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by: Geovanni Kohler
Geovanni Kohler
GPA 3.86


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Class Notes
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Geovanni Kohler on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 333 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/192420/psych-333-university-of-washington in Psychlogy at University of Washington.

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Date Created: 09/09/15
Assignments and Reminders CO or V S on Date or Exam 3 November 17 November 20 November 24 Read Chapter 5 in your textbook Read Chapters 13 and 14 in the Coursepack Work on your group presentations or this Friday Written Assignment 4 due Wednesday November 19 his is a complete dra t 0 your term paper If you receive a score of 95 or above on the draft of your term paper you do not have to rewrite it It Will also count as Assignment 5 Written Assignment 5 Will be your nal term paper Color vision begins in the retina with three different classes of The three different classes of cones absorb light over cones different ranges of wavelengths Each class 0 cones absorbs light best over a specific range 0 his is because each class 0 cone contains a slightly di erent wavelengths photopigment Short quotBluequot Middle quotGreenquot Long quotBedquot Relative Absorbance Relative Absorbance 01 O Wavelength nm Wavelength nm Light absorbance determines spectral sensitivity for each class of cone Middle quotGreenquot we only have 3 classes Each class 0 cone is maximally sensitive over a o cones how can we di erent range 0 239 Long distingUIsh so many Red colors wavelengths Short quotBluequot he spectral sensitivity curves or the 3 classes 0 cones overlap considerably Log Relative Sensitivity T I l I 400 500 600 700 Wavelength nm The trichromatic theory of color vision For each wavelength the ratio of activity in the 3 classes of cones will be different The idea that three different types of receptors participate in a population code is referred to as the trichromatic theory of color vision 1 Short quotBluequot Middle quotGreenquot Long quotRedquot 00 A 39 Relative Absorbance Uquot 0 I 400 39 soo 600 Wavelength nm Psychophysical evidence supports the trichromatic theory of color vision Subjects can match any color using only three wavelengths 0 light Key Concept Population coding he activity in a single neuron can be ambiguous eg con usion between wavelength and intensity By comparing the amount 0 activity across neurons with di erent tuning unctions this ambiguity can be resolved n addition the relative amounts 0 activity across neurons provide a means 0 representing a continuum using only a ew classes 0 tuning unctions How does mixing pigments differ from mixing light Mixing di erent wavelengths 0 light is an additive process Mixing pigment is a subtractive process pigment absorbs light the wavelengths it reflects give it its color Pissaro Landscape painted on his palette Color blindness he most common cause 0 color blindness is the lack or anomaly 0 one or more cone photopigments Color blindness is an inherited characteristic t is more common in males than in emales shihara test for red green color blindness Color opposites Some color vision phenomena cannot be explained solely on the basis 0 the trichromatic theory Each color is perceived as having an opposite or complementary color we look at a colored pattern and then look away the a ter image is the opposite color Drawing made by Goethe to illustrate complementary colors Look at the drawing or 30 seconds or so without moving your eyes then look at the white screen Color opposites Another example showing that i you look at a colored pattern and then look away the a terimage is the opposite color The opponent process theory he phenomenon 0 color opposites led to the theory that there are separate and opposing neural processing pathways or each pair 0 color opposites he organization 0 centersurround receptive fields in the cone pathways supports this view more on this later Some cognitive phenomena illustrated by color vision Categorical perception Wavelengths throughout some range are all perceived as belonging to a certain category eg blue More cognitive phenomena illustrated by color vision Perceptual constancy Colors look the same regardless o illumination Color constancy reality or illusion What color is the middle tile on the lighted side What color is the middle tile on the shaded side O 999090399w 39 v 99099099 33900 omoooooox 09 6 000990006 v090 