Political Science 1 Week 5
Political Science 1 Week 5
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verified elite notetaker
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This 6 page Reader was uploaded by Helen Notetaker on Saturday June 7, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 115 views.
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Date Created: 06/07/14
POL S 1 042814 Repubhc Background and setup 0 Plato says there39s a correct answer to the question what is God 0 Actual title I On the Polis On the lust What is justice I Transition error I Polis Greek word for city state On City States how to organize city states 0 The book has nothing about republics I Defends absolute monarchy o Plato39s style of writing is almost godlike in that every word is important and with a purpose I Follows Greek musical theory I Mathematical philosophical and musical precision of the text I Edited the Republic by standards of truth that he discovered not made up 0 Festival in Piracus I Polemarchus says Socrates can39t leave will force him to stay and drink with them I Metaphor for what Socrates trial Socrates tried to talk to them about philosophy but they use force to kill him Plato asks what do we do about people who won39t listen to philosophy What is Iustice 0 Not a matter of opinion but what is justice objectively I What is the proper understanding of justice 0 Cephalus I Father of Polemarchus I Socrates asks Cephalus how is it being old Great because he has less sex drives it allows him to do more important things When you39re young you tend to incur debts Being old allows you to be just I justice is 1 Telling the truth 2 Paying back debts Socrates asks is it because you39re old that you can do these things or because you39re rich Being just requires some degree of af uence 0 Poverty forces you to make unjust decisions Can paying a debt create an injustice o Socrates says paying a debt isn39t justice 0 Cephalus goes to make some sacrifices seems to be incapable of hearing what Socrates is saying philosophy 0 Plato is saying philosophy doesn39t work with old people 0 Young people have very open minds 0 Polemarchus I Enhances Cephalus argument Feels the need to pick up the argument to defend his father I justice is 1 Helping your friends and harming your enemies 0 What Pericles said in his Funeral Oration 0 Friends have helped you out you owe a debt to them 0 Makes it sound like justice is only good for war 0 Thrasymachus I Bursts into the argument violently yells at Socrates and Polemarchus I Sophist Have the same root as philosophers Sophia wisdom But asks for pay for service Will teach you just and unjust speech but asks for pay He says he will tell them what justice is if they pay him Has a reputation for being one of the top sophists in Athens Create a contest between Thrasymachus and Socrates That people will pay him if he can answer Socrates question of what is justice I justice is 1 Whatever is to the advantage of the strongest 0 Those who are in power make rules that benefit themselves and call it justice POL S 1 043014 Republic Book 2 Thrasymachus 0 First Formulation I Justice is whatever is to the advantage of the strongest I Socrates says justice can39t just be limited to the strongest because strong people make mistakes sometimes Thrasymachus says making a mistake is a sign of weakness Those who are strong will call justice whatever is to their advantage I Socrates regards strongest as a noun or subject I Thrasymachus regards strongest as a verb or activity I Metaphor of the Doctor I Metahor of the Shepherd Do good shepherds rule for their own interest or for the interest of the sheep The characteristics of good leaders is those who take care of their citizens 0 They don39t care but if citizens are happy they will agree with what the leader wants to do Thrasymachus says shepherds take care of the sheep on their own interest 0 Shepherds fatten the sheep so they can eat them 0 Second Formulation I Justice is good for others while injustice is good for yourself I Thrasymachus says you should be as unjust as possible 0 Thrasymachus says he doesn39t care about getting paid he39s disengaged because he realizes Socrates is never going to give up I Even though Socrates seems to not be able to provide strong arguments against Thrasymachus Glaucon Book 2 o Plato39s brother takes up Thraysmachus argument 0 Says to Socrates Thrasymachus provided the stronger argument I Galucon says he39s going to become a tyrant as much as he doesn39t want to I Asks Socrates to tell him why he shouldn39t become a tyrant even though Glaucon is arguing against Socrates o Is Justice inherently or instrumentally good I Asks is justice good for its own sake Or is justice good for what it gets you Inherently good in and of itself don39t care about secondary benefits Instrumentally what it gets us 0 Ring 0 Socrates says justice is like both of these things Makes this argument because he thinks its right even though it39s hard to defend Not only do you feel good about being just other good things happen if you engage in just behavior Ex Being healthy Glaucon decides to ask how justice f Gyges Shepherd after an earthquake and in the crack there39s a dead giant and take the giant39s ring Allows the shepherd to turn invisible allows him to do things without clear consequences for having done those things Rapes the queen and kills the king makes himself the tyrant The ring is so powerful that even the gods can39t punish you If you could get away in engaging in injustice why should you not do that If you had the ring what would you do with it Even if you have the ring of gyges you would be better off by being just 0 Appearance vs Reality Glaucon asks further what is more important The appearance of reality of justice Seems like appearing unjust while being just will harm you Seems like appearing just while being unjust will benefit you Looks like Socrates not answering Glaucon s question looks like he39s changing the subject Socrates moves form the individual to the state Says look at the larger picture to see what the smaller picture is like Ask the question of is the city state engaging in unjust behavior What does the ideal state look like POLS1 050214 Repubhc The City in Speech o City of needs gt of luxury gt ideal city o Plato is not talking about a utopia o Utopia double meaning best city but also city that cannot exist o He39s trying to find what would make the best city o A City of Needs Dividing labor to fulfill needs 0 A City of Luxuries If you want luxuries you need a military To take stuff from other people not to protect your luxuries Purpose is to go enslave people to work for you Force people to work in terrible conditions For the Greeks war is a good thing occasionally War allows for the virtue of courage The way we fight now gives less opportunity for courage W drones Plato better off w highly trained military Problem w having warriors run city begin to think their specialized skill can solve everything else gt begin to use view all problems as war like problems Need new class to rule city 0 The Ideal City Best possible city not utopia Realistic possibility No militia military Philosopher Kings Military Then labor workers What you should do is what you39re good at Determines your role in the city Need a philosopher king to rule over warriors and laborers craftsmen Philosophers don39t want to be king they just want to know things Philosopher lover of wisdom Force philosopher to become king they will quickly solve problems and then leave to do what they want o Will want to resolve con icts Politicians don39t actually solve the problem allow it to continue so they can keep playing the game I Everyone gets same education Tested constantly to see what you39re good at I Doesn39t matter who your parents are what class you39re fromas Principle of specialization do what you39re good at Only focus on one thing master one thing rather than be mediocre at multiple things When you do something you39re good at tend to be happier Problem many of us unable to realize our limitations try to do things we39re bad at Everyone doing what they39re good at gt everyone happy yay Philosopher king design educational system Myth of the Metals or Noble Lie The myth of the metals is not true A lie you tell people who are incapable of understanding Everyone made out of the earth Parts of metals in our souls Bronze iron gt craftsmen Silver gt warriors Gold gt philosophers Socrates knows this is not true Those who understand this lie doesn39t make sense deeper thinkers Regular people won39t question story The Principle of Specialization 0 Gender in Plato
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