Week 1 notes (Key Terms and Lecture)
Week 1 notes (Key Terms and Lecture) HIST 0100
Popular in Western Civilization 1
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Campbell on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 0100 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Anna Weber in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization 1 in History at University of Pittsburgh.
Reviews for Week 1 notes (Key Terms and Lecture)
Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/09/15
Lecture One Key Words and Ideas History Begins when you have writing Civilization big wealthy lasting well reported culture that is studied through time leaves a large footprint Creation of the West Civilization created and centered in Europe religionL imperialism art architecture concepts of rights polymelodic music agriculture social norms democracy law nationalism Europe largely uninhabitable cold covered in ice 2 miles thick other areas were barren and dry covered in scrub pine and permafrost Britain was the mainland b the English channel did not exist Gradual warmup began 17000 years ago Hominins big brained humanoids early form were somewhere around 400000 years ago Homo Heidelbergenists lst skeleton found in Heidelberg Germany humanoid Homo Neanderthanlensis lst skeleton found in Germany humanoid after the Heidlebergenists Cro Magnons 1st skeleton found in France made musical instuments very much like us bc of a neocorteX adaptation heavy meat diets vegetarianism was impossible for people to survive on 1st humanoids in Europe bones and some efficient stone tools found are theorized to be from 40000 years ago Explosion of an Indonesian volcano is theorized to have wiped out homo sapien sapiens in Europe and left no trace of them before 45000 years ago Neanderthals died out 20000 years ago however there is no evidence of con ict between them and CroMagnons so it is believed that they were simply out competed by Cro Magnons Interbreeding was usually bt neanderthal men bred with Cro Magnon women 2 4 of Europeans DNA is that of European Neanderthal 27 of Asian DNA is that of denisovans the Asian Neanderthal Paleolithic Stone age hunter gatherers who were nomadic famous CroMagnon art depicting hunting scenes thought to be from female artists from 17000 years ago caves in LascauX France and Altamire Spain new artists tried to recreate the paintings in a new location for tourists and could not satisfactorily do so The paintings of the ancient people were so good that they were not completely reproducible Neolithic New stone age AGRICULTURE began successful time period bc it was cold and survival was hard which encourages inventions of technology such as clothing housing communities and cooperation Neolithic Revolution Characterized by animal domestication sedentary groups agriculture Agriculture created surplus which led to specialization in groups and different statures people became blacksmiths teachers etc Agriculture in Europe continued when the dam bt the Euxine Lake and the Mediterranean Sea broke and water owed in with a force of 100000 times greater than Niagara Falls The lake became salt and farmers left and took their system of agriculture to other places The only larger force of water would have been when the Atlantic ooded into the Meditterranean Lecture 2 92 Prehistory Chronology BC Before Christ AD Anno Domini since become BCE Before Common Era and CE Common Era or BP before present and P present Agriculture was tremendously good however also negative caused the collapse of aboriginal democracy in hunter gatherer groups tribes had a council of men and women and led to hierarchy tyrannical government patriarchy inequality People did not become better fed but could only feed more people Before this time skeletal remains show that they were taller and more robust and worked less 7600 years agoAgriculture was invented independently in Syria Iran China India around the same time This led to permanent settlements in Europe and more elaborate religious institutions Improvements in pottery food storage and boat building Trade routes were established for int pottery and furs 3500 years ago smelting of metals 1st was copper because it didn t need to be refined it was easy to melt malleable and pretty but it was too soft and could not be made sharp for cutting killing 3200 Romania melting copper melting tin bronze which was good for sharp tools and weapons Used largely in Greece tin was from Cornwallis mines almost 2000 mile route What they left behind Themselves burial ritual objects bones mummies Iceman Tollund man Koelbjerg woman scandanavia 8000 years old oldest preserved remains Peat bogs lock out oxygen and acid keeps bodies intact for a while Remains give us info about clothes diet DNA culture mysteries Genese of Europeans are largely from these people Megoliths passage graves Stonehenge bt 7000 and 3500 years ago people cut stone slabs bt 2030 tons and transported them hundreds of miles and erected them and stacked them Possible religious significance we don t know Many sites around the world oldest in Portugal Many in France and British Isles Culture we don t know much about the culture except for the languages Indo European was a change from a family of languages maybe from the Black Sea or Mediterranean Basque and FinnoUgric languages not related to any other language in the world Sammi may be the oldest language also not related to others in the world Afro Centrism greeks did not start western civilization may derive from Africa Egypt instead I was somewhere in the Mediterranean amp Middle East Diffusion of innovation from Middle East to Greek Roman religions Islam Christianity Judaism writing and alphabet spread to Europe along with ideas about empires cities Middle East was fertile in progress because of MUD 2 rivers Tigris and Euphrates began in Iran and end in Turkey but mostly in Iraq and Syria the land bt the rivers was Mesopotamia the Fertile Crescent from the Persian gulf fed by winter rain ooded into Iraq and Syria and left behind mud and soil rich in nutrients and with adequate moisture for crops allowed agricultures invention Happened in Middle East because the wetter places in Europe were forested and there was no technology for clearing forests in the Middle East there were few forests Some of the first crops grown are still today Surplus was slowly created as long as people worked cooperatively after the ood they had to plant quickly and all at once then they had to harvest quickly in the fall and work together to build irrigation ditches Cooperation was difficult so hierarchies were created along with kingdoms empires and military force to make people cooperate Military force was difficult because of uprisings and the expenses of having a military force So a change of religion came about new religions were allied to state power and gave people a sense of identity and community Elaborate myths ceremonies and buildings pyramids bound people to tasks Hydralic civilization 1950s term by Karl Wittfogel using military power hierarchy and religions to persuade people to grow crops and do necessary tasks Theologically they were abusrd Anubis Isis and other gods supported the beliefs of the wealthy priesthood Also diverted money to large monuments that had no real function to most people Immoral religions pleased the gods through sacrifice not through behavior But without these religions the civilizations would not have survived they motivated people in hostile nature and were the toolkit for human survival Mesopotamia Writing cuneiform on wet clay tablets with river reeds that had triangular ends 6000 5000 years ago Empires of Sumer and Akkad conquered territory around them creating cities and empires though cities were often parasitic taxing heavily and returning only small laws and small amounts of protection to the people Next empires were Babylon Hittites Assyria and Persia Character of the week Otzi the Iceman Found in Otzal Alps in Sept 1991 Was kept by a covering of snow and ice which preserved his body Adult male between 30 and 45 years old an elder in his tribe Was possibly a hunter or warrior but he was found far from home so he may have been exiled Had 61 tattoos in places that are common acupuncture placements Before death he was in a fight stabbed by a spear arrow head was in his shoulder this would have caused him to bleed out he also had a head wound and internal brain bleeding and cuts on hands that suggest hand to hand combat hours before his death He also had food in his stomach so he could have been ambushed He had the blood of four other people on him as well His DNA was traced to Feldthurn Pollen in his food told scientists that he died in the spring or summer Could have been a herder his clothes were similar to those of herders and equipment of a hunter
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'