Introduction to Modern Europe Notes 6
Introduction to Modern Europe Notes 6 HIST 3480
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Holub on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3480 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Richard Smith in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Modern Europe in History at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Paige DeWitt-Holub Ottoman Empire “Eastern Question” Crimean War, 1854-56 1853 Russophobia Sevastapol “Charge of the Light Brigade” Florence Nightingale Treaty of Paris, 1856 Prussia William I (1861-88) Bismarck (1815-98) Junker “Constitution had not been designed to subvert the state” Denmark, 1864 7 Weeks War, 1866 N. German Confederation, 1867 Dual Monarchy, 1867 Franco-Prussian War, 1870-71 January 18 , 1871 Paris Commune, 1870-71 -The Ottoman Empire by 1900 was less of what this will me but when it fails, who will be there to pick up the pieces of the historic lands -Ottomans still controlled, Romania, modern-day Greece, Bulgaria, etc. -conflict of Russians, British, and French – British are attempting to guard all entrances to Indian colony -Suez Canal had not been built and the main access point is the Red Sea, masking politics -English had demanded the protection of the Sultans in the middle east from the Russians over power defenders of Jerusalem Christians -British and the French moved their navies to the Ottoman Sea -the French and Russians sent up together and a resulting conflict ensues -Ottomans destroy Sultan’s fleet at Sinope? (Black Sea fleet) -Russians retreat, as they aren’t ready to initiate fight with Austria, but in January of 1854, they are attached anyways -“Russophobia”, Czars are portrayed as un-pure bred, not European -port of Sevastapol, war in Crimea, near Russia, about 1,000 on the side of the Russian and British – early industrial-style war -British leading officer had commanded to charge up Russian hill and failed with huge causalities at the hands of the Russian -Picket’s charge on Gettysburg -Charge of Light Brigade – first battlefield nursing – Florence Nightingale, not extremely successful, one of the first highly-publicized wars in the press -when this war breaks out, there are many instances of excited British upheaval – savage reports, death, lack of support -British and French together seek and obtain Sevastapol in 1865 --- Treaty of Paris, 1856 – British secure Turkey’s independence to prevent Russia from taking Istanbul -independence will soon come to Romania- still an aspect of the Ottoman empire, “autonomous”, British began to delegate into indepedence -Black sea is officially a neutral military zone -British spends a large portion of its life exerting confident dominance -Oil is discovered in the Ottoman Empire later -10 years later in 1869 – originally French, Suez Canal, originally not a European endeavor -Austria and Prussia had the same borders since 19 century -the Crimean conflict weakens the Russians- weakens Austria, allows Prussia the liberty to replenish itself -Prussia, strongest Germany state before 1850, Germany industrialized after this date – coal and iron production increases by 600% percent, bill and telegraph or strong -Germany will be unified by Prussian king William I (1861-88) -Otto Van Bismarck – (1815-98), “chief-minister”, king’s counsel and is actually a behind the sees man – rural part of Prussia -leadership styles of Bismarck/Dick Cheney, still intelligent -ruthless, political alliances that might sway his interest until it is no longer necessary, Bismarck is not a “classical liberalist” by any means, Bismarck’s witnessing of the industrialization in south Prussia goes against what he believes (anti-democratic, socialist, individualism) -> Bismarck is about religious traditionalism and he wants a united Germany, Prussian national -tends to unite Germany under German leadership -to interact with policies, Bismarck had to interact with the “liberal majority” -upped the strength of the military/religious nationalism (fear!)