99909900 990999 A A Color constancy an illusion that helps us perceive reality Here the two tiles are cut out and placed at the right 0 the picture Pardoning the turkey Exam 2 Results Average 76 3 Median 78 5 Range 35 to 95 Grade adjustment procedure Earn up to 5 points by rewriting the answer to one question Explain why your answer was wrong and give the right answer Attach the rewritten answer to the original exam and turn in at the beginning of class on Wednesday November 19 Assignments and Reminders Exam 3 November 20 Please note change of date Read Chapters 4 and 6 in your textbook Read Chapters 16 and 17 in the Coursepack Written Assignment 4 due Wednesday November 19 This is a complete draft of your term paper if you receive a score of 95 or above on the draft of your term paper you do not have to rewrite it it will also count as Assignment 5 Written Assignment 5 will be your final term paper Mach bands are a good example of contrast enhancement by the visual system One side of each band looks lighter than the other even though the grey is the same throughout 80 Relfected Light Level 5 Mach Bands The physical stimulus vs what you see Why do you think the edge next to the lighter band looks dark and the edge next to the darker band looks light What you see B The Physical Stimulus High 35 u Light intertSIty Perception of lightness C D C O 2 393 2 Distance Distance Lateral inhibition is one mechanism that can create the Mach band illusion On cells at the edge of the light band receive less inhibition trom neighbors in the dark band On cells at the edge of the dark band receive more inhibition trom neighbors in the light band High Intensity Low Intensuy l More contrast illusions The Hermann grid illustrates contrast perception as well as some other points You can t keep your eyes perfectly still You are constantly making saccades and microsaccades fyou look at something long enough when it disappears or when your eyes move you will see an aftermag The Hermann grid One theory of how the Hermann grid illusion works At the intersections of the grid lines a larger portion of ganglion cells inhibitory surrounds are being stimulat Large Small resuunsg response Fixation poml Hypothetical circuit that could create color opponent cells Circuit is similar to that for lateral inhibition BY FlG Perception of form and objects Figural grouping Perception of shapes and objects Most forms or objects that we see are composed of many different elements These elements are organized into groups that are perceived as belonging together The retina is a 2dimensional array representing points of illumination The nervous system processes and organizes this information so that we perceive 3dimensional objects and the relationships among objects Cues that help us distinguish objects from their surroundings BaSIc reqUIrements for form perception Contours are the basic elements of visual perception With out contours STAT c CUES DYNAM C39CUES we cannot distinguish any forms or objects Pattern Changes over time Color Movement Depth relationships Changes in illumihation over time are necessary in order for us to see Changes in illumination are provided by Figure and ground A figure is an integrated group of contours the ground is the surface 39 Movement Of Objects in the thirOhmeht background against which the figure appears 39 Movement Of the eyes relative to the thirOhmeht t is very difficult or impossible to perceive an area as both figure and movements of the head andor body ground at the same time saccades large scanning movements of the eyes microsaccades constant tiny movements or jiggling of the e es II Contours and form Ambiguous gures Contours are the basis of all form perception Often visual information even simple contours could be interpreted in multiple different ways There is a tendency to create continuous contours from How would you organize these shapes partial contours Context creates the perception of a contour where none actually exists on the retina ts easy when you have a context for filling in contours Theories of form and object perception Gestalt theory Feature integration theory and variations thereof Spatial frequency theory Gestalt theory An attempt to explain the cognitive principles according to which grouping of elements and object perception occur Based on the premise that the whole is greater than the sum of its partsquot Formulated before much was known about the underlying neurobiology Gestalt Lawsquot principles of how elements are grouped to form figures Praegnanz good tigure simplicity