New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Geovanni Kohler


Geovanni Kohler
GPA 3.86

Scott Murray

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Scott Murray
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Psychlogy

This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Geovanni Kohler on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 460 at University of Washington taught by Scott Murray in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/192417/psych-460-university-of-washington in Psychlogy at University of Washington.




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/09/15
Goals Goals good Examples ofthe current state of cognitive neuroscienc e memo e earch Textreview articles say Prefrontal cortex is important for memoryquot what39s the evidence Explore experimental design issues Explore methodologies quotMRI and VBM Levels of Analysis Anatomical Functional cmai We Aieiian ieneiaeenenan PathwaysNetworks WW W Cortical Areas Motion Cortical Column Diiediansaimmm i enenieiien Neuml ciiein Computations Lateral inniniiian Neuron Code Memory learning process ufacquiring new inrermaiien memory outcome uflearning sturage erinrerrnaiiein Maiurstag 7 Encoding 7 s1uia e r YEUlEVal es aeeuisnien and consolidation Huvv eei ineineiiy pieeesses differ7 r duiatiun 7 capacity 7 eenieni Working memory ineenanism that allows enemieiin sieiage and manipuiaiien er information CE EDDrdinatES suburdinate systems F39L acoustic Ending er inreirnaiiei vs Visual Ending urinreirnatiein 7 Peri e uia yisualtask duiing delay at audituiy mEmDiy leadstu nu inieneienee 7 Sugges1s sepaiate eeee Working Memory What is the relationship to LTM umenield R s i Ranganain c ZUUE Deiseiaieiai nieiieniai cortex nieineies ieneienn ineineiyiennaiien in W iuugh its ieie in eikingineineiyeiganizaiien JuuinaluiNeuiuscience Article presentation Why was the study done What was the hypothesis What was the theoretical background What was the logic ofthe experimental design How did it attempt to answer the question being addressed What were the results What were the logical conclusions ofthe paper Do the resultsdata support these claims Background Prefrontal cortex PFC important for control39 rocesses for working memory WM PFC lesions in humans Isrupt WM maintenance in the face of distraction Feedback from PFC in monkeys modulates activity in IT in WM tasks Background Prefrontal cortex PFC important for control39 processes for working memory WM l Q VLPFC important for WM maintenance DLPFC irwnglrtant for organizing items that are active In Background Behavioral effects 7 WM maintenance ampurganizatiunal preeessing buth prurnute LTM rennanen Neuroimaging results 7 2mm previous studies reported greatervLF FC activity fursubseuuentl remembervvurds compared in forgotten Wards Example Trials were separated remembered or forgotten Tlme5 l s Background Summ ry e Neuroimaging VLPFCimpunantfurM maintenance 7 Behavior maintenance impurtantfur LTM e Neuroimaging DLPFC impurtantfurM hrganizing 7 Behavior urganizing impurtantfur LTM 7 But previous research has primarily demonstrated a rule ervwrc lrl LTM formation Question What s happening in the DLPFC C has WM processes but does not contribute to LTM formation Maybe previous studies used insensitive measures Everypreviuus study luuked atencuding at individual items Hypothesize DLPFC is critical for WM organization and these organizational process contribute to LTM formatio General design Using eventrelated fMRl examine prefrontal activity w 2 tasks reh arsequot trials WM maintenance Rehearse a iistufS Wdrds reorder trials WM organization Rear er Wdrds based un theirphysicai Weight A er scanning surprise LTM test Time s 7 i s Details Words chosen from a psycholinguistic database Highly concrete imageable LTM test Recognition test a er scanning 50 new words 50 old words Categorize as re em know familiar new Behavioral Results Spider Tank Jar a example at eneddmg debth b Use hit rate uverall rnernury bidtted lrl a tu predict the number at times all three Wards remembered Subtram the ubserved and expected uftirnes three Wards remembered Suggests strengthened interritem assdeiatidns fMRI Results Areas shuvving higherfMRi signal an redrderthan un fMRl Results Part 2 Hypothesis TththDLF FC d di d at organizms information in WM on ennancernent trials should promote LTM formation by strengthening associations Denne ROl s e DLPFC e aVLPFC StpVLPFC If DLPFC supports LTM through Delay perlud activity en reurdertrials Was r9amzmg greater delay My 39 cdrnpared between highrecollection versus lowrecollection e 273 WEIde iecuiiected nign vecullectiunquot trials 7 EM WEIde vecullected low recollectionquot 39 Alternative Explanations Does increased activity re ect strengthening interitem associations or simply enhancing item I strength Examine rehearse trials for subsequently s remembered items El Areas that are important for simply enhancing Item strength should show a difference between ighlow recognition trials Result only left pVLPFC showed a difference