will remember the intro and the conclusion the best Modern Day Technology Changes the Way We Remember  Examples: o London Taxi Drivers  Average taxi drivers have to learn the entire London street grid to be a cab driver – have to pass a knowledge test  Today, we rely on GPSs to get us places instead of having to to rely on our memories Factors that Enhance Long-Term Memory (Making it stick)  Elaboration  Organization  Context Models of Memory  Information Processing System (in previous notes)  Levels of Processing (Craik and Lockhart, 1972) o Like a staircase leading to long-term storage Encoding and Retrieving Memories  State dependent memory (physiological) o Can recall info best when a person is in the same physical state as when they were studying  Ex: getting a person drunk and making them try to remember something, they tend to remember that info best when they are in an intoxicated state  Context-specific Memory o Environmental cues o Studying in the same place as where you take a test can improve recall  Mood Congruency Effect o As people experience a type of mood, they are more prone to think back to previous memories that pair up with how they feel at that moment  Depressed people think about sad memories  Happy people think about joyful memories  A divorced person thinks about spiteful moments with their ex-spouse How Accurate is Memory?  Flashbulb Memory o A high-profile event that people tend to remember, such as 9/11  Elizabeth Loftus o Famous researcher of memory o Found that people’s answers based on memory changes depending on the way the question is asked o Ex: People in groups A and B watched the same video of a car accident  Question for Group A: how fast was the car going when it smashed into the other car?  People answered as high mph  Question for group B: how fast was the car going when it bumped into the other car?  People answered a lower mph o False memories  People believe that some things happened when they really didn’t  Can create memories without knowing they are false  People are prone to “fill the gap” of info in memories even if it’s not true  Eyewitnesses are unreliable o Memory is  Fragile  Manipulation  Highly suggestible


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