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Geovanni Kohler
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Jonathon Brown

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Jonathon Brown
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This 52 page Class Notes was uploaded by Geovanni Kohler on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 101 at University of Washington taught by Jonathon Brown in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/192411/psych-101-university-of-washington in Psychlogy at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 09/09/15
Psych 101 InClass Notes 1102012 103500 PM 1312 Lecture 1 Introduction Slides aren t posted online but there is a podcast at httpwwwcsswashinqtoneducoursePSYCHlOlB What is Psychology The scientific study of the M the mind and behavior o Brain nervous system c Mind internal psychological process thinking feeling perceiving Assumptions Thoughts Feelings Behavior Eperiences 8L Consequences Psychology depends on biology Careers in Psychology Psychotherapist diagnoses and treats psych disorders clinical counseling Psychiatrist prescribes medicine to treat Business HR morale productivity product testing o Academic research train teach Subfields in Psych o Biological links between brain and mind o Clinicale origins and treatments of disorders o Cognitivee how people perceive reason remember solve problems o Developmental emergence growth and decline of psychological phenomena Personalitye individual differences and similarities o Social how people think about influence and relate to one another Pseudopsychologies Unreliable approaches that don t use the scientific method 0 Astrology palmistry follicology etc 1412 Lecture 2 History Psychology and Philosophy Psychology began as an attempt to answer philosophical questions using scientific methods Two particularly important questions 1 Mindbody problem Are the bodybrain and mindsoul distinct or freely chosen and willed Is behavior reflexive and determined or freely chosen and willed Hoe do biological processes create psychological phenomena 0 How similar are humans and lower animals 2 Origins of Knowledge 0 Is all knowledge acquired through experience or do people have innate knowledge when they are born c If they do have innate knowledge where is it stored L Strict Dualism different than the book p I mm39 1 o The human mind is distinct from the body and human behavior is entirely free will l MindSoul 0 Lower animals don t have a mind and their behavior is determined by their biological processes no free will Behavior 0 Not very many people hold this position Cartesian Interactionism o Rene Descartes 1596 1650 c The behavior of lower animals is entirely determined Humans and reflexive 0 Much of human behavior is reflexive some is not I l igiyn Mindsou o The mindsoul can Willfully influence the body Via the TN pineal gland 39 o The brainmind are distinct interacting entities some l Baha i human behavior is determined by biological processes but other behavior is free with the mind influencing the body Willful Materialism Behavior Lower Animals Behavior o Humans can choose to not have impulses o For all animals mindbody are one humans can only choose not to act on their impulses o Humans can have free M not free will Absolute Materialism o Humans are just like lower animals o For all animals mindbody are one and free will is an illusion all animal behavior is determined by biological impulses Origins of Knowledge o Are people born knowing anything or is experience the source of all knowledge o Modern manifestations 0 Have evolutionary forces created brains that possess important knowledge 0 Do infants possess an innate knowledgeunderstanding of the physical world 0 Is language an innate ability or is it acquired only through imitation and practice o Two Views 0 Nativists Plato Descartes and others Some knowledge is innate present at birth It is released through maturity and philosophical training 0 Tabula Rasa Aristotle Locke and others The mind is a blank slate at birth Experience is the source of all knowledge o Thoughts Unseen 0 Purple cow wwings example 0 AssiciationismElementarism You ve seen the elements that are separate so you can combine them through principles of association The whole is ual to the sum of the parts Early Psychological Theories Theory Description Guiding Assumption Structuralism Using introspection artificially analyze conscious experience into its elements The whole is equal to the sum of the parts Functionalism Analyze conscious experience as it naturally occurs Thinking is for doing Gestalt Analyze conscious experience as The whole is greater than Psychology a whole without dividing the sum of the parts Freud Analyze the unconscious mind Hidden forbidden impulses guide behavior Behaviorism Analyze behavior ignore thinking Behavior is reflexive Contemporary Perspectives Perspective Guiding Metaphor Biological People are biological animals and neurochemical processes determine behavior Cognitive People are rational decisionmakers who sometimes err but are generally accurate Humanistic People possess free will are inherently good and strive for selffulfillment Sociocultural Human nature is malleable and people are largely a product of when and where they live 1512 Lecture 3 Science Ways of Knowing Dogmatism An idea is true if someone in authority says it s true Church parents Wikipedia etc Rationalism Rene Descartes I think therefore I am An idea is true only if a logical analysis indicates it MUST be true Empiricism An idea is true only if it can be verified by sensory experience Seeing is believing Positivism An idea is true only if it can be verified by the sensory experiences of multiple neutral observers Science Logical Positivism Scientists use logic to generate hypothesis then test their hypothesis using positivism M quotW Terminology Variabler any quality or atlribum for which there is variabilityr you n only predict with a variable Hypothesisr an educated tesla ble prediction about how two or more variables are related Lawr esla blished foundational association that underlies a field or bra nch of science Theorya general principles mattry to explain WHY two or more variables are related They are never right or wrong they are useful tools Evaluating H1eories rsimonyr unclutmred and clean o Breadth how broad is it o Generativity sprouts useful hypotheses 1612 Lecture 4 Brain 1 Neuroscience the study of the development structure and function of the nervous system c Neuropsychology the study of the relation between neurological structures and processes and psychological phenomena o Two Guiding Questions 0 1 Where in the nervous system are psychological phenomena located 0 2 How are psychological phenomena generated o Methods 0 Brain Functioning fMRI Reflex and regulation Learning Preparing and modifying o Neurological Damage Consequences od natural damage 0 Animal Studies Injure an animal and observe consequences The Nervous System a network of specialized cells that o 1 Monitor internal and external stimuli o 2 Through electrochemical communication 0 3 Generate thoughts feelings and behavior o Divisions 0 Central Nervous System CNS brain and spinal cord most cells 0 Peripheral Nervous System PNS circuits of specialized cells connect to the CNS to sensory receptors skeletal muscles and glands o Cells within the Nervous System 0 1 Neurons 100 billion receive integrate and transmit information linked in circuits o 2 Glial 10x more than Neurons cover neurons w fatty substance myelin provide nutrients to neurons and clean Neurons up debris Three types 0 Sensory Neurons Bring information from sensory receptors in PNS to CNS 0 Motor Neurons Carry information from CNS to muscles glands and organs in PNS o Interneurons Exchange information within the CNS Neuron Anatomy 0 O O O O O 0 Cell Body soma Cell Nucleus Dendrites receive chemicals from other neurons Axon transmits electronic signals Terminal Buttons releases chemical information Myelin sheath casing Glial Cells Nodes of Ranvier the gap between the casings Neuron Terminology Egan Mi unxv quotcunningM1 I Jo awnms weeds lam sue swamps sleuimlil unxv Type Cell Bodies amp Dendrites Axons Sensory All reside in the PNS All extend to the CNS Motor