…… admire my power to help society run -“Constitution had not been designed to subvert the state” – Bismarck also agreed but not to the degree where it undermined the power of a living person, not a living document -Bismarck and friends take up establishment in Austrian and Prussian empire – attempting to be European imperialist in a way that the French did -who should the establishers and Bismarck rulers be – he decides to pick a fight with the Prussians -the fight is in 1866, and it is called the 7 Weeks War, takes up a war against Prussia, German-Jewish RR, Sadowa, 1866 – Austrians all lost -North German Confederation, 1867 – Bismarck corralled the support of everyone in Germany ----- economic balance and profit rather than a chance at freedom of speech -Austria’s duel-monarchy, German and Hungarian blend of a joint-governing power, in the dual-monarchy, Slavs are the sad majority up against a powerful elite of Hungary and Austria -Austrians are not included in this, Southwest German territories are still independent -French could get in the way…Mexico, Bismarck gets the French to declare war on Prussia -July 19 – September 4 , French are the losers, nephew of Bonaparte Napoleon III, is the worst in a bad way -declare war on Germany? To convince Bavarians, that the French had only ever tired to invade and so they finally embrace the empire -January 18 , 1871 – Versailles is where this unified Germany is created, becomes a major industrial power near the end of the century -Paris Commune, 1870-71, commoners group-up and declare united independence – bloodily repressed -Prussian army calms the crowd, not much blood regarding the sad majority, but many men, women, and children shot at the front of military barricades Paige DeWitt-Holub 03/02/16 Italy 1815 Lombardy, Venetia Piedmont-Savoy Naples Risor Gimento J. Mazzini (1805-72) 1848 Count Cavour (1810-61) 1858 Napoleon III 1860 G. Garbaldi (1807-82) Victor Emmanuel Il, 1861 Venetia, 1866 Rome, 1870 Vatican City, 1929 Russia Serfdom Slavophiles Westernizers MIR Alex II, 1855-81 1861 Vladivostok, 1860 Trans-Siberian Railroad 1890-1916 Sergeiwitte (1849-1915) Cotton NSSE – survey about what your opinions are on this, have to be a senior or a freshman Unification of Italy, 1825, -Germany melded together through the endeavors of Bismarck and Prussia -Italy been together since Rome, Middle Age Italy was many city states -nationalism in Germany was a phenomenon of French nationalism -the French and Napoleon take-over Northern Italy for about 15 years -the French give northern Italy a centralized middle-state, northern ideas are melted into Italian culture -modern-day Italy is now one of the top economies in the world -the discussion of the unification of Italy (northern providence of Lombardy and Venetia are given, around 1915, to Austria) BEFORE THEIR NATIONALISM -Papal states in the middle, Sicily, capital in Naples (French and Bourbon rulers) -Piedmond Savoy – a local king, the ONLY local king in the Italian provinces -Treaty of Utrecht 1700 teens, people who became kings, Italian nationalism at the time of the 18 century is romanticized, “Risorgimento” – to look back to the “golden age” of the Roman Empire, humanism, “Renaissance” -this attempt to change the social pattern was sponsored by Joseph Mazzini (a local sponsor of holy, humble proportions) -1831, Secret Society of Young Italy, around Mazzini – however there is a question about who should be included in this discussion of the borderlines of the capital for Italy -during the uprisings, the king of Piedmont sent troupes into the areas of Lombardy and Piedmont, the Austrians overpower the King of Savoy, and thus Piedmont-Savoy becomes a more democratized republic with a representative legislature -in 1852, the King of Piedmont Savoy collects the help of Count Cavour (1810-61), an liberal-leaning aristocrat -Cavour wants to get rid of presently-militant Austrians, but he also does not want to lead to more unrest, rather he wants to have a new functioning cohesion of Italian states -after the 1840’s Cavour needs more alliances, so he goes over the Alps 1858 to the new Napoleon III, “boastful windbag” 1 what Napoleon III is doing on his own is being absolute over the masses’ private lives, he can take on a propagandist stance over the protection of the land, to the degree of the Pope -in 1859, the Austrians are tricked into fighting against Savoy again, and Napoleon brought his troops over to decimate them 1 Smith -Austrians are defeated, Italian nationalism ensues, Napoleon signs a separate peace treaty with the Austrians (worried about Prussian invasion via the Rhine River, Catholic reaction in France (as he was exerting his dominance over the Catholic Pope), the Austrians keep Venetia, then, by 1860, most of Italy has gone with Savoy, Lombardy to unity -leaves Papal States, Sicily Kingdom -what Napoleon does is leave some troops in the Papal States to protect the Pope 2 -Giuseppe Garibaldi, “revolutionary, republic nationalist” -plans to attack and overthrow the royalty in the