on rehearse trials Alternative Explanations Summary Reordertrials more difficult Hypothesis DLPFC promotes LTM formation e is task difficulty tne suurce cit DLPFC activity i through organizing items in impruved LTM performance7 I 7 e Establisningrneditying rElatiDnShipS amung iterns in 39 WM l l 39 l Claim Difficulty should manifest only during the probe phase rather than the delay period RT for reorder mils Wm high and low levels of DLPFC during rehearse trials did net predict LTM subsequent recollection did not differ WWW Consistent with this hypothesis i DLPFCincreas nre order vs rehearse DLPFC during delay en reorder trials predicted LTM furmatiuh Concerns 1 DLPFC increased on reorder vs rehearse All areas examined showed increases on reorder vs rehearse trials Signi cant difference in task difficulty could easily account for this difference 5 Concerns ls DLPFC activity unique 2 DLPFC during delay on reorder trials predicted LTM formation So did aVLPFC and pVLPFC Does prefrontal cortex implement different processes Or are we left with PFC is involved in WMquot Concerns 3 DLF FC during rehearse trlais did not predl LTM rurrnanurr 4Whatabuutsubregiunsin PFC Quiz Possibility Relationship to Baddeley s working memory model unitary Central Executive data assumptions relationship if any between the 2 tasks and the vs and Neurupsychulugy CugnltlveF sychulugy Psychuphyslcs Cognitive Neuroscience l l Elemruphyslulugy animal studies Cognitive Neuroscience Goals How did localization experiments emerge What are localization experiments good for How do you design a localization experiment Question What is an area of the brain that is important for memory Does knowing this tell us anything about how memory works Analogy I point to my hard drive and say that s where memory is in my computer Does that tell me anything about how the computer works How did localization studies emerge What are localization studies good for Theoretical Technology Background Cognitive Neuroscience Theoretical Background Anatomical Brain is not a homogenous organ Many levels of differentiation Functional Cognitive Science The mind has components Identifiable through behavior 19th Century Neuroscience Does the blob oftissue contained in the skull operate as a single unit Heart has multiple divisions valves etc but acts as a single unit Or is the blob full of individual processing CPU RAM Hard Drive 9 Computing Engine Drive train Transmission 9 Driving Phrenology Scientific evidence for localization 1815 Gall amp Spurzheim 1 Mind organized around 30 speci c ctions Paul Broca 1861 oorum crubbed Language Color perception Hope oor i 2 These functions supported by speci c ted SIsiste i rain re Ions ball Ball 39 3 Skull growth correlated with growth in prince um shoe quot ese regions blood flow l5 correlated With activity iii these egions Scientific evidence for localization Scientific evidence for localization 39 ca wemiCke 1376 Broca amp Wernicke showed Uhwell this is the the ofthis This and this and 3933 339 quot59 Spec39 c this andthis These 9 9 Theoretical Background Neural Observations Anatomical Brodmann Brain is not a homogenous organ Many levels of differentiation Analyzed cellular organization using staining Functional Cognitive Science om ntsquot to identify 52 distinct areas T e mind has c iA39 39 m We 45 denti able through behavior 39 V Neural Observations Neuron Doctrine Brodmann Analyzed cellular organization using staining to identify 52 distinct areas 19001910 Golgi Developed staining technique to visualize individual neurons Cajal Used Golgi s techniques to make one of the most important discoveries in neuroscience Cognitive Psychology 1 Decomposing tasks eg reading memory visual perception into their component mental operations Use differences in reaction time to infer the existence of different mental operations A precursor Cognitive Neuroscience uses brain imaging to localize the existence of different mental representations l Physical identity AA An example Phonetic identityAa Category identity AU My model of letter recognition says CategoryidentitySC the visual presentation ofa letter activates 39 Different category AS J D l39e emca eQO V different mental codes It activates codes related to 1 its physical properties 2 it s phonetic properties 3 it s semantic properties eg vowel E Same Category M am my m mm its AA A Au 5 Conclusion Letters have different mental codes Physical code Phonetic code Categom code Reaction time measures the order in which these different codes are activated RT differences provide evidence for my model This logic served as the basis of early brain imaging studies Can we localize different mental codes for letters words etc Combining concepts Cognitive psychology experiments suggest the existence of a mental operation code representation Brain imaging can be used as a test of these models If you can localize it your model will be supported N Levels of Analysis Anatomical Functional cenicai Lubes Reading PathwaysNetworks Letter identificatiun ward identificaticiri