All reside in the CNS All extend to the PNS Interneuron All reside in the CNS All extend to the CNS Psych 101 InClass Notes 1102012 103500 PM 1912 Lecture 5 Brain 2 Evolution of the Nervous System o Animals possess neurons similar to humans o Roundworm 302 neurons easier to study model neuron o Hodgrin and Hoxley 19521963 Electrochemical Communication o All neurons transmit information o Intraneural Communication within 1 neuron o Interneural Communication between 2 neurons o Neurons produce electrical signals 0 Action potential produced by sudden reversal in the electrical charge o Electrical signals are generated by chemical changes 0 Caused by the movement of ions across a membrane and the movement produces an electrical signal they want to balance out Resting Phase o At rest K and Na are present inside and outside a neuron both positively charged o Distribution of Potassium and Sodium ions 0 28x more K inside the neuron than outside 0 15x more Na outside than inside o Negative electrical charge 70mV o K floats out leaving the cell with a negative charge Action Potentials o Depolarization when a neuron is sufficiently stimulated Na gate is opened positively charged Na enters neuron is not 40 Repolarization Na gates close and K gates open pumping K ions out of the cell the influx of positive charges repolarize the neuron Propagation the signal is renewed every few mm so the strength of the signal never changes All or None Principle as long as stimulation is sufficient to change the neuron s polarity to 55mV an action potential occurs with the same strength and magnitude 11012 Lecture 6 Brain 3 Synaptic Transmission o Otto Loewli s Dream 1921 0 Cut out 2 frog hearts placed them in separate but adjoined chambers of saline solution then electrically stimulated one heart the other heart also became charged proving that the reaction is through CHEMICALS o Synaptic Transmission 0 Microscopically small gap between one neuron s terminal buttons and another neuron s dendrites o Presynaptic Transmission 0 Terminal button releases chemicals into the synaptic cleft o Postsynaptic Transmission 0 Dendrites receive chemicals from synaptic cleft o Process 0 1 Action potentials cause Calcium Ca2 gates to open in the axon s terminal button 0 2 Ca2 ions cause synaptic vesicles to migrate toward the membrane where they bind and release a chemical neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft o 3 Neurotransmitter binds on receptors in the postsynaptic neuron s dendrites allowing other ions to enter the cell 0 4 If enough sodium ions enter action potential occurs in new neuron and the process continues Major Neurotransmitters Neruotrans Primary Function Malfunctions Acetylcholine Controls muscles regulates AChproducing neurons ACh memory deteriorate w Alzheimer s disease Dopamine Feelings of pleasure High levels schizophrenia motivation reward Low levels Parkinson s motivation Norepinephrine Controls mood arousal Undersupply depression Serotonin Hunger sleep arousal Undersupply depression mood aggression GABA Primary inhibitory Undersupply seizures neurotransmitter alcohol tremors insomnia Glutamate Major excitatory Undersupply Alzheimer s neurotransmitter learning memory Excitation o Increases the likelihood that another action potential will occur by letting in Na Inhibition o Decreases the likelihood that another action potential will occur by blocking Na entry or letting in negative ions Psychoactive Drugs exogenous chemicals that alter psychological processes by affecting synaptic transmission o Agonists mimic neurotransmitters by binding to a receptor site morphine mimics endorphins o Antagonistsblock the effect of neurotransmitters by preventing them from binding to a receptor site Step Agonist Antagonist Production Stimulate the production of Block production of a a neurotransmitter neurotransmitter Release Increase the release of a Block the release of a neurotransmitter neurotransmitter Reception Bind to receptors and Fill receptor sire blocking Binding activate them neurotransmitters from binding Deactivation Block deactivation of Facilitate deactivation neurotransmitters o Once a neurotransmitter binds to its receptor it continues to either excite or inhibit the neuron until it is deactivated or removed o Each neuron generally synthesizes and releases 1 kind of neurotransmitter o Neurotransmitters can produce multiple effects depending on which receptor is present Summary Action potential opens Calcium ion channels Increased calcium concentration to the axon terminal cause synaptic vesicles to migrate towards the cell membrane where they bond and release a neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft Neurotransmitter bonds to a receptor on the dendrite and opens the postsynaptic membrane ion channels After transmission the neurotransmitter is either degraded by an enzyme or taken back into the presynaptic membrane by a transporter or a reuptake pump 11212 Lecture 7 Brain 4 Nervous SystemNeurons enable organisms to react to external stimuli Stimulus9Response Sensory receptors register external events motor neurons respond to external events Sensory NeuronseMotor Neurons Interneurons process information Functions 0 React animal gflexively Ecoils from cold to ggulate temperature Brain 4 Desire ApproachAvoid Brain 5 Planand Modify Person puts aside to retire in Florida Brain 6 Federal Express pioneered distribution centers HUB at the Memphis international airport Think of the nervous system as Memphis it s a HUB Primitive Nervous Systems Jellyfish 5600 neurons arranged in a nerve net no HUB The tube worm has only 306 neurons but there is a HUB which is much more efficient so it s a more advanced nervous system Divisions 0 1 CNS neurons and glial cells located in the brain and spinal cord the HUB o 2 PNS neurons and glial cells located in other areas of the body 0 O o Terminology o Axon Bundles In the PNS they are called nerves In the CNS they are called tracts 0 Cell bodies soma In the PNS it s called Ganglia In the CNS it s called Nuclei o CNS Matter White matter bundles of myelinated axons Gray matter anything that isn t a myelinated axon eg neuron cell bodies dendrites and unmyelinated axons Peripheral Nervous System communicates between the CNS and body Divisions Primary Function Somatic Nervous System Senses and controls responses to the external environment voluntary muscle movement Autonomic Nervous System Senses and controls responses to the body s internal environment involuntary muscle movement Sympathetic Nervous System Mobilizes body systems during activity fight or flight Parasympathetic Division of the ANS Calms body to conserve energy and promote restoration rest amp digest Central Nervous System interprets internal stimuli and external stimuli and communicates with the body via the PNS All but a few million of the 100 billion neurons are located in the CNS o Brain Most are located in the brain with only a few billion in the spinal cord o Spinal Cord densely packed bundle of axons tracts not nerves that actsqulates transmits messages form sensory and motor neurons to brain and back and connects most parts of the PNS with the brain 0 12 cranial nerves eg optic nerve connect the PNS directly to the brain without going through the spinal cord Spinal Reflex reflexes in which the neurons responsible for a motor response no not involve the brain the hammer on the knee that makes the leg kick out voluntary o A reflex is the body s automatic innate unlearned response 0 O O O O O O to a stimulus Monosynaptic kneejerk reflexes don t involve interneurons Polysynaptic pain withdrawal reflexes do involve interneurons Steps in a Polysynaptic Spinal Reflex Sensory neuron relays signal to spinal cord Signal synapses in interneuron and is sent in to different directions One goes to motor neuron initiates withdrawal Other goes to brain for processing 1 Arrival of stimulus and activation of receptor 2 Activation of a sensory neuron 3 Information processing in CNS 4 Activation of a motor neuron 5 Response by effector o Formal Summary 0 0 When a sensory receptor of a sensory neuron is stimulated an action potential travels down the neuron s axon to the spinal cord The signal then synapses upon an interneuron and it sent in two directions One