Sicilys, “fight of the red shirts”, cross over the straights of Italy, bring all their armies to the king to defeat him, have fallen to Garibaldi -Garibaldi wants to overthrow this area and create a segment of Southern Italy, Cavour decides he will have to pick unification over preference -Victor Emmanuel II, 1861 – King of Savoy, constitutional monarchy, northeast Venetia now bellows to Savoy, making an Italian kingdom in 1866, except for the Papal States – Treaty of this area called Venetia -Napoleon’s troops are still standing by, guarding the Pope -when the Prussians invade Rome, Italy moves out of France in influence and Napoleon loses interest in Italy -relationship between the secular Italian territories and the Papal States (9 th century date of autonomy) -finally the Vatican City is created in 1929, by definition an officially- autonomous state -long before this, there is many problems associated with the north that the south does not experience – Industrialization (Milan, Genoa, Turin), northerners still look down on the southerners as rural folks -North is an industrial monarchy -1860’s the voting population is a very small percentage of men, 1882 – about 2 million men, 1913 – about 4 million men (not until after WWII, does Italy know full-democracy), Parliament is not entirely effective -not an Italian consensus as to one language (many different kinds of smaller, regional languages), (French, England … go back about a hundred years), Dictionary invented in the Enlightenment to no mistake in history -spelled a word many different ways in this time, didn’t matter what he did at each time, because unification was not necessary for the translation of ideas -the Industrialization Process is exponential in growth almost, yet much poverty and conservatism that leads to an odd blend of industrial revolution, labor unrest (rights??), Italian politics are not quite effective with about a dozen political parties varying with each meeting -starts to begin to appear geographically as it does in modern-day 2 Ibid. -Russia, serfdom – local rich forcibly make serfs pay rent, provide labor, all in exchange for perhaps about 20-30 acres to create a sustainable and co- dependent relationship -the practice of having serfs in Europe, even western Germany, but not in Eastern Europe and Russia -where are the options to run ? to marry ? to take up a craft/practice ? -the ‘Lord’ would receive the riches of this labor, then much of this would be allocated to the CZAR -1858 – no more serfs in Austria and Prussia, abolitionism was a slow process, (58% of the Russians were tied-up in serfdom), so how was this process to be expedited????? -Slavophiles wanted to the practice of having serfs, but remain in traditional Russian structures of towns (Mir- Slav. Villages), not feeling modernization vs. -Westernizers, they wanted to end serfdom but in a way that would garner the approval of Western science, unification, liberal and unified ideas -consensus of the necessity of serfdom’s eradication was spread -What land to support serfs????, Russians Crimean War defeat is a signaling defeat -Czar Alexander II, 1855-1881, is hoping to rid of this system by 1856 -realistically, this does not happen until 1861 -this plan was not fully established as the status quo, many people still lived in serf-like conditions -22 million people stopped their serf titles and lifelong lifestyles, the landowners/Lords gave up some land, after a land-assessment of optimistic proportions, Lords/Rich usually gave up the worst of it – state compensation -land is actually given to the “village leader”/richest peasant in the neighborhood/Mir -once-serfs give money to the local government, but this land was awful quality, with a lack of payment, order – might as well rejoin a serf-like structure -15-year period -peasants are upset because they are given awful land-quality to grow, peasants believe the land had all been reallocated to the Czar, conspiracy of an unfair disadvantage -marks the transition to industrialization that took place in Russia, near the mid-end of the 19 century), Vladivostok and Moscow were to be connected by Trans-Siberian Railroad (1890-1916), early-Russian architecture designed by industrialist visionary, Sergeiwitte, center of industrialization is essentially Moscow, Vladivostok -cotton demanded (from central Asia), build another railroad called the Trans- Caspian Railway -at the beginning of WWI, not much industrialization has occurred in most, if not all, parts of Russia (industrialized warfare that destroys them)