Physical cede Phuneti cede Cenicai Areas Categuyy qu Cunical Culurnns Neural Circuit Neurcin How to localize Exact same logic as reaction time studies Subtraction technique pp 5659 Define two experimental conditions that differ along a single dimension operation code etc of interest Subtract brain maps from the two tasks Do you localize the operation First used with PET Concept extended to fMRl Subtraction Technique nuuri7 Lexical Access Proposed Operatiuns i Activates Weird Codes 2 Semantic Assuclatlun meaning a Muturcummands involved in speaking the Ward Subtraction Technique noun LeXicai Access Proposed Operations i Activates Word Codes 2 SemantiCAssoCiation rneaning Motor commands invoived in Speaking tne Word for the Words eg HAMMER r Visuai Summation e Visuai Features ietters 7 Words Nonwords eg XTVPGN uai Stimuiation e Visuai Features ietters Subtraction Technique noun LeXicai Access Proposed Operations i Activates Word Codes 2 SemantiCAssoCiation rneaning 3 Motor commands invoived in Speaking tne Word for the Subtraction Technique for the LeXiCai Access Proposed Operations iActivates Word Codes 2 SemantiCAssoCiation 3 Motor commands invoived in Speaking tne Word Experimental condition Control condition 7 enerate verb see tne Word 7 Read aiuud see tne Word narnrnen say F uund narnrnen say Harnrner visuai processing Word recognition Articuiationrn otor etneve rneaning Visuai processing Word recognitio Articuiationrnotor been com e 4 Viewing words Subtraction Technique nuun7 Lexical Aoooss Proposed Operations l Activates Ward Codes 2 Semantic Association meaning 3 Motor oommanos involved in speaking the Word Words eg l lAMME 7 Visual Stimulation 7 Visual Features etters 7 Words Nonrvyords eg XTVPGN 7 Visual Stimulation 7 Visual Features etters Hierarchical Design Subtraction Cognitive Psychology PET positron emission tomography Literal subtraction of brain maps 0 fMRI Conceptual subtraction Contrast two conditions Problems with Subtraction Can you ever perfectly Words e g TWEAL subtract or isolate 7 visual summon 7 VisualFEaturEslEttErs a condition h The problem of pure insertionquot Practice W Subtraction Condition 1 involves some mental components 0 Localize areas that process Condition 2 is the same in all respects except for Perceptual the addition of your component of interest visual motion speech sounds The problem of pure insertion mUSiC The addition of your component ofinterest Memory fUNdamemally Chant imeraCts With the encodestore visual information eg faces vs componems Ofcondmon 1 recognizerecall visual information Subtraction Experiments 1980 s amp 90 s cognitive neuroscience was an era of localization l Cognitive Neuroscience What s next beyond localization I l Elemruphyslulugy animal studies 1 N 0 Attention Outline At what processing stage does attention act Early vs Late Selection What are the units of attention Spatial objectsfeatures both How does attention affect neural responses Increase gain biased competition Attention the big picture Strongly intUItive concept Every dyknuwsw atanemiunis ltisthetakingpussessiunWthemindinclearandvmdfurm m We seem mummy mm mm mm i implies mm m saw things in m in M mm W mm i Selective limited capacity Tied to awareness consciousness alertness vigilance Attention Selective attention a process that allows us to more fully process some information sensory memories etc while ignoring other information Voluntary endogenous Under our control Reflexive exogenous In response to sensory input Covert attention visual we can attend to spatial locations that are different than where our eyes are pointed Attention Outline 1 At what processing stage does attention act Early vs Late Selection 2 What are the units of attention Spatial objectsfeatures both 3 How does attention affect neural 397 responses Increase gain biased competition Early vs Late Selection Early selection only very rudimentary processing is performed preattentively before the filter Predicts object recognition word recognition etc reguire attention Late selection information gets fully processed and attention selects a subset of this highly processed informa 39on Predicts object recognition word recognition etc do not reguire attention 1 At What processing stage does ention act Selective Auditory Attention What can the listener report about the unattended information 7 Very iitte 1 At What processing stage does ention act Broadbent 1958 eany selection gating theory 1 At What processing stage does attention act Revised version based on intrusion ofthe unattended inpu s name for example would likely be d Your detecte t t 9 9 33 ERP evidence Attention affects activity in retinotopic visual cortex Source modeling and characteristics of the signal suggest not V1 ERP Evidence c1 niiginatesinvi WM 9 originate in emasmaie mnex Electrophysiology Evidence Attentionettectseasilymeasuvedm extiastviate areas VevysmallmvnunexistentinVl ERP amp electrophysiology evidence Attention affects activity in retinotopic visual cortex Source modeling and characteristics of the signal