signal goes directly to a motor neuron that stimulates muscle movement through excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters Another signal is carried to the brain where pain is consciously recognized o Why Spiral Reflexes are Fast 0 When your finger touches a candle you gflexively Ecoil before you subjectively experience pain 0 The reflex is faster because it is governed by the spinal cord 0 Only the subjective experience of pain requires the involvement of the brain important so you can learn from your mistakes 0 Why is it adaptive to experience pain Because you will learn from it and not do it again Psych 101 InClass Notes 1102012 103500 PM 11712 Lecture 9 Brain 5 Brain o Divisions 0 Hindbrain Medulla Pons Cerebellum o Midbrain routing information emotions motivation Tectum Tegmentum o Forebrain Cerebrum Cortex Subcortical Structures o Brain Development 4 weeks after conception the 3 parts are distinct 5 weeks after 5 parts are distinct adult all parts are formed 0 The human brain is different more complex than an animal brain 0 Ontology o Phylogenesis Brain Stem comprised of the two hindbrain structures the medulla and the pens and the midbrain o Reticular Activating System RAS o A collection of nuclei CNS somas run through the middle of the brain stem 0 Their axons go in two directions 0 Ascending RAS Axons send impulses up to the forebrain cortex and subcortical structures Regulate the sleepwake cycle and affects alertness vigilance and arousal Directs the flow ofinformation to the cortex deciding which information should be passed along for further processing 0 Descending RAS Axons send impulses down to the cerebellum and spinal cord affecting movement posture and equilibrium Also governs various reflexive behaviors coughing chewing swallowing and vomiting Reactive when Stimulates o The brain stem provides the three functions needed to be reactive to external stimuli Sentient registers sensory stimuli Vigilant processes sensory information Responsive Directs movement Brain stem Damage 0 Cats with severed brain stems exhibit most instinctive cat behaviors but only when provoked by external stimuli 0 Structures Function Reactive to External Stimuli Alert Register sensory stimuli Aware Process sensory information Responsive Direct movement toward or away from sensory information 0 Brain stem governs these functions Forebrain in humans the forebrain is the largest most developed area of the brain 0 Consists of two areas Subcortical Structures n Cerebral cortex which is the part we see when we look at the brain a Subcortical structures that lit beneath the cortex Noninstinctive Motivated Behavior 0 Is that something that has previously brought me pleasurepain and should I approach avoid it Ability to experience pleasure and pain Ability to connect external stimuli with internal pleasure or pain Ability to remember store and recall retrieve prior experiences of pleasure or pain 0 O O Ability to coordinate all of the preceding steps to produce organized behavior to approach or avoid o Limbic System a system of neurological structures that coordinates behaviors needed to satisfy motivational and emotional urges to approach or avoid o Learning to approachavoid stimuli that have previously brought pleasurepain requires the abilities to 0 Feel painpleasure 0 Connect external stimuli with those feelings 0 Remember and retrieve connections between stimuli and feelings 0 Coordinate movement toward or away from stimuli Amygdala Recognition and registration of emotional stimuli especially ones that engender fear emotions Hippocampus Controls memory organization and integration consolidates memories form different modalitieslearning and memory Nucleus The brain s reward center with many dopamine Accumbens receptorsemotions Thalamus The brain s switchboard located on top of the brain stemlearning and memory Hypothalamus Controls the ANS regulates sleep eating homeostasis and governs the pituitary gland sexual interactionsmotivation Olfactory Bulb The oldest and most fundamental sense smell has a direct route to the cortex that does not go through the thalamuslearning and memory Brain Regions Advantages and Limitations Reptilian Cerebellum Controls basic bodily functions heart rate and Brain respiration digestions balance sensory Stem awareness and attention The ability to be aware of and responsive to one s external environment reactive when stimulated Mammalia Subcortical Capable of a experiencing basic emotions b n Structures forming associations between the emotions and of the external stimuli that elicit them and c Forebrain approaching stimuli that have previously brought pleasure and avoiding stimuli that have previously brought pain Primate Cortex Able to modify plan and delay and capable of symbolic representation language morality and consciousness 12312 Lecture 9 Brain 6 Cerebral Cortex convoluted wrinkled in mammals o Divisions 0 2 Hemispheres LampR o 4 Lobes separated by 2 fissures o 4 Association Areas o Lobes Lobe Location Primary Function Parietal Top Rear Taste speech reading somatosensory association area yellow Occipital Rear Vision visual association area pink Temporal Bottom Hearing smell auditory association area green Frontal Front Speech frontal association area blue o 2 Specialization Areas 0 Motor Area back of the frontal lobe strongly implicated in the initiation of movement 0 Somatosensory Area front of the parietal lobe the awareness of the body pain temp etc o Areas of Specialization Vision in occipital lobe Hearing in temporal lobe Smell front of temporal lobe Taste in parietal lobe Speech in frontal lobe AND parietal lobe 0 Reading in parietal lobe near vision in occipital lobe o Speech Comprehension and Production Areas 0 Wernike s Area an area in the LEIT temporal lobe that is primarily involved in speech comprehension o Broca s Area an area in the LEIT frontal lobe that is involved in the production of speech through its connections with the motor cortex region Frontal Lobecomprises 13 of the cerebral cortex in humans o Contains most of the dopaminesensitive neurons that govern reward longterm planning and motivation o Controls thoughtful rational deliberate behavior Prefrontal Cortex part of the frontal lobe the front of the frontal lobe o Doesn t reach full maturity until age 25 o The prefrontal cortex is akin to Freud s ego ie executive functioning Cerebral Hemispheres the mammalianneocortex is divided into two spherical halves or hemispheres o Except in marsupials the hemispheres are connected by the corpuscallosum a wide flat bundle of myelinated axons beneath the cortex and is the largest structure of white matter in the brain 0 Facilitates communication between the two hemispheres creating a unified experience o Contralateral functioning o The E hemisphere receives sensory input from and controls the movements of the m side of the body 0 And vice versa with right and left o Hemispheric Lateralization 0 Left Hemisphere Verbal abilities speech mathematical and logical abilities 0 Right Hemisphere O O O O O Spatial relations faces mental imagery musical and artistic abilities 12412 Lecture 9 Genes 1 Evolution Genetics amp Psychology o Evolutionary Psychology The study of the evolution of the brain mind and behavior o Behavioral Genetics The study of how heredity and environmental factors create individual differences in psychological phenomena talk more about this after the 2nd midterm Understanding Inheritance o I inherited my dad s temper really means c From my biological father I inherited proteincreating DNA sequences that incline me to be irritable and impulsive c From Your Parents to You 0 Parents 9 Chromosome 9 DNA Molecule consists of Nucleotide pairs9 Nucleotides 9 4 Nucleotides is a Codon 9 Codon specializes in the production of Amino Acids 9 Amino acids combine to make proteins 9 Proteins make you c A gene is a DNA molecule segment Le a codon that specifies the production of a protein Protein Synthesis Amino Acids Proteins amp Genes Structure Definition Amino Acids Chemical compounds made up of nitrogen hydrogen carbon and oxygen Proteins Amino Acid chains affect almost all aspects of human functioning including neurotransmission Chromosomes Inherited structures found in the nucleus of every cell