quotSlmpleslquot Most quotCumplexquot The form that is E perceived is the simples one possible Similarity Similar elements are grouped together Proximity Elements close to one another tend to be grouped together IIIIII 0000 ll 00 O O Millquot 0 o 0 ll 0 Good continuation Elements that appear to follow in the same direction tend to be grouped together What principles does this figure illustrate What principles does this figure illustrate Closure A space enclosed by a contour or partial contour tends to be perceived as a figure A v L Familiarity Elements are organized into shapes based on prior experience Elements that form a familiar shape tend to be grouped together Context is an important component of familiarity Here is the prior experience The same shape may be interpreted differently depending on context 3CDII A l0l2l34 Common fate Elements that move together tend to be grouped together as demonstrated in the transparency Assumptions inherent in Gestalt theory Gestalt theory assumes that all aspects of a sensory stimulus are processed in parallel or in an integrated fashion There is no postulation about stages of processing Feature integration theories Assume that there are multiple sequential stages of processing in which n s or percepts are built up from fundamental features eleme t componen 5 Assume that what is perceived S the sum of its parts Make no biologicallybased assumptions about the neural processing mechanisms underlying the process The main differences between the various feature n integration theories have to do with the nature of the basic compone ts Stages of feature integration PreattentI39Ie processes extract primitives aka textons geons etc These are the most basic components present in the visual field The primitives are grouped into preliminary figures Focal Attention combines preliminary figures into perceived objects object filesquot Object filesquot are compared with memory templates to identify objects Recognition by components Whom 1w Compunehl Compnnrm n r g and g assembled into objects at a subsequent Features are processed separately at one sta e Recodnition bv components Delall Analysis Facum Anennun onmage l This model requires l a system that is l l l A l l both parallel and ll hierarchical Spatial frequency theory Any visual stimulus can be broken down into a series of spatial frequencies Sinewave Grating Any regular waveform has inlemlly a frequency cycles unit of space or time an amplitude intensity range 1 PM on acn mums intenle Sq Harewave Grating P ltlnn amass WNW lllllllllll ll lllllll l Complex spatial frequency stimuli can be created from simple ones Addition of two grating patterns creates a new pattern Dark and light areas add when in phase and subtract when out of phase 4 ii Analysis of spatial frequency by the visual system Theoretically the visual system has different channels each sensitive tuned to a different range of spatial frequencies Together these channels can break a complex pattern down into its component frequencies ie perform a Fourier analysis Spatial trequency sensitivity depends at least partly on neurons receptive field sizes The best stimulus is one in which one cycle of the grating corresponds to the neuron s receptive field snauev Tuned or Scans frequency DDleral frequency loo m lmquency rm lligli Onrcamev recent w field I llllllllllilllllllll ll llllllllllllllllllll Mg Ies uuae Little or no espouse Bilcenter teceutive held mm or nu canons Spatial trequency sensitivity The high est sensitivity is to spatial frequencies of 24 cycles ldegree at the fovea What does this picture show All information in this picture is at a very low spatial frequency Here swhatypti imagine v f r Here swhat it really looks yourThanksgIVIng turkey 3 39 like if it slucky lookser Mechanical gating of K channels Assignments The tiplink is thought to act like a spring that opens the lid of the ion Read Chapters 9 and 10 in your textbook channel when stretched and closes it when fully relaxed Read Chapters 19 and 20 in the Course Pack Potassium channel t t erm paper due by midnight on hursday December 4 f Final Exam Monday December 8 rom 2 304 20 in the regular classroom Please bring a scantron orm and a 2 pencu Receptor potentials in hair cells Transduction results in graded neurotransmitter release When the stereocilia bend in one direction the hair cell depolarizes EPSP When they bend in the other direction the hair cell hyperpolarizes PSP Heticular lamina Entry of K causes voltage gated calcium channels to open b Glutamate is released in a graded ashion