suggest not V1 Singleneuron measurements suggest only very weak or nonexistent effects in V1 Early vs Late Selection lNTERMEDlATE The fMRI challenge Strong reliable modulations ofV1 with attention Gandhi Heeger amp Boynton 1999 PNAS Brefcynski amp DeYoe 1999 Nat Neurosci Somers et a 1999 PNAS fMR1a new story w Lell hemisphere 45 fMRI a new story Early vs Late Selection lNTERNmAVE Early Results Revised The classical hetieh euheerhihg attehtieh efteetsi Visual eenex ha h s eld that the strangest effects 3 a 5 al eenex there is ttehtie these reeehttM Rl results illustrate the ehahge that has taken piaee lrl recent years Mike Posneramp Charles Gilbert PNAS 7999 Why is there the discrepancy between electrophysiology and fMRI measures of attention Species difference Physiological difference NEWSleng aetwrt Timing difference DUES attention s blond new Something else l l Reconcrliation ERP s Tellill i ERP39s no effect i fMRl strong effect in V1 gt1 Vi Proposal C1 re ects feedforward activity in V1 The 39 c ange measured With fMRl no temporal resolution represents the effect of feedback Prediction Electrophysiology experiments might show changes in V1 with attention at later durations Reconciliation electrophysiology mm mum Attention effects appear laterin V1 than sensory effects Early vs Late Selection Have we provided an answe 7 r 7 snde cunvlnclnglythatthere is an attentan Effect at early stages ufvlsual prdeessmg dlmentaiv nudesnd s De almed We Elmselenan dnndenl emev new the tlltnl mdl eds dnleedledddnmdn ward ledddnmdn dd leddle emldn Latnseleztlan lmdmddndee tuWDiDCssed ndddenddn sums subset dune nldny viacssed lmdlmmn 7 mmquot Wdldledddnmdn dd ddnddleddle new 7 What happens m unattended Stimull7 5 Early vs Late Selection More recent theories early vs late depends on attentional load ngn lead a early selectan Luvvluad a late seleendn Paper for Thursday Yl DJ vvdddman BEWlddErs D Maruls R cndn M Neuralfate uflgnured Stimuli dlssuclable effects dr gercegtual and W rklng rnernur ldad NatNEurDSEl 2mm Sennawam Attention Outline 1 At what processing stage does attention 7 c Early vs Late Selection 2 What are the units of attention Spatial objectsfeatures both 3 How does attention affect neural respons Increase gainquot biased competitionquot What are the units of attention d d Space or Features or both Retinotopy 9 s ace P Populations of feature detectors 9 featureobjects Behavioral evidence space 0 dladnee between attended ldedldn and a Pmbe Stimulus A mm mm m tMRlERPEle mphvslalagyall dendname a spatlal attentan e ect Behavioral Evidence Features da x d quotcx d x x n x 0 dx u Featurebased attention fMRl A mdcnlnr mum rmllnn A endcnlnr A mdmmmn Featurebased attention How do space and features interact Attend Vellnw Featurebased attention MT Seenzct EuvacasjndGM Euyntun GluhalEWemsut FeatuverhasedAttentiun in Human Visual 0mm Nature Neurosciencej EStE ZZDDZ Attention Outline At what processing stage does attention act Early vs Late Selection What are the units of attention Spatial objectsfeatures both iquot 3 How does attention affect neural responses Increase gain biased com petition How does attention affect neural Measuring baseline shifts responses UK A How to increase the strength of the neural response gain multiply the unattended response by a mm 9 u unattended imam A attendedvewnnse additive baseline shiftquot increase response by some constant amount K MK A observable mat vnu phvsicaiiv measure e g tMRi What vnu want tn e imale observable mat vnu manly measure e g tMRi Measure response to no stimulus K A attended response If you measure a response with m stimulus evidence for baseline shi Baseline shift mm m n w m vimii mm xptmmmm 1 Differentiating between gain and dditive effects U g A gain effect UK A additive effect U 10 A 15 g 1510 A singie measure won t mm K 15 1o What s needed is a range of unattended and attended responses Gain effects StimuiusDimensinn StimuiusDimensinn mm m WA MW 3 3i i i immen immen Simuiismmmmn Simuiismmmm 01mm WNW H R W1 Mm WW 1mm fMRI Test 11 u Biased Competition mm Resmwam WA MW 3 3 i i mm mm Biased Competition Enhancements of attention are in a context of multiple stimuli competing for access to behavior Single neurons Competition will be greatest when there are multiple items in a neuron s receptive field Biased Competition v4 Neuan Neurun s receptive rieiu Attention Response Biased Competition v4 Neuan Neurun s receptive rieiu Attention Response Biased Competition v4 Neuan Neurun s receptive rieiu Attention Response ile 9004 v e was Biased Competition v4 Neuan Neurun s receptive rieiu Attention Response Biased Competition v4 Neuan Neurun s receptive rieiu Attention Response L 9004 v e was Biased competition Wameisdmvet ai mus Dynamic shins mm receptive was in 9mm av a w bvspahai attention NatureNeumsci Accounts for everyday processing when there are many items to potentially attend to Offers a mechanism for how ltering might occur Enhancement and suppression No change in size 3 mmpasman


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.