except red blood cells Every cell except red blood cells and gametes has 46 chromosomes 23 from dad 23 from mom Contain DNA molecules DNA Contained in Chromosomes contain nucleotides base pairs Codon A sequence of three nucleotides specifies the production of one amino acid Gene A codon sequence necessary to form a protein Nucleotides Base pairs contained in DNA the connectors inside the helix Amino Acids and Proteins o Proteins are chains of amino acids in particular orders o DNA molecules specify the sequence of these amino acid chains proteins Genome o Each gene is located in a particular position on a particular chromosome The complete number of gene segments located on all 46 chromosomes The human genome has 25000 genes and 12 of them target brain structures and functions Gene Replication sperm and egg cells divide creating a new cell with 23 chromosomes o Because of 2 processes new chromosomes are not identical to the original which ensures genetic diversity 0 Meiosis Alleles Alternative form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome For every gene you inherit one allele from each biological parent Homozygous vs Heterozygous 0 When the two alleles specify the same protein code the person is said to be homozygous for that trait 0 When the two alleles specify different protein codes the person is said to be heterozygous for that trait Dominant and Recessive Alleles 0 Some alleles are dominant and others are recessive A dominant allele expresses itself regardless of whether its partner allele specifies the same protein code A recessive allele expresses itself only when it is paired with another recessive allele that specifies the same protein code ie is homozygous Genotypes amp Phenotypes o Genotype each individual s genetic code o Phenotype refers to a person s observable features and behaviors o Why phenotypes do not genotypes 0 Not all alleles are expressed because some are recessive 0 Also environmental factors affect whether genes are activated ie whether and when proteins are produced Monogenic amp Polygenic Traits Monogenic Traits some characteristics are produced by a single gene o Observed differences are categorical or discrete discrete means one or the other o Dimples tongue rolling attached ear lobes Polygenic Traits most human qualities are influenced by many genes o The observable differences are continuous and gradual o Hair color height etc Psychology and Genetics o Topics o Understanding What s Inherited 12512 Lecture 9 Genes 2 Evolution amp Psychology o Evolution A change over time in the heritable characteristics of an interbreeding population 0 Changes in the genome humans and chimpanzees 0 Changes in the prevalence of particular alleles o Evolutionary Psychology the study of the evolution of the mind brain and behavior o Guiding Assumptions 0 Biological structures produce psychological phenomena 0 Psychological phenomena have consequences that influence biological structures and processes 0 Most of the structures and processes that exist today and the behaviors they produce were adaptive in the past Characteristic Description Example Adaptation Inherited qualities that are present Vision language in almost all members of a walking need not be species because they continue to present at birth promote reproductive success Vestige Inherited qualities that were once Appendix wisdom adaptive but are no longer needed teeth grasping reflex Byproduct Inherited qualities that never Belly button religion directly improved reproductive causality intragroup success but accompanied qualities cooperation that did intergroup conflict Noise aka Inherited qualities that never Dimples attached ear genetic drift affected reproductive success but became common due to random factors lobes world ide distribution of blood type Two Causal Explanations Proximate Explanations How does a particular structure produce an adaptive behavior Ultimate Explanations My did a particular or behavior developWhat adaptive problem did it solve Male songbirds sing in the spring o Proximate Explanation HOW does the Spring affect their singing behavior o Ultimate Explanation WHY do they sing in the spring Two Similarities o Homologous Similar in design suggest common line of descent o Analogous Similar in function suggest adaptiveness of behavior Selective Breeding A procedure in which humans choose that only organisms with certain qualities are allowed to reproduce Nazis Over time these selected qualities become increasingly prevalent in the offspring that are produced Darwin referred to selective breeding as artificial selection Domestication of Animals o The domestication of animals such as dogs cats sheep and horses demonstrates that behavioral tendencies can be artificially selected Morphological Features cute features were selected in foxes floppy ears rounded facial features curly tails Natural Selection Darwin then noted that nature is also selective o Presents obstacles to reproduction eg limited food predators o Organisms that possess qualities that enable them to overcome these obstacles produce more offspring than those who don t o Over time more an more offspring possess the beneficial quality called an adaptation Adaptations Some physical qualities enhance reproductive fitness o Longnecked giraffes are more likely to successfully reproduce than are shortnecked giraffe Some behaviors also enhance reproductive fitness o Wolves who hunt with other wolves are more likely to successfully reproduce than are wolves who hunt alone Behavior is Heritable o All behaviors depend on sensory motor and neural structures that are built from proteins o Since protein production is specified by genes and genes are inherited behaviors must also be heritable o The word instinct is used to describe inherited behaviors The Role of Variability Without genetic variability there is nothing for nature to select Sources of Variability o Inheritance Genetic Shuffling o Mutations o Environmental variations 0 If environments were stable species would adapt and evolution would stop 0 But environments are not stable Climate change The presence of other species through migration Migration to new habitats Sex Differences in Mating Preferences o Parental Investment Trivers In any species the sex that has the greater investment in parenting will be more selective about mating female humans The sex with the lower parental investment must then work harder to be selected male humans Among humans women can bear a limited number of children and must nurse them They seek a stable mat who will provide resources Men can produce multiple offspring and don t bear the physical cost of raising them human males do bear the financial cost They seek a mate who will bear their children o Hypothesis 1 0 Men will be willing to engage in sex after a shorter period of time than will women o Hypothesis 2 0 Men will desire more sexual partners than will women o Hypothesis 3 0 Men will be less discriminating about a mate than will women 0 O O O O 12612 Lecture 9 Sensation lbw in w i ll Milli l From Sensation to Perception Three Component Processes o Sensation the registration of physical stimuli by a sensory receptor o Transduction the conversion of physical stimulation into electrochemical activity a signal your brain can read an action potential o Perception the largely conscious awareness and interpretation of sensory input o Stimulus energyight smell sound 9 Sensory receptors eyes nose ears 9 Transduction into neural impulses 9 Brain visual olfactory auditory area 9 Perception Adaptive Senses o Senses are for Doing 0 Bat wlarge ears to find insects using echolocation o Shark s brains can detect electrical fields in other creatures o Boa snakes nostrils sense body heat of their prey o Regressive Evolution 0 After thousands of years cave fish who live in total darkness have lost their eyes Sensation m Perception o Frogs possess bug detectorsquot c When an object passes through a portion of their visual field x o Hubel and Wiesel 1962 recorded action potentials in the visual cortex of cats whole the cats looked at various visual displays o The found that specific neurons fire in response to specific features c We possess specific neurons that respond to specific visual things o Lateral Inhibition o A