EPSP IPSP Ganglion cell firing is determined by the I amount 0 glutamate 39 V 39 l 9 0 9 I I quot f g I l g g Spiral ganglion H neurite 9 b Calcium influx triggers release of glutamate from vesicles at the base of the hair cell Perilymph Each hair cell receives afferent and efferent nerve terminals nervat39on Of ha cells Each inner hair cell is innervated by many spiral ganglion cells Beneath each hair cell are A single spiral ganglion cell innervates many outer hair cells processes of spiral ganglion cells the first neurons in the auditory system afferents Outer hair cells There are also terminals of axons Inner haquot Gequot that originate in the brain These efferenz s probably help regulate hair cell sensitivity nner hair cells are the main source 0 input to the brain Hair cells are contacted by the distal processes of neurons The cochlear place map whose cell bodies are located In the spiral ganglion Di erent requencies cause maximal f 0 w vibration at di erent points on the he spiral ganglion is 39 v COCh39ea near the center 0 the Ask quotI I spiral ormed by the 75 if F Hair cells at di erent points are maximally 39 1 stimulated by di erent requencies cochlea Each ganglion cell gives he result is a topographic separation o requencies A fonofopic map rise to a centrally projecting auditory nerve 39 134 39 fiber 1 he tonotoplc map Is preserved at every H level 0 the auditory system D39fferent an39mals have d39fferent hear39ng ranges Hearing sensitivity varies as a function of frequency n general large animals have good low frequency hearing and small animals have good high frequency hearing Humans hear from about 20 Hz to 20000 Hz 120 Human 3 g 100 Cat w v H a 80 Bat x 33 60 Dog 5 39 w E 40 Elephant 3 quot m m 20 Audible Moth Inaudible inaudible w 0 llllllll u Illlllll Illlll Mouse 20 100 500 1000 10000 20K im I J llllllll I Illlllll l llll l llllllll l FrequenCYHz 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Frequency Hz The auditory nerve and central auditory system he auditory nerve projects in an organized way so that the map 0 requency is maintained at every level 0 the central auditory system HIGH MIDDLE LOW d mm Spiral n z 139 000 Ganglion Auditory J J Nerve i L l Bram I Cochlea I Some characteristics of auditory nerve fiber responses to sound All auditory nerve fibers respond with a similar temporal discharge pattern 150 2 9 g 3 I00 0 C 9 8 lt 5 Sustained E 50 Steady State E g Spontaneous Firing Rate 50 IOO rm Tone Burst Time Phaselocking of action potentials Auditory nerve fibers sensitive to low frequencies fire at the same part phase of every cycle This is called phasecoking Auditory Nerve l l l l Waveform of Pure Tone Stimulus Frequency tuning Auditory nerve fibers respond to a 90 narrow range of frequencies at low so 39 intensities and a broader range at o 0 R 70 0 0 higher intenSIties R l esponse m 60 Area In 0 39D quot O The combination of frequencres and 1 so o intensities to which the fiber responds g 40f a is its frequency response area or g E 2 nin rv T 3930 0 u 9 CU e E Threshold m 20r This is the traditional way of IO characterizing a neuron s filter 0 properties 3 5 390 395 3 Frequency lkHzl Frequency Rate frequency functions Another traditional way to look at frequency tuning Firing rate is related to both the requency and the intensity 0 a sound he same number 0 action potentials can be evoked by multiple requency ntensity combinations 150 quot BF 4100 Hz 50 Number of Action Potentials 1000 20 3000 4000 5000 Frequency Hz A Frequency Response Area plot provides the most comprehensive picture of a neuron s filter properties UW0454 UNIT 2 FRA CONTROL 6 b siem 9L Isexids Attenuation dB Frequency kHz Representation of information about frequency Place fibers rom a specific part or parts 0 the basilar membrane are active Population Di erent fibers have di erent levels 0 activity emporal pattern phaselocking directly reflects cyclesunit time Representation of information about amplitude Firing rate Over the fibers dynamic range the level 0 activity in a given fiber is proportional to amplitude or a given requency Population he number 0 fibers active increases with sound level here is a range 0 thresholds Frequency tuning widens at higher sound levels The Central Auditory System Each auditory nerve sends information to the COChIear Inferior nucleus Auditory Cortex in Temporal Lobe Medial Geniculate Nucleus Colliculus Cochlear Nucleus From there Cochlea Superior Olive proiections diverge to many different pathways


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