stimulated sensory neuron sends two signals One signal facilitates an action potential excitatory effect The other signal inhibits action potentials in neighboring neurons lateral inhibition 0 Sensitivity highlights contrast and exaggerates differences Sensation m Perception o Human sensation is almost always accompanied by perception o Perception involves two related processes 0 Bottomup Sensory information is integrated to produce a unified perceptual experience specific to general inductive o TopDown Sensory information is interpreted in light of existing knowledge concepts ideas and expectations From Feature Detection 9 Pattern Recognition o Some neurons fire in response to more complex visual patterns but most patterns are interpreted in light of contextual clues o This interpretation occurs in association areas o Pattern Recognition 2 0 Feature Detectors Specific neurons fire in response to different shapes 0 Pattern Matching Contextual clues are used to create meaning o Context matters Two Stage Model of Perception o Stage 1 Feature Detection o Stimuli are scanned for primary sensory features 0 Feature detection is automatic and involves parallel processing parallel processing many at once o Stage 2 Feature Integration aka binding 0 Stimuli are integrated to produce a unified perceptual experience 0 Feature integration is effortful and involves serial processing Visual Search 1 notice that is seems to instantly pop out at you because its primary features color and shape are distinctive Visual Search 2 The task is much more difficult because the primary features are no longer distinctive Primary Search Processing Type Pop Distractor Feature Type Out Size Effect Distinctive Disjunctive Parallel effortless Yes Small instantaneous search of all stimuli Nondistinctive Conjunctive Serial effortful sequential No Large search of all stimuli Psychophysics the study of the association between objective physical stimulation and subjective perceptual experience o Absolute Threshold 0 The minimum amount of energy that can be detected 50 of the time o Just Noticeable Difference JND o The smallest change in stimulation that can be detected 50 of the time o Weber s Law JNDkM You can quantify mathematically a small difference K a constant fraction that varies from stimulus to stimulus M the physical intensity of the original stimulus Weber s Law Illustration Assume the constant for weight is 03 and we start with a 100 gram standard 3 grams must be added to produce a JND n JND 03 100 3 If we had started with a 200 gram weight 6 additional rams would be needed to produce a JND n JND 03 200 3 O O O O 0 Review o Nervous system functions to sense and react o Sensing is a threestage process 0 Sensation Registration of physical energy or matter 0 Transduction Conversion of energy or matter into electrochemical activity NA gates opening or closing Perception Interpretation of electrochemical activity 0 12612 Lecture 9 Perception l v Tvm quot il r39xi39yr i Top Down Processes o Bottom Up Whole Sum of Parts 0 Physical stimuli determine perception o Perception is a passive datadriven process o Top Down Whole gtSum of Parts 0 Physical stimuli influence perception but perception is affected by other factors Perception is an active theorydriven process Using contextual cues preexisting knowledge to make judgments Top Down Process 0 O A B is comprised of straight lines and curved shapes that are integrated to create a meaningful object Perception doesn t depend solely on stimulus features It also depends on context Gestalt Psychology c School of thought Le a way of thinking about psychological phenomena o Whole is greater than the sum of the parts o Phi Phenomenon the rotating circle of blinking dots gives the perception of movement 1St Assumption Interdependence o Perception occurs in an interdependent field of focus Perception depends on the whole Gestalt not the parts in isolation 2nd Assumption Pragnanz o Perception is guided toward achieving a perfect end state o Disorder creates tension which the brain reduces by altering the display in order to create a good Gestalt 3rd Assumption No Motives o Perception is hardwired and cannot be overridden by psychological needs motives wishes and desires o Opposes Freudian Psychology Figure and Ground o Figures are the focus of our attention o Ground refers to the surrounding context o The blank white triangle jumps out Reversible Figures c Figure and ground can be fluid o Reversible figures are drawing that one can perceive in different ways by reversing figure and ground Laws of Perceptual Organization o Law of Proximity elements that are near each other are perceived as part of the same configuration o Law of Similarity similar elements are perceived as belonging together o Law of Continuity people link individual elements together to form a pattern that makes sense o Law of Closure people tend to fill in gaps in incomplete figures Perceptual Schemas and Sets o SchemasSets are mental frameworks or expectancies that influence perception 0 Each of our perceptions is a hypothesis about the meaning of the sensory information 0 We see what we expect to see 0 In our 13 or B example we saw what we expected to see Perceptual Constancy o The tendency to perceive stimuli as unchanging under changing conditions 0 Brightness Constancy 0 Size Constancy 0 Color Constancy Perceptual Illusions o Compelling but incorrect perceptions o Most can be attributed to perceptual constancies that ordinarily help us perceive more correctly REVIEW SESSION Friday500550 ISmith 205 Psych 101 Ch 11 Motivation and Emotion Jan 31 Motivation Review Behavior Neurological Structures Flee Reactively Brain stem and spinal cord ApproachAvoid Subcortical structures Iimbic system controls emotion and learningmemory Plan Modify Delay Forebrain Learning to approachZavoid stimuli that have previoust brought pleasureZpain o Emotion experience pleasurepain o Learning see the connection between stimuli and emotion o Memory remember what has previously brought o Motivation approachavoidance tendencies Motivation o The study ofm organisms behave the way they do o Motivation must be inferred 0 Choice 0 Latencyspeed o Persistence o IntensityVigor o Homeostasis and Motivation 0 The tendency for an organism to maintain a stable internal environment aka equilibrium Sweating and shivering o Diseguilibrium creates aversive tension that organisms are driven to reduce 0 Many homeostatic needs are cyclical in nature Hunger Term Definition Needs Something an organism requires biologically or desires psychologically Drives A state in internal tension or arousal that occurs when a need arises GoalsIncentives An object or experience that satisfies a need Motivation Movement toward incentives that satisfy needs ordesires ie that reduce drive o Motivational Episode cyclical 0 Need arises 9 Need creates aversive tension Drive 9Drive moves Motivates 9 Appropriate object acquires an Incentive9 Consuming incentive reduces drive9Learning occurs habit is acquired 9 Next time need arises learning is displayed o Motivational Conflict not in the book 0 ApproachApproach Two objects or experiences are equally attractive o AvoidanceAvoidance Two objects or experiences are equally repulsive o ApproachAvoidance The same object or experience is attractive and repulsive ie produces approach and avoidance tendencies o ApproachAvoidance Conflict Far form goal approach tendencies dominate Near the goal avoidance tendencies dominate Point of Maximum conflict is where the two intersect Human Needs not in the book Type Definition Physiological Needs that directly promote survival or reproductive success Regulatory Needs that maintain internal equilibrium Safety Needs to avoid harm or escape danger and to feel safe Reproductive Needs that lead to procreation and the protection and nurturance of offspring Psychological Needs that promote survival or reproductive success but do not necessarily do so Social Needs that promote bonds between people eg friendship love and cooperation SelfWorth Needs for selfrespect selfsatisfaction selfactualization Educative Need to play create master or explore curiosity o Maslow s Hierarchy Triangle top to bottom 0 SelfActualization maximizing one s potential and fulfilling one s aspirations Esteem Needs Belongingness and Love Needs 0 O Safety Needs Physiological Needs Lower level needs M be satisfied before higher levels can be pursued o This is FALSE Motivation and the Brain o Central Drives System 0 Receive and integrate signals that monitor needsdrives 0 Control processes that carry out motivated behavior eg perception cognitive planning and motor movements o Hypothalamus and Motivation 0 The hypothalamus is a central drive system 0 It receives input from the various parts of the body and coordinates responses to internal and external stimuli o Hunger as a RegulatoryDrive 0 Levels of glucose fat and nutrients eg salt are monitored by receptors neurons in the stomach liver and intestines These receptors send signals to the hypothalamus Neurons in the hypothalamus raise or lower the animal s desire to eat through the release of various chemicals 0 Hunger Signals Orexigenic a Chemical signals that stimulate appetite ie make people hungry Anorexigenic a Chemical signals that suppress appetite ie act as satiety mechanisms turning hunger off When blood glucose is low people become hungry Food raises glucose reduces hunger Hunger and the Hypothalamus n Lateral Hypothalamus o Involved in appetite stimulation When it is destroyed animals starve themselves to death a Ventromedial Hypothalamus o Involved in appetite suppression When it is destroyed animals overeat O O O O 0 Reading Notes Instinct also fixed action pattern an inherited characteristic common to all members of a species that automatically produces a particular response when the organism is exposed to a particular stimulus Clark Hull came up with influential drive theory ofmotivation psychological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension Behavioral Activation System BAS roused to action by signals of potential reward and positive need gratification Behavioral Inhibition System BIS responds to stimuli that signal potential pain nonreinforcement and punishment Incentives represent environmental stimuli that pull an organism toward a goal Expectancy x Value Theory goal directed behavior is jointly determined by the strength of the person s expectation that particular behaviors will lead to a goal and by the incentive value the individual places on that goal Extrinsic Motivation performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment Intrinsic Motivation performing an activity for its own sake SelfDetermination Theory focuses on three fundamental psychological needs competence autonomy and relatedness and on how they relate to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Hunger Stuff 0 Metabolism the body s rate of energy or caloric utilization 0 Set Point a biologically determined standard around which body weight or more accurately fat mass is regulated o Glucose a simple sugar that is the body s and especially the brain s major source of immediately useable fuel 0 Cholecystokinin CCK a peptide a type of hormone that helps produce satiety Leptin a hormone secreted by fat cells ParaVentricular Nucleus PVN a cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite o Anorexia Nervosa an intense fear of being fat and severely restrict their food intake to the point of selfstarvation o Bulimia Nervosa afraid of becoming fat and they binge eat and then purge the food 0 O Social Comparison involves comparing our beliefs feelings and behaviors with those of other people Need for Achievement a positive desire to accomplish tasks and compete successfully with standards of excellence Achievement Goal Theory focuses no the manner in which success is defined by both the individual and within the achievement situation itself Mastery Orientation the focus is on personal improvement giving maximum effort and perfecting new skills Ego Orientation the goal is to outperform others hopefully with as little effort as possible Motivational Climate encourages or rewards either a mastery approach or an ego approach to defining success Masteryapproach Goals focus on the desire to master a task and learn new knowledge or skills Egoapproach Goals reflect a competitive orientation that focuses on outperforming other people MasteryAvoidance Goals reflect a fear of not performing up to one s own standards Egoavoidance Goals center on avoiding being outperformed by others 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Theory each of us can be described in terms of an achievement motivation profile SelfEfficacy the belief that one is capable of carrying out the specific behaviors needed to attain one s goals Feb 1 Emotion Motivation and Emotion are related in two ways Hedonic Principle Emotions Motivate People What is an Emotion Emotions A reactive psychological state characterized by the subjective awareness of psychological changes positive or negative Human emotions are often aroused by our cognitive appraisal of external stimuli or events mental representation Produce changes in facial expression gestures posture gives rise to behavioral tendencies to approach or avoid an eliciting stimulus or external or terminate an eliciting event Components 0 Eliciting stimulusevent O O 0 Basic Psychological change Behavioral tendencies Cognitive appraisals your interpretation human Emotions o Are innate unlearned and universal because they are 0 O O O O adaptive Can be recognized by all members of a species Theories of Emotion Common Sense Stimulus 9 Appraisal 9 Feeling 9 Arousal or Behavior JamesLange Stimulus 9 Appraisal 9 Arousal or Behavior9Feeling CannonBard Stimulus 9 Appraisal 9 Arousal or Feeling9 Behavior SchatchterSinger Stimulus 9 Arousal 9 Appraisal 9 Feeling 9 Behavior Plutchik s Functional Model Emotion Stimulus Appraisal Behavior Consequences Fear Threat Danger Escape Safety Anger Obstacle Enemy Attack Conquer Disgust Unpalatable Poison Vomit Eject Poison Object Sadness Loss of Loss of Valued Cry Reattach to Valued Object valued object Object o Appraisal and Emotion Theories of Emotion Theory Casual Sequences Common Sense JamesLa nge Basic emotions necessary for survival spinalreflex CannonBa rd Anticipatory emotion like anxietyprecede behavior response learned habits SchachterSinger Emotions with undefined psych correlate eg excitement vs nervousness Brain and Em otion emotions are linked to multiple structures are processed in NS Sympathetic divisions of the autonomic NS psychological response Limbic System behavioral reactions o Prefrontal cortex cognitive appraisals subjective feelings and emotional inhibition o Facial musculature behavioral expressions 0 Hemispheric Specialization Lefthemisphere underlies positive emotion n Develops later suggesting negative emotions are primary and positive emotions require maturity Righthemisphere activation underlies negative emotion 0 Dual Pathways Model look in text Amygdala governs response to novel unfamiliar and fearful stimuli Two routes from the thalamus to the amygdala 1 direct the other indirect first through the cortex cognitively thinking 0 Capgras Syndrome Rare disorder in which a person believes that a loved one has been replaced by an identicallooking imposter Putative Cause damage to the pathway between the fusiform face area in the temporal lobe and the limbic system a Patient recognizes loved one cortex and can feel emotion limbic but cannot connect the two experiences Reading Notes o Emotions feeling or affect states that involve a pattern of cognitive physiological and behavioral reactions to events Eliciting Stimuli trigger cognitive appraisals and emotional responses o Cognitive Appraisals the interpretations and meanings that we attach to sensory stimuli o Expressive Behaviors the person s observable emotional displays o Fundamental Emotional Patterns innate emotional reactions o Cultural Display Rules dictate when and how particular emotions are to be expressed o Instrumental Behaviors directed at achieving some emotion relevant goal Facial Feedback Hypothesis feedback from the facial muscles to the brain plays a key role in determining the nature and intensity of emotions that we experience TwoFactor Theory of Emotion the intensity of physiological arousal tells us how strongly we are feeling something but situational cues give us the information we need to label the arousal and tell ourselves what we are feeling Psych 101 Ch 7 Feb 2 Learning 1 Learning Learning Consists of forming a connection between two stimuli or between a stimulus and a response o A reflex is an innate stimulusinstigated behavior that is not acguired through experience o A habit is a learned stimulus instigated behavior that is acguired through experience o Types of Learning Term Definition Key Figures Habituation Learning not to respond to a stimulus Classical Through principles of association a Pavlov Conditioning previously neutral stimulus evokes a previously reflexive response Operant By virtue of its personal consequences a Thorndike Conditioning previously neutral stimulus comes to evoke Watson a voluntary behavior Skinner Observational By virtue of its observed consequences a Bandura Learning previously neutral stimulus comes to evoke a voluntary behavior CIassicaIClassical Conditioning o A Process by which through principles of association a previously neutral stimulus comes to evoke a previously reflexive response voluntary 0 Ivan Pavlov 0 Procedure Conditioning dogs to salivate when they heard a tone o Key Terms Term Definition Example Unconditioned Stimulus UCS A stimulus that innater produces a reflexive response Food in the mouth innately produces salivation Unconditioned Response Reflexive response to an unconditioned stimulus Salivation reflexiver follows food to the UCR mouth Conditioned Stimulus CS learned response A previously neutral stimulus that through association becomes capable of producing a A tone paired with food becomes capable of producing salivation Conditioned Response CR A learned response habit to a previously neutral stimulus Salivation occurs when a tone is heard o Mechanics o Equiprobability Any neutral stimulus can become a conditioned stimulus with equal ease Turning any neutral stimulus into a conditioned stimulus is easiest when n Forward Pairing The neutral stimulus precedes the UCS a Short Temporal Delay There is a short delay between the neutral stimulus and the UCS o Related Processes Term Definition Example Stimulus Generalization A similar CS produces a CR Dig salivates to the sound of a pitch pipe Discrimination A dissimilar CS doesn t produce a CR Dog doesn t salivate to the sound of a drum Secondary Conditioning A CS can function as a secondary UCS Dog learns to salivate to sound of a drum if it is first paired with a tuning fork Extinction CR stops occurring of Dog stops salivating to tuning UCS no longer follows fork if food stops following it CS sound Spontaneous CR is easily reinstated God begins to salivate to tuning Recovery if UCS follows CS fork if food follows once Applications o Fear o Phobias o Aversions 0 Taste Aversion Disgust is easily conditioned to stimuli associated with poisonous substances Food poisoning o Chemotherapy patients Start getting ill on the route to the hospital o Drug Tolerance Effects 0 Overdose Users require more and more of a drug to achieve the same effect a Why Because the body compensates before the drug is ingested requiring a stronger dose Compensation becomes conditioned to the cues that usually accompany ingestion If used takes drug in novel setting compensation doesn t occurs and an overdose occurs Reading Notes 0 Habituation a decrease in the strength of response to a repeated stimulus 0 Classical Conditioning an organism learns to associate two stimuli such that one stimulus comes to elicit a response that originally was elicited only by the other stimulus o HigherOrder Conditioning a neutral stimulus becomes a CS after being paired with an already established stimulus Exposure Therapies a patient is exposed to a stimulus CS that arouses an anxiety response such as fear without the presence of the UCS allowing extinction to occur Aversion Therapy attempts to condition an aversion to a stimulus that triggers unwanted behavior by pairing it with a noxious UCS Feb 3 Learning 2 Operant Conditioning A process by which a habit is acquired as a result of its prior consequences involves voluntary behaviors that are instrumental to attaining a desired goal re exive o Behaviorism a school of thought that dominated American psychology from 19141955 0 Three Assumptions Positivism a Study only concrete events that can be verified by multiple neutral observers n Studied behavior instead of consciousness because behavior was directly observable All behavior originates through trial and error Mechanism n Thoughts play no role in guiding behavior a Thoughts exist but they are epiphenomenal ie they are above the phenomenon n Animals including humans mindlessly repeat behaviors that have met with prior reinforcement o Mechanism Illustrated 0 Animal is punished for stealing 9 Animal stops stealing 0 Child is punished for stealing 9 Child stops stealing AND learns that stealing is immoral Thorndike o Procedure 0 Puts an animal in a puzzle box cage Arbitrarily picks a correct response Reinforces animal whenever it emits the correct response Over time the animal comes to emit the correct response soon after it is placed in the puzzle box o Explanation o Thorndike s Laws 0 Law of Effect Behavior is a function of its prior consequences 0 Law of Exercise Habitual behaviors are acquired in a slow gradual fashion without swift changes 0 O O Darwin and Thorndike Natural Selection Opera nt Conditioning Variations exist among members of a species Animals flail ie their movements are random Some of these variations prove to be adaptive Some of these movements prove to be adaptive Adaptive variations endure maladaptive ones perish Adaptive movements behaviors persist maladaptive ones perish Skinner o Biography developed the operant chamber aka the Skinner box to study operant conditioning Skinner Box a box with multiple stimuli light water dispenser food dispenser speaker lever etc Discriminative Stimulus the box comes with a light or speaker that serves as a discriminative stimulus indicates when a response will produce a consequence o Discriminative Stimulus 9 Response9 Consequence 0 Light Appears 9 Rat Presses Bar 9 Food Appears With operant conditioning a stimulusresponse is formed if in the presence of a discriminative stimulus a response is followed by reinforcement or punishment Reinforcers and Punishers o Skinner regarded the term reward as valueladen and unscientific Preferred the terms reinforcer and punisher and he defined them in clearlyobservable terms without mentioning anything regarding satisfaction of pleasure Reinforcerany consequence that increases the likelihood of a behavior Punisher any consequence that decreases the likelihood of a behavior 0 Punisher Consequence decreases the likelihood of behavior Reinforcer Consequence increases the likelihood of behavior Positive M Praise child when he Scold child when he hits consequences cleans his room his brother following a response Negative Remove Wear seatbelt to turn off Take away toys when consequences irritating buzzer child hits his brother following a response o Effects of Punishment 0 To be effective punishment must be Immediate Consistent Accompanied by guidelines for proper behavior o Reinforcement Schedules o Fixed Schedule Reinforcement occurs at a constant predictable rate 0 Variable Schedule Reinforcement occurs at a variable unpredictable rate Ratio Interval Fixed Reinforcement every 5 bar Reinforcement every 5 minutes presses Variable Average reinforcement of 1 for Average reinforcement every 5 every 5 bar presses but minutes but variable with variable with respect to which respect to when reinforcement press produces reinforcement comes o Schedule Consequences o Fixed Schedules promote faster learning 0 Variable schedules promote resistance to extinction Gambling is a variableratio schedule o Shaping o Gradually molding a desired behavior response by reinforcing responses that become progressively closer to the desired behavior simple to complex Reading Notes Discriminative Stimulus a signal that a particular response will now produce certain consequences Primary Reinforcers stimuli such as food and water that an organism naturally finds reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs Secondary Conditional Reinforcers stimuli that acquire reinforcing properties through their association with primary reinforcers Chaining used to develop a sequence chain of responses by reinforcing each response with the opportunity to perform the next response Operant Generalization an operant response occurs to a new antecedent stimulus or situation that is similar to the original one Operant Discrimination an operant response will occur to tone antecedent stimulus but not to another Stimulus Control a behavior that is influenced by discriminative stimuli is under stimulus control Continuous Reinforcement every response of a particular type is reinforced Partial Intermittent Reinforcement only a portion of the responses of a particular type are reinforced Fixed Ratio FR Schedule reinforcement is given after a fixed number of responses Variable Ratio VR Schedule reinforcement is given after a variable number of responses all centered around an average FixedInterval FI Schedule the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval is reinforced Variable Interval VI Schedule reinforcement is given for the first response that occurs after a variable time interval centered around an average Escape Conditioning the organism learns a response to terminate an aversive stimulus Avoidance Conditioning the organism learns a response to avoid an aversive stimulus Two Factor Theory of Avoidance Learning both classical and operant conditioning are involved in avoidance learning Token Economics desirable behaviors are reinforced with tokens that are later turned in for other reinforcers Applied Behavior Analysis combines a behavioral approach with the scientific method to solve individual and societal problems Feb 6 Learning 3 Review Compare Operant Conditioning and Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Behavior Reflexive response Voluntary behavior Temporal Events that precede the Events that follow behavior its Focus response consequences Association Stimulus and response Behavioral response and its consequence in the presence of a stimulus Phobias and Avoidance o Classical and operant conditioning can combine to produce phobic avoidance 0 Classical conditioning accounts for initial fear Car CS Traumatic car accident UCS 9 Conditioned response to cars CR 0 Instrumental learning explains avoidance Avoid Cars 9 Fear is reduced 9 Tendency to avoid cars is strengthened Learning and Motivation Whv is a stimulus a reinforcer 0 Clark Hull 0 A stimulus is reinforcing onlv if it reduces a drive ie satisfies a need 0 Hull s Drive Reduction Model Drive is a buildup of tension that arises form an unsatisfied need hunger exhaustion etc Drive motivates behavior Learning occurs onlv if a consequence reduces a drive or need Motivated Behavior and Needs o Need arises 9 Need creates tension DRIVE 9 Drive motivates behavior 9 Appropriate object acquires an incentive9 Consuming incentive reduces drive9Learning occurs Habit is acquired 9 Next time need arises learning is displayed Testing Behaviorism s Key Assumptions Assumption Key Experiment All Behavior Originates through Trial and ErrorThorndike Reinforcement is Necessary for Learning to OccurClark Hull Any response can become associated with any stimulus with equal facility Equiprobability Classical conditioning is a mindless process in which a previously reflexive response becomes habitually associated with a CS Trial and Error vsReinforcement and Learning o For Hull as for other behaviorists learning requites a reinforcer because reinforcers provide the glue that link stimuli to responses o Two research areas developed to challenge this assumption 0 Trialand Error Social Learning Behaviorism maintains that all behavior originates through trial and error Yet many animals and especially primates learn by observing and imitating others Why learning is in italics a Research on social learning shows that our initial behaviors are not always random o Some animal learn what to do first by observing a modeling o But they keep doing it only ifthey are reinforced n Bottom line o You may borrow some else s behavior but if it doesn t work for w you ll stop using it o Reinforcement Latent Learning Behaviorism maintains that reinforcement is needed to order for learning to occur Tolman s research on latent learning a Group 1 received reinforcement whenever it reached the goal box a Group 2 never received any reinforcement when it reached the goal box a Group 3 received no reinforcer in the first 10 days but did receive reinforcer on the 11th day a Rats in Group3 green performed as well as those in Group1 blue on the 12th day even though they had been reinforced only once Law of effect is a law of performance not learning a Only observable behavior not actual learning is measured o Equiprobability o Behaviorism maintains that any stimulus can be associated with any behavior with equal facility probability 0 Psychologists not believe that animals are biologically predisposed to learn some associations more easily that others Conditioned Taste Aversion n A conditioned response in which the taste sight and or smell of the particular food becomes disgusting and repulsive and leads to avoidance o Garcia and Koelling 1996 As rats drink sweetened water from a tube a light and a gentle buzzer turn on n 12 the rate get nauseating xrays while they drink a 12 of the rats receive electrical shock UCS UCS CS Radiation Electrical Shock Sweet Taste Fear aversion No fear aversion Bright Lights and No fear aversion Fear aversion noise Learning was selective Some associations were learned more easily than others Lights and noise were associated with electrical shock sweet water was associated with nausea Law of Equiprobability was proven WRONG we are biologically predisposed to learn some things faster than others Classical Conditioning Reconsidered o Classical views of classical conditioning describe a mindless process whereby the CS comes to reflexiver trigger the CR a new SeR connection is formed o Contemporary theorists argue that prediction not mindless association underlies classical conditioning 0 Dog salivate to the tone because they have learned that the tone predicts food Stimulus Response vs Stimulus Stimulus Paring o Classical SR View The CS forms its own SeR bond with the response 0 UCS Response o CS Response o Contemporary SS View Animals forms as association between the CS and the UCS not between the CS and CR includes a cognitive process 0 CSeMental representation of UCS 9Response o Tone9Food9Salivate Tone reminds animal of food and thinking of food makes animal salivate Testing the SS model 0 Imagine you and your significant other share a favorite song that makes you happy You lose that loving feeling and dump himher Years later you hear the song you have a negative association with it you will be sad If the association improves you will be happy when you hear the song SS Model Predicts Song 9 Lover 9 Nothing SR Model Predicts Lover 9 Swoon Song 9 Swoon O O O O 0 Summary Classical and operant conditioning are common ways of learning associations and acquiring adaptive behaviors They processes involves are often mindless and reflexive but this is now always so Conditions particularly expectancies and predictions sometimes also play a role Reading Notes Preparedness through evolution animals are highly biologically predisposed prewired to learn some associations more easily than others Conditioned Taste Aversion a conditioned response in which the taste and sometimes the sight and smell of a particular food becomes disgusting and repulsive Instinctive Drift the tendency for a conditioned response to drift toward instinctive behavior Insight the sudden perception of a useful relationship that helps to solve a problem Cognitive Map a mental representation of the spatial layout Latent Learning refers to learning that occurs but is not demonstrated until later which there is an incentive to perform Observational Learning the learning that occurs by observing the behavior of a model SocialCognitive Theory Social learning theory emphasizes that people learn by observing the behavior of models and acquiring the belief that they can produce behaviors to influence events in their lives SelfEfficacy represents people s belief that they have the capability to perform behaviors